Unit One
Unit One
Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
1 Engineering Materials 2 Kinds of Steel 3 4 5
Polymers Mold Materials Heat Treatment of Metals
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
1
Passage One Engineering
Materials
Materials may be grouped in several ways. Scientists often classify materials by their state: Solid, liquid, or gas. They also separate them into organic(once living) and inorganic(never living) materials. For industrial purposes, materials are divided into engineering materials or nonengineering materials. Engineering materials are those used in manufacture and become parts of products. Nonengineering materials are the chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and other materials used in the manufacturing process which do not become part of the product. Engineering materials may be classified into four groups: Metals, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials. ,
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  1. Metals
Metals and alloys,which include steel, aluminum, magnesium, zinc, cast iron, titanium, copper, nickel, and many others, have the general characteristics of good electrical and thermal conductivity, relatively high strength, high stiffness , ductility or formability , and shock resistance . They are particularly useful for structural or load -bearing applications. Although pure metals are occasionally used, combinations of metals called alloys are normally designed to provide improvement in a particular desirable property or permit better combinations of properties.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  2. Ceramics
Ceramics, such as brick, glass, tableware, insulators, and abrasives, have poor electrical and thermal conductivity . Although ceramics may have good strength and hardness, their ductility, formability, and shock resistance are poor. Consequently , ceramics are less often used for structural or load -bearing applications than metals①. However, many ceramics have excellent resistance to high temperatures and certain corrosive media and have a number of unusual and desirable optical, electrical, and thermal properties.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  3. Polymers
Polymers include rubber, plastics, and many types of adhesives . They are produced by creating large molecular structures from organic molecules, obtained from petroleum or agricultural products, in a process known as polymerization ②. Polymers have poor electrical and thermal conductivity, low strengths, and are not suitable for use at high temperatures. Some polymers have excellent ductility, formability, and shock resistance while others have the opposite properties. Polymers are lightweight and frequently have excellent resistance to corrosion.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  4. Composite materials
Composite materials are formed from two or more materials, whose properties cannot be obtained by any single material③. Concrete, plywood, and fiberglass are typical, al- though crude, examples of composite materials. With com- posite materials we can produce lightweight, strong, duc- tile, high heat -resistant materials that are otherwise unob- tainable, or produce hard yet shock -resistant cutting tools that would otherwise shatter .
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment Notes:
① Consequently, ceramics are less often used for structural or load bearing applications than metals. 因此,与金属相比,陶瓷很少用于结 构件或承载件。less ... than = not so ... as比……少 , be used for ...是“用 于……”的意思。例如:A hammer is used for driving in nails. ② They are produced by creating large molecular structures from organic molecules, obtained from petroleum or agricultural products, in a process known as polymerization. 它们是由来自石油或农产品的有机分 子形成的巨大分子结构所产生的,这个过程称为聚合。 “obtained from petroleum or agricultural products”是简化句,等于which are obtained from ...,修饰前面的“molecules”。 ③ Composite materials are formed from two or more materials, whose properties cannot be obtained by any single material. 复合材料由两种或 两种以上的材料组成,其性能绝非构成其中的任何一种单一材料所能拥 有。be formed from ...由……组成 “producing properties that cannot be obtained by any single material”的主语是复合材料。
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
New Words and Expressions:
lubricant[ lu brik nt] n.润滑剂 ceramics[si r miks] n.陶瓷,陶瓷制品 polymer[ p lim] n.聚合物 composite[ k mp zit] adj.合成的,复合的; n.混合物 zinc[zi k]锌 cast iron铸铁 titanium[t i teinj m] n.钛 nickel[ nik()l] n.镍 stiffness[ stifnis] n.硬度,刚度 ductility[d k tiliti] n.韧性,可延展性 formability[f m biliti] n.可成型性 shock resistance抗冲击性 load -bearing承载 tableware[ teib()lw] n.餐具
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
abrasive[ breisiv] n.研磨剂,磨料(具); adj.研磨的 thermal conductivity导热性 adhesive[ d hi siv] n.黏结剂,黏胶剂 molecular[m u lekjul] adj.分子的 molecule[ m likju l] n.分子 polymerization[ p lim rai zei n] n.聚合 corrosion[k r u n] n.腐蚀 plywood[ plaiwud] n.夹板 fibreglass[ faib l s] n.玻璃纤维 crude[kru d] adj.天然的,未经加工的 heat -resistant material耐热材料 shatter[ t] v.粉碎,破坏 be used for ...用于…… be formed from ...由……组成
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment Exercises:
Answer the following questions according to the text above.

  1. What is the metal?Try to describe it using the words in this passage or of your own.
  2. What is the polymer?Try to describe it using the words in this passage or of your own.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
Decide whether the following statements are true(T) or false(F) and put “T” ( ) ( ) or“F” in the brackets according to the text.

  1. Materials are classified into five groups: Metal, nonmetal, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials.( )
  2. Metals and alloys have relatively high strength, high stiffness, ductility or formability, but low shock resistance.( )
  3. Ceramics have poor electrical and thermal conductility( ), may have high strength and hardness( ), and have high ductility, formability, and shock resistance.( )
  4. Polymers are lightweight( ) and frequently have poor resistance to corrosion. ( )
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
参考译文: 参考译文:
译 工程材料
材料可以有多种分类方法。科学家们常把材料按其状 态分成:固体、液体和气体。也可 分成有机物(曾有生命 的)和无机物(从未有过生命的)。按工业用途,材料可 分成工程材料和非工程材料。工程材料就是那些用于制造 和做成产品零件的材料,非工程材料则是指 化学制品、 燃料、润滑剂和那些参与制造过程但并不被做成产品零件 的材料。 我们将工程材料分成四大类:金属、陶瓷、高聚物和复 合材料。
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  1.金属
  1.金属
钢、铝、镁、锌、铸铁、钛、铜、镍等金属和合 金的共性有:导电性和导热性好,强度和硬度较高,有 一定的韧性、可成型性和抗冲击性。它们常用于结构 件和承载件。尽管纯金属较少使用,但多种金属复合 而成的合金常能满足特殊性能的需求或者达到更好的 性能组合。

  2.陶瓷
  2.陶瓷
诸如砖、玻璃、餐具、绝缘体、磨料等。陶瓷类 材料导电性和导热性能差,虽然具有高强度、高硬度, 但韧性、可成型性和抗冲击性差。因此,与金属相比, 陶瓷很少用于结构件或承载件。然而,许多陶瓷具有 极好的耐高温性和一定的耐腐蚀性以及许多非同寻常 且令人满意的光学、电学和热学性能。
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  3.聚合物
  3.聚合物
聚合物包含橡胶、塑料和各种黏胶剂。它们是由来自 石油或农产品的有机分子形成的 巨大分子结构所产生的, 这个过程称为聚合。聚合物的导电性和导热性差,强度低, 不适应 高温环境。有一些聚合物有极好的韧性、可成型性 和抗冲击性,而另一些聚合物性能则相 反。聚合物通常较 轻且抗腐蚀性极好。

  4.复合材料
  4.复合材料
复合材料由两种或两种以上的材料组成,其性能绝非构 成其中的任何一种单一材料 所能拥有。如混凝土、夹板和 玻璃纤维,尽管未经加工,却是典型的复合材料。通过复 合手 段,人们能生产出集质轻、坚固、易延展、耐高温等 性能于一体的材料,即可以制造出既有 高硬度,又有抗冲 击性的刀具,否则刀具仅有高硬度(加工时)而容易碎裂。
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
2
Passage Two
Kinds of Steel
There are two general kinds of steels: Carbon steel and alloy steel. Carbon steel contains only iron and carbon, while alloy steel contains some other“alloying elements” such as nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, etc. ,
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  1. Carbon steels

  1)Low carbon steel contains from
  0.05 to
  0.15 percent carbon, this steel is also known as machine steel. (
  2)Medium carbon steel contains from
  0.15 to
  0.60 2 Medium percent carbon. (
  3)High carbon steel contains from
  0.60 to
  1.50 percent carbon, this steel is sometimes called tool steel .
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment

  2. Alloy steels

  1) Special alloy steel, such as nickel, chromium steel; (
  2) High -speed steel is also known as self -hardening steel①. The properties of carbon steels depend only on the percentage of carbon they contain. Low carbon steels are very soft and can be used for bolts and for machine parts that do not need strength. Medium carbon steel is a better grade and stronger than low carbon steel. It is also more difficult to cut than low carbon steel.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
Heating it to a certain temperature and then quickly cooling in water may harden high carbon steel. The more carbon the steel contains and the quicker the cooling is, the harder it becomes②. Because of its high strength and hardness this grade of steel may be used for tools and working parts of machines. But for some special uses, for example, for gears, bearings, springs, shafts and wire, carbon steels cannot be always used because they have no properties needed for these parts.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
Some special alloy steels should be used for such parts because the alloying elements make them tougher,stronger,or harder than carbon steels. Some alloying elements cause steel to resist corrosion,and such steels are called stainless steels③. steels . Stainless steels contain a high percentage of chromium. Chromium also makes steel harder. Nickel is used in steel to increase strength and toughness. Some alloying elements(such as chromium and tungsten) increase the hardness and strength of steel.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
Heat-resistant steel is made by adding some tungsten and molybdenum,while manganese increases the wear resistance of steel. Vanadium steels resist corrosion and can stand shocks and vibration. Tools made of high speed steel containing tungsten,chromium,vanadium, and carbon, may do the work at much higher speeds than carbon tool steels④.
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment Notes:
① high -speed steel also known as self -hardening steel. 高速钢也称为自硬
钢。
be known as是“称为、称做”的意思。 高速钢是一种含有钨、铬、钒等合金元素的高合金工具钢,它可以在空气 中自行淬硬,因而又称为自硬钢或风钢。 ② The more carbon the steel contains and the quicker the cooling is, the harder it becomes. 钢的含碳量越高,冷却速度越快,钢就变得越硬。 “the+比较级……(从句)+the+比较级……(主句)”这种结构表示 “越……越 ……”之意。 比较状语从句为“The more carbon the steel contains and the quicker the cooling is”,主句为“the harder it becomes”。句中第一个“the”和第二个 “the”均为副词,分别 引出两个并列的比较状语从句。第一个“the”相当 于“by so much”,第二个“the”相 当于“by that much”。
Unit One Mold Materials and Heat Treatment
③ ... because the alloying elements make them tougher, stronger, or harder than carbon steels. Some alloying elements cause steel to resist corrosion, and such steels are called stainless steels. 因为合金元素能提 高钢的韧性、强度和硬度(与 碳钢相比)。有些合金元素能提高钢的 耐腐蚀性,这种钢被称为不锈钢。 句中的“make”和“cause”均系及物 动词,它们的宾语分别为“them”和“steel”。宾语 “them”的补足语是 形容词比较级“tougher,stronger or harder”,而
 

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