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牛津高中英语 M6 语法专项复习
虚拟语气
一、语气的定义和种类 l、语气:语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。
  2、语气的种类: (
  1)陈述语气: 表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、 疑问句和某些感叹句。如: We are not ready. 我们没准备好。What a fine day it is!多好的天气啊! (
  2)祈使语气: 表示说话人的建议、请求、邀请、命令等。如: Open the door, please。请打开门。 (
  3)虚拟语气: 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、 假设或推测等。如: If I were you, I should study English. 如果我是你,我就学英语了。 May you succeed! 祝您成功! 二、虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句,一类是虚拟条件句。如果假设的情况是 有可能发生的,就是真实条件何。在这种真实条件句中的谓语用陈述语气。如: If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果明天不下雨,我们就去公园。 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚 拟条件句。 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 如果他 如: 昨天见到你,他会问你这件事的。(事实上他昨天没见到你,因此也未能问你这件 事。) 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。现将虚 拟条件从句和主句的动词形式列表如下: 从句动词形式 与 现 在 事 实 相 动词的过去式(be 的 反 过去式一般用 were) 主 句 动 词 形 式
would/ should/ could/ might + 动词原形 would/ should/ could/ might + have + 过
与 过 去 事 实 相 had + 过去分词
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反 与将来事实相 反 动词过去式,
去分词
should + 动词原形, would/ should/ could/ might + 动词原形 were to + 动词原形
注: 主句中的 should 只用于 I、we,但在美国英语中,should 常被 would 代替;从 句中的 should 可用于各种人称。 l、表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。如: If my brother were here, everything would be all right. 要是我哥哥在这儿 ,一切都没问题了。
  2、表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。如: If you had taken my advice,you wouldn't (couldn’t) have failed in the exam.
如果你按照我的建议去做,你一定不会(不可能)考试不及格。
  3、表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。如: If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should grandmother. 如果明天是星期天,我就 (可能)去看望我奶奶。 If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out. 如果今晚下雪,他们将不出去了。
  4、有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间不一致(表示错综时间的虚 拟语气) ,这时动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整。例如: If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now. 如果你当初听了医生的话,身体现在就好了。(从句动作指过去,主句动作指现在)
  5、虚拟条件句可以转换成下列形式 (
  1)省略连词 if。 在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有 were,had 或 should,可以把 if 省略, 把这几个词放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装。例如: Should he come (If he should come), tell him to ring me up. 他要是来了,让他给我打 个电话。Were I you (If I were you), I would not do it. 我要是你,就不做这事。 (
  2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。如: (would , could , might) go to see my
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Without air (If there were not air), there would be no living things. 如果没有空气的话,就不会有生物了。 But for your help (If it hadn’t been for your help) I couldn’t have done it. 要是没有你的帮助,我就不可能完成这件事。 I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone there with them. (If I hadn’t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them.) 我那天很忙,否则,我就和他们一起去那儿了。(如果我那天不忙的话,我就……); I would have finished the work, but I have been ill. (If I hadn’t been ill, I would have finished the work.) 我本来该完成这项工作的,但我生病了。(如果我没生病的话, 我就会完成……)
  6、省去条件从句或主句:表示虚拟语气的主句或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍 可以推知。 (
  1)省去条件从句。如: You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已 洗衣服的。 省去了"If you had wanted to")(事实是:你自己没洗衣服, 因为你不想洗。 ) (
  2)省去主句(常用以表示愿望)。如: If my grandmother were with me! 如果我的祖母与我在一起多好啊!(事实是:祖母已 不在世。);If only she had not left! 如果她没走就好了!(事实是:她已经走了。) 三、虚拟语气的其他用法 l、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法: 在"It is important (strange,natural,necessary)that…"这类句型里,that 所引导的主 语从句中的谓语动词常用 “should 十动词原形”结构,表示某事是"重要"、"奇怪"、 "自然"、"必要"等意义。如: It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules. 重要的是每个成员知道这些规则。
  2、虚拟语气在宾语从句中用法: (
  1)在动词 wish 后的宾语从句中,表示与现在或过去的事实相反,或对将来的主 观愿望,从句通常省略连词 that。 A. 表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式(be 动词一般用 were)。 如:I wish I knew the answer to the question.
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我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道); B. 表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词常用"had 十过去分词"。如: I wish (wished) I hadn’t spent so much money. 我后悔不该花那么多钱。(实际上已经花掉); C. 表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为"would 十动词原形"。如: I wish it would stop raining. 但愿雨能停止; I wish you would come soon. 但愿你立刻来。 (
  2)在 suggest,demand,order,propose,insist,command,request,desire 等 动词后的宾语从句中, 谓语动词用“should + 动词原形”, 表示建议、 要求、 命令等。 如:I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. 我要求他立刻答复我。
  3、虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法 (
  1)在带有 even if/ even though 引导的让步状语从句的主从复合句中,主句和从 句都用虚拟语气,动词形式与含有非真实条件句的虚拟语气相同。如: Even if he had been ill, he would have gone t his office. 即使生了病,他俩去办公室。 (
  2)由 as if 或 as though 引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时。从句谓语形式为动 词的过去式(be 用 were)或 “had 十过去分词”。如: He treated me as if I were a stranger. 他那样对待我,好像我是陌生人似的。 She talked about the film as if she had really seen it. 她谈论那部影片,就好像她确实看过一样。 注:如果表示的事情可能会发生,那么方式状语从句中的谓语动词可用陈述语气。
  4、虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法:在"It is time (that) …"句型中,定语从句的谓语 动词常用虚拟语气表示将来, 动词形式一般用过去式, 意思是"该干某事的时候了"。 如:It’s (high) time we did our homework. 我们该做作业了。
  5、虚拟语气在简单句中的用法 (
  1)情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌,或 委婉的语气,常见于日常会话中。如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. 你最好别太晚睡觉。 (
  2)在一些习惯表达中。如: I would rather not tell you. 我宁愿不告诉你。
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  3)用“may + 动词原形”表示"祝愿"、"但愿”,此时 may 须置于句首(多用于正 式文体中) 。如: May you be happy!祝你快乐!May good luck be yours.祝你顺利。
练习:Multiple choice

  1. We demanded that we of any change in the plan. A. informed B. would be informedC. be informed D. had been informed

  2. It’s necessary that he a recognized qualification. A. has B. have C. had D. having

  3. It's high time we our attention to this problem. A. turned B. turn C. had turned D. would turn

  4. If only you him what I said! Everything would have been all right. A. didn't told B. hadn't told C. would not tell D. would have not told

  5. He must have had an accident, or he here then. A. would have been B. had been C. should have been D. could be

  6. Much labour would have been saved if the electronic computers before. A. had invented C. should have been invented B. were invented D. had been invented

  7. cease advertising, prices would be significantly reduced. A. Were they to B. Could they C. If they D. Would they

  8. Five minutes earlier, and we the last bus. A. had caught B. should have caught C. could have caught D. caught

  9. You the clothes! We have a washerwoman to do that sort of thing. A. shouldn't have washed C. can not have washed B. mustn't have washed D. needn't have washed

  10. Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often. A. has to get B. were to get C. had got D. could have got

  11. The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he himself.
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A. injure
B. had injured
C. injured
D. would injure

  12. It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios after 11 o'clock at night. A. were not played B. not to play C. not be played D. did not play

  13. You don't have to be in such a hurry. I would rather you on business first. A. would go B. will go C. went D. have gone

  14. It is important that enough money to fund the project. A. be collectedB. must be collected C. was collected D. can be collected

  15. If only the committee the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible. A. approve B. will approve C. can approve D. would approve

  16. I don't think it advisable that Tom to the job since he has no experience. A. is assigned B. will be assigned C. be assigned D. has been assigned

  17. You her in her office last Friday; she's been out of town for two weeks. A. needn't have seen B. must have seen C. might have seen D. can't have seen

  18. We didn't know his telephone number, otherwise we him. A. would have telephoned C. would telephone B. must have telephoned D. had telephoned

  19. It is recommended that the project until all the preparations have been made. A. is not started C. not be started B. will not be started D. is not to be started

  20. I wish I longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A. could have slept B. slept C. might have slept D. have slept

  21. I her to the party but I didn't know her well. A. ought have invited C. should invite B. would have invited D. may have invited

  22. You to town to see the film last week. It will be on TV tomorrow. A. needn't go B. should not go C. had better not go D. needn't have gone

  23. Would you have called her up had it been possible?
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Yes, but I busy doing my homework.. A. was B. were C. had been D. would be

  24. It was essential that the application forms back before the deadline A. must be sent B. would be sent C. be sent D. were sent

  25. It is important that we . A. shall close the window before we leave B. will close the window before we leave C. must close the window before we leave D. close the window before we leave

  26. Eliza remembers everything exactly as if it yesterday. (2006 全国) A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened

  27. Don’t you think it necessary that he to Miami but to New York? I agree, but the problem is he has refused to. (2005 江苏) A. will not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what B. not be sent; that D. should not send; what

  28. If I plan to do anything I wanted to, I’d like to go to Tibet and travel through as much of it as possible. (2005 湖北) A. would B. could C. had to D. ought to

  29. If he in a day or two, I would wait for him. A. returns B. should have returned C. were to return D. had returned

  30. You didn’t let me drive. If we __ in turn, you so tired. A. drove, didn’t get C. were driving, wouldn’t get B. drove, w
 

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