8A Unit 6 全部教案 Warm-up activities 1 Read the conversation between Eddie and Hobo. Allow Ss enough time to make sense of the comic strip: heavy rain?Hobo is wet and cold.?His house is wet. Try to elicit from Ss what might happened to Hobo’s house. 2 Ask some open questions about each picture. * What’s the weather like? * What happened to Hobo? * What do you think happened o Hobo’s house? * How does he fell at Eddie’s home? * Why doesn’t he want to go home alone? * Will Eddie help him? Ask two more able students to role-play the conversation. 3 Elicit from Ss other bad weather conditions. Presentation 1 Prepare Part A by providing more vocabulary to help Ss understand headlines in English. 2 Ask students to consider whether the disasters are natural and tick the appropriate boxes. Ss can do it individually and then compare their answers with a partner. Check the correct answers with the whole class and elicit a definition for a natural disaster.. 4 Read the words in Part B and ask more able students to describe each weather condition only with simple phrases and words. 5 Ask Ss to complete the task on their own and check the correct answers with the class as a whole. Language points Natural disasters, really warm, for too long, mop it up, lose the game, kill thousands of people, a car accident, crash into a tree, wash the village away, start a big fire Homework 1 Learn the language points by heart. 2 一课三练 P.67 3 Preview the Reading Part. Presentation (Reading A) 1 Talk to Ss about the context of surviving an earthquake. Elicit any information about the earthquakes in Taiwan or in other parts of the world. Bring some newspaper articles about earthquakes. 2 Ask Ss to quickly skim the text on their own. Ask them to highlight the words they do not know. Then ask Ss to discuss them in pairs and try to work out their meaning from the context. 3 Ask Ss to make list of words and phrases used in the text which describe noise and movement/destruction, fear and hope. * noise: big noise, thunder, screamed, real noise, bombs, shouted
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* movement/destruction: slight shaking, earth started to shake, ran (wildly), pieces of glass and bricks fell down, walls began to come down * fear: screamed, frightened, dark, could not at all, a moment of fear * hope: calm down, still alive, bright daylight, safe 4 Read Timmy’s story aloud. Ask Ss to listen carefully. 5 Check general understanding of the different paragraphs by asking some ‘ wh-‘ questions. Para 1: Where was Timmy? What happened in the shopping centre? Para 2: What happened to the building? How did people react? What did Timmy do? Para 3: Where was Timmy when the shaking stopped? How did Timmy feel? Para 4: What did Timmy do while he was waiting for help? Para 5: How was he rescued? Presentation (Reading B) 1 Explain the context of Part B. Ask students to do Part B1 on their own. Encourage students to check their answer with a partner. 3 Ask students to study the words in the box for one minute, then cover them and complete the diary entry in Part B
  2. Presentation (Reading C) 1 Explain the context and point out to Ss the idea of telling a story with pictures. Divide the class into teams of 4-5 students to study each picture first. 2 Ss write the captions in the blanks individually. Check answers with the whole class. 3 Ask Ss to arrange the pictures in the right order. Presentation (Reading D) 1 Explain the context and remind them about story telling from memory. Ss work in pairs to complete the task. 2 Check the answers with the whole class. Language points (Part A) Feel a slight shaking through my body, a big noise like thunder, in fear, be frightened, start to shake, run in all directions, know where to go, run wildly, fall down, calm down, be over, could not see at all, be trapped, say to oneself, a moment of fear, go through my mind, since, hear excited shouts, in a great hurry, move away, see the bright daylight. Language points (Part C) Be very good at telling jokes, vote Homework 1 Learn the language points by heart. 2 一课三练 P.68-69 3 Preview the Vocabulary Part.
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当前中学英语课堂教学存在的主要问题及对策
林会猛
[ 摘要 ] : 中学英语课堂教学是提高教学质量的关键。当前英语课堂教学存在的主要问 题是:填鸭式、陈旧式、应试式、厌教式、母语式。为了彻底改变这种状况,必须采取相 应的措施和对策,即做到:精简讲解、导练结合;加强英语教学设备建设;用英语口语讲 学;调动学生学习积极性;培养学生自学能力。 [ 关键词 ] : 英语课堂教学、存在问题、原因、对策 中学英语课堂教学是提高学生学习英语兴趣的重要途径,也是提高英语教学质量的关键。 教师在课堂上如何教,学生在课堂上怎样学,一直是研究者探讨的重要问题。近年来,中 学英语课堂教学经过了改革和总结,收到了较好的效果,但目前还存在不少的问题,笔者 拟就这些问题作分析探讨,并有针对性地提出解决问题的对策,以求教于同行者。 一、中学英语课堂教学存在的主要问题 当前影响和阻碍中学英语课堂教学质量提高的主要问题有: 1 、填鸭式。有些教师上课时滔滔不绝,黑板写得满满的,学生不停地记笔记。这种满堂 灌、填鸭式的教法带来很多弊病。教师讲得过多,他所能提供给学生独立掌握知识、主动 训练能力的机会就越少,学生常处于被动位置,没有时间及时思考、消化、吸收,所学知 识当然没法巩固。再有,讲得过多,重点不突出,学生掌握不了要领,课堂气氛也沉闷, 学生客易产生疲劳。 2 、陈旧式。有些教师上课停留在原始的教学状态中,没有语音室,没有幻灯片,没有电 脑等现代化的手段来辅助教学,甚至连录音机都少用,从始至终都只靠教师讲述,根本提 不起学生学习的兴趣。 3 、应试式。学生参加中考和高考,只有笔试,不考核学生的听说能力。为了适应学生答 卷的要求,很多教师不注重听说训练,学生满脑子装的全是语法、句型和条条框框,听说 能力很差。 4 、厌教式。有些教师不能透彻地掌握教材,处理课文缺少灵活性,教学方法呆板,又不 善于学习别人的长处和更新知识,长年累月地重复这种教学,感到厌烦。另外,有些教师 教学任务重,既当班主任,又同教几个班,还有中高考压力,一天忙于教学等事务之中, 时间一长,也容易产生厌烦情绪。
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5 、厌学式。学生学习死记硬背,有些学生甚至不识音标,不会拼读单词。往往按照单词 的字母顺序,象读电话号码那样反复背诵、书写生词。结果,学生的 “ 努力学习 ” 收 不到应有的成效,学过的单词念不准,新的单词不会念,加上作业过多,越学越吃力,就 会在心理上产生害怕、厌恶甚至抵触的情绪。 6 、母语式。有些老师较多地利用母语教学,把英语课变成汉语课。在初一外语教学中, 由于教学内容浅,容易听得懂,易于用直观手段进行教学,不必处处借助母语翻译。但在 高中阶段,一些教师还习惯用母语来讲授和解释,学习外语的气氛在高年级中,还没有较 好地形成。 二、原因分析 上述中学英语课堂教学存在的主要问题, 产生的原因较复杂。 有客观原因, 也有主观原因, 具体表现在: 1 、教师习惯用传统的教学方法。传统的教学方法最显著的特征就是采用填鸭式和落后的 教学手段, 因为, 这种传统的教学方法简单和省事, 不用多动脑筋和使用先进的教学设备, 就可以进行教学了。虽然有些学校不乏先进的教学设备,但一些教师为了图简单和省事, 不认真动脑筋考虑教改问题,不想搬动教学设备,只靠一本书,几支粉笔和一张嘴就进行 英语教学了,使得学生在缺乏先进的教学设备和手段的课堂上只能被动地接受灌输。 2 、跟着考试的指挥棒走。虽然学生考试分数是检验教师的教学效果和学生的学习成绩的 重要依据,但是为了单纯考试,导致教师在教学上和学生在学习上,只注重猜题和笔试练 习, 忽视了英语的听说教学、 全面的基础知识教学和综合能力训练。 有的只注重抓毕业班、 抓重点班和抓尖子学生,结果是着重从初一抓起,大面积地提高学生英语学习质量成为一 句空话。 3 、教师教学和学生学习任务过重。在教师教学上,由于一些学校英语教师相对缺乏,使 教师上的班数多,批改作业的任务十分繁重,教学任务只停留在完成时数上,没有精力去 研究教学质量,上课内容来回重复,致使教师产生厌教情绪。在学生学习上,由于学生学 习单调,掌握不了新知识,每天都要完成大量的作业,学生感到压力很重,也使学生产生 厌学情绪。 4 、外语教学用母语讲解,英语教学,应尽量培养学生的英语思维,即用英语来讲解,但 有些教师认为学生听不懂和不理解,除读课文是用英语朗读之外,其余课堂讲解基本上是 用汉语来解释,久而久之,学生的听力亦无法提高。 5 、学生学习英语的积极性没有充分调动。学生在学习英语中,目的不够明确。在开始学 习英语时,感到新鲜并下了一定功夫,但学习时间长了,便感到枯燥无味。加上教师在教 学中没有很好地引导,致使学生对学习英语的积极性没有充分调动起来。
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三、措施与对策 采取相应措施,克服中学英语课堂教学存在的主要问题,对于全面提高中学英语课堂教学 质量,提高学生学习英语的兴趣,将起到重要的作用。笔者认为,应从以下几个方面入手: 1 、精简多练,导练结合。 “ 精简多练 ” 是指教师在传授语言基础时要精练讲解,不 必面面俱到,胡子眉毛一把抓。精讲就是要讲重点、讲疑点、讲难点,所给出的例句要精 炼、典型、实用,以便学生记忆和模仿,灵活运用英语。 “ 导练结合 ” 是指教师应根据教学要求,精心设计训练的步骤,组织学生进行有效的 训练。所设计的练习要贴近生活实际,生动、有趣,富有吸引力。学一句,就要真正掌握 一句,到交际场合能够脱口而出,所以练的方式十分重要。教师要吸收一切有效的方法为 教学服务。 为了使学生对所学内容有清晰、深刻的印象,要活学活用,激起学生兴趣,活跃课堂气氛, 以提高课堂教学效果。比如在上反身代词这一讲时,首先明确教学目的,就是让学生学习 七个反身代词和作主语同位语的主要用法,然后根据学生平时所接受的程度来确定教法。 在 “ 联旧引新 ” 这个环节中,可让英语成绩较差的一男生和一女生上黑板写 I--my , you--your (你的) he--his , she--her , we--our , you--your (你们的) they--their , , 七对作主格和作形容词用的人称代词,给他们一个表现机会,老师指着那位男生对全班说 (并提醒全班在听的过程中特别注意最后一个单词, 分析其构词法) “He can write these , words himself” ;然后指着那位女生对全班说: “she can write these words herself” ; (每引出一个反身代词, 都把它写在学生所写单词后面) 接着, 教师在黑板上写 They can write these words -- .提问学生这个空格该填什么。学生在前面例子的启发下,有些填 theirself , 有些填 themself 。 英语中没有这两个单词。 教师把正确的填法 themselves 告 诉他们,此时,正确与错误的填法相对照,学生印象深刻,记得牢。接着,教师又提问全 班 “Can all of you write these words yourselves ? ” 。教师听到有人回答时用 ourself 、 weself 、 ourselves 。接着又问: “Can all of us write these words ourselves ? ” 学 生 回答 之 后 老 师 再说 , “ Yes . We can write these words ourselves 。 ” 这样,把正确的反身代词 ourselves 告诉了学生。教师又在黑板上边画 简笔画边说, “I can draw a tree myself . I can draw a car myself . ” 接着,教师 又提问一个学生 “Can you draw a cat yourself ? ” 他在回答时用了 myself .至此, 引出了七个反身代词。现在教师引导学生总结反身代词的构成规律,特别指出 himself 、 themselves 是个例外。此时,指出反身代词作主语同位语的用法。 在引导学生进行巩固练习上,教师联系生活实际,提问学生,例如 “Do you do your homework yourself (你自己) /yourselves (你们自己)? ” “Do you go to school yourself ? ” 教师还引导学生进行听、说、读、写、背、交换句型练习。创造语言环境, 当学生看图说出 “Mike can find his shoes himself under the bed” 时,情不自禁地为形
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