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  1. Civilization It is generally accepted that the Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world. 普遍认为中国文化是世界最古老的文化之一 Chinese civilization European civilization world civilization .2 lecture (
  1)n.演讲,讲课 give/deliver a lecture to sb. on sth.关于某事进行演讲 have a lecture 听演讲 go to a lecture 去听演讲 The famous professor delivered a lecture on how to protect the environment. (
  2)v.作演讲,讲课 Mr.Smith is lecturing on Russian literature 3 take over 接管 In 89BC,the Romans took over Pompeii. Our chairman has left, so Peter will take over his job from him.我们的主席走了,彼特将接任他 的工作. take sb. in 欺骗 take sth. in 理解 e take on 呈现 take off 起飞, 脱下 take up 占据 ,着手处理 take charge take away 拿 走 take out 拿出 take place take…for.. 把…误认为 When did you take up Japanese as a second foreign language.你什么时间开始选修日语作为第 二日语的? .3unfortunately 位于句首, 作状语,用来修饰整个句子。 Luckily, frankly, obviously, exactly, honestly, generally, certainly, fortunately Unfortunately, all the people were buried alive after the vocalno erupted..不幸的是,火山爆发后 所有的人都被活埋了 .4bury (vt)埋葬,安葬,埋 burial n 埋葬 He was buried in his hometown.他被埋葬在他的故乡 The house was buried under snow.房子被埋在雪下. be buried in =bury oneself in 埋头于 ,专心于 埋头于…,专心于… Jean always buried himself in his work.简总是埋头工作。 Bury oneself in the country.隐居 隐居 She buried her face in her hands andcried.她双手掩面哭了起来。
  1) (bury) himself in novel, he didn’t notice me coming in.
  2) (bury) in novel, he didn’t notice me coming in.
  5. destroy 指彻底毁灭或破坏,以至于不能修复,有时可用于比喻义 The terrible earthquake destroyed the whole city. They have destroyed all the evidence. destroy one’s hopes, career, reputation 毁掉某人的希望,事业,名誉 destruction 毁灭,破坏 Damage Un 损害,损失 do damage to 对…造成损坏 The storm did a lot of damage to the crops.这场暴风雨给庄稼带来了巨大的损失.
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Damages 赔偿金 She got a lot of damages from the insurance after het husband died. 她丈夫死后她从保险公司得到了很多赔偿金. V 指车辆.房屋.庄稼等事物的受伤或毁坏,但往往可以修复 A large number of buildings were damaged in the earthquake. Smoking has seriously damaged hid health. 对: The destroyed car can be sold as waste iron 错:The damaged car can be sold as waste iron . Ruin Un 毁坏,破坏. Ruins 废墟,遗迹 An earthquake left the whole town in ruins.地震使整个小镇处在废墟中. fall into ruins 变成废墟 (be )in ruins 成为废墟 the ruins of Rome 古罗马遗迹 bring sb to ruin 毁灭 come/go to ruin 毁灭,崩溃 v 毁灭,毁坏,,弄坏,糟蹋,破坏方式不一定很粗暴,也可指对健康,事业的毁坏 the sudden storm ruined the crops. 暴风雨把庄稼毁了。 What he did and said ruined the party last night. The grand city are now lying in ruins. Damage destroy ruin All houses were in the flood His house was completely.so the farmer decided to build a new one. He has his health through drinking. The building is in

  7. remain (
  1)vi.停留,留下,剩下 A few flowers still remained on the tree. Much remained to be settled. (
  2) v. 依旧,仍然是(后面可接形容词,名词,分词和介词短语) The man remained modest and polite after he was elected minister. Mr.Smith became an engineer but his brother remained a worker. We will remain in contact with them. She remained crying after I comforted her. (
  3)remaining adj. 剩下的,剩余的 remains n.遗迹,遗址,遗体
  1.Why don’t you put the meat in the fridge? It will fresh for several days. A. be stayed B. stay C.be staying D. have stayed
  2.Although he has taken a lot of medicine,his health Poor. A. proves B. remains C. lasts D.continues
  8. paint v.①在某物上涂颜料或油漆 paint a house blue
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②画画描绘 The girl is good at painting landscapes. I want to have the table painted yellow(漆成黄色) Why not paint the door in different colors (把门漆成不同的颜色) Enormous An enormous house/amount of time/money/information 巨大的房子/大量的时间/钱/信息 The problems facing the president is enormous.总统面临的问题是巨大的.
  9.heat heated 激烈的 heatedly 激烈地 (
  1)①.高温,热 This fire doesn’t give out much heat.(名词) (
  2) If _heated (加热 ),water can turn into steam.(动词)
  10. drive 迫使某人行动或进入某一状态 drive sb. mad/out of sb’s mind 将某人逼疯/使某人丧失理智 Drive sb to work hard 迫使某人拼命干活 Drive sb into a corner 逼得某人走投无路 The loud noise of the pe ople in the street almost drove me mad.街上人们的喧闹声几乎使我发 疯. He was driven by hunger to steal.他因饥饿而被迫偷窃. =Hunger drove him to steal. (
  2) 趋赶 The farmer is driving many sheep to market.那位农民正把羊赶到市场去 The Chinese people drove their enemies out of their country.中国人民把敌人从自己的国土上赶 了出去. (
  3) n.乘车之行 an hour’s drive 一个小时的开车路程. let’s go out for a drive.我们出去开车兜兜风吧 (c )The horrible noise from the man’s room simply me mad. A. put B. caused C. drove D. turned
  11. condition (表示人或事物自身的“状况”时,多作不可数 名词) (
  1)处境,状况,现状,健康状况 sth. be in good, poor, excellent condition 处于好的,坏的,极佳的状况 sb. be in excellent condition 身体极好 sb. be out of condition 身体欠佳 The ship is in no condition to make a long journey. 此船的现状不适宜远航。 He is in excellent condition for a man of his age.就其年龄而言,它身体极好。 (
  2)条件(可数) Ability is one of the conditions of success。 Their working conditions must be improved.
(
  3)环境,情况(常用复数) (指人们所处的生活,工作。气候等境况时,是可数名词,且多 用复数)
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under existing conditions 在现有的情况下 housing/living conditions 住房条件 词组 in good condition 状态良好,身体健康,完好无损 out of condition 身体不适 in no condition to do 不适宜做某事 on condition that 条件是,只要 on no condition 决不 You can go swimming on condition that you don’t go too far from the riverside.你可以去游泳, 只要不要离河岸太远. You must on no condition tell him what happened.你决不能把发生的事情告诉他
  1.He is out of condition.
  2.What are your housing conditions like?
  3.I can allow you to play football on one _condition,you must finish your homework first.
  12. uncover vt 揭露.发现,揭开 uncover the pan 揭开锅盖 Police have uncovered a plot to steal the money of the bank.警察已揭露一起偷钱阴谋.. He uncovered the scandal.他揭露那件丑闻。 discover vt.发现,发觉 Who discovered the new continent?
  13. feed
  1.给人或动物食物,喂养,饲养 ①feed sb./sth.on sth. feed sth.to sb./sth. What do you feed your dog on? She fed some more milk to the baby. ②以 为主食 Cows feed on grass . ③提供原料 feed A with B= feed B into A The moving belt feeds the machine with raw material/feeds raw material into the machine.传诵带 向机器输送原料/把原料输入机器中 sb. be fed up with…对…厌烦,不高兴 相当于 be tired of we are fed up with his long boring speech. 用 feed with, feed on, live on, feed into 的适当形式填空
  1). Don’t the baby spoon.
  2). The woman usually the baby milk.
  3). Every day he the computer a lot of information.
  4). Every day he a lot of information the computer.
  5). People in Jiangsu mainly rice. Solution(C) 解决办法 a solution to sth There is no simple solution to this question.这个问题没有简单的解决方法. solve a problem Faithful 忠实的, 13Be faithful to sth/sb 对…忠诚的 忠诚的 He remained faithful to the ideal of the party until his death.他对党的信念至死忠贞不俞 I have been a faithful reader of your newspaper for many years.多年来我一直是贵报的忠实读 者.
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a faithful servant/friend/dog 14concerned 担心的,关心的,有关的 Concerned parents held a meeting 忧心忡忡的家长们开了一次会.. All members concerned are present at the meeting 所有相关的成员都出席了会议. They are very much concerned about the future of their country.他们非常关心国家的前途. Be concerned about 关心 Be concerned with 与…有关,涉及 this book is concerned with the relationship between two nations 这本书涉及两国之间的关系. Concern(vt)涉及,影响,让…担忧. 关心 What happens there directly concerns us 那儿发生的一切和我们有直接关系. She is always concernng herself about what other people say.她经常关心别人对她的评价. Concern 担心,关心,关心的事 I feel no concern about the matter.我不担心这件事 She shrowed a great deal of concern for her son’s illness.她非常担心她儿子的病情
  14. carry out 完成,实现,贯彻,执行 carry out one’s promise/duty 履行诺言/职责 carry out an experiment on(a dog) 做…实验, 对…做实验 carry off 夺走 carry on 继续进行 they carried on in spite of difficult conditions. 用 carry 词组的适当形式填空
  1) He two gold medals in the Olympic games.
  2) Once you make a promise, you must it .
  3) The top soil was in the flood.
  4) with the reform till we succeed. (carried off, carry out, carried away, Carry on) Bomb In 1941,Pearl Harbor was heavily bombed by the Japanese.珍珠港被日本人严重地轰炸了. C A bomb exploded/went off a bomb attack 炸弹攻击
  15.on board 在船上(飞机上或飞机上,上船(飞机或火车) As soon as I’m on board, I feel sick.我一上船,就感到恶心. There are 500 passengers on board the plane 在飞机上有 5000 名乘客.. The moment we went/got on board the train, it started.我们一上火车,车就离开了.
  16. sink 下沉,使下沉 sank sunk Wood does not sink in water. They sank the ship by making a hole in the bottom 他们在船底挖了个洞使船下沉. be sunk in sth. 陷入不快或深思中 she just sat there, sunk in thougt. Sink into 渗入,渐渐进入(不快,消极)状态 The rain sank into the dry ground.雨水渗入干旱的土地中.
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She sank into a deep sleep/low mood 她渐渐睡着/陷入消极的情绪. Sunken ship 沉船 Declare sth/doing/that 无 declare todo The US president declared war against/on Japan.美国总统宣布了对日本的战争. Declare sth (tobe)sth/adj. I declare this bridge open 我宣布这座大桥正式开通. This area has been declared (to be) a national park 这地区被宣布为国家公园.
  17. in memory of 纪念 In memory of the Americans who died in the attack, a national memorial was built in Pearl Harbor 类似表达有 in search of 寻找 in honor of 为表达敬意 in the hope of 抱着的希望 in praise of 赞扬--
  18.influence v.影响, 改变 The weather in summer influences the rice crops.夏天的天气影响稻谷的收成. Un.影响,感化,势力,有影响的人或事(|C) have influence on=have an effect/impact on 对…有影响 The book had/gave/exerted a great influence on his life.着本书对他的人生有很大的影响 a man of influence 有权势的人 under the influence of 受…的影响, 由于…的作用 over 19trade (
  1)n. Since joining the WTO, China’s trade with Europe has greatly increased. (
  2)v. trade with 与…做交易 trade in oil/fur 经营石油/毛皮 trade sth. for sht. 用…换…trade on sth. 利用 用介词填空
  1.His father trade _infruit.
  2.I have traded _with the company for 20years
  3.The child didn’t trade his candy __for a watch.
  4.He shouldn’t trade _on her kindness to take her in.
  20.in use 在使用中 The laboratory was built in 1900 and is still in use now,实验室建于 1900,现在仍在使用.
  21.in return (for)作为回报 If you give me your photo, I’ll give you mine in return. What can I do in return for your help?我该做什么来回报你对我的帮助呢? He gave me a book,and in return,I gave him a stamp .他给了我一本书,作为回报,我给了他一张 邮票. Similarity between A and B Similarity to sb in sth 与某人在某方面有相似之处, She has a striking similarity to her mother in the way they behave.她在行为方式上与她的妈妈很 像 There is some similarity between her and hersister 她 和她的姐姐有一些相似之处. Be similar to sth/sb in 与某人在某方面有相似之处, Your clothes are similar to mine in color 你的衣服和我的在颜色上很相似.
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The two houses are similar in size.两座房子在大小上很相
 

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