Unit one
Grammar and usage
Lead-in Robert is a friend of mine. He is interested in dramas and now he is learning how to act. He has been practicing acting in a play for two weeks. He has just finished practicing today. How many tenses are used in the sentences above?
I. The present tense II. Present continuous tense III. The present perfect tense IV. The present perfect continuous tense
II. 现在时态基本形式 时态
主动
一般现在时 am/is/are; do/does 现在进行时 be (am/is/are) doing 现在完成时 have/has done 现在完成进 have/has been doing 行时
II. 现在时态基本形式 时态
被动
一般现在时 am/is/are done 现在进行时 am/is/are being done 现在完成时 have/has been done 现在完成进 行时 /
I the present tense 1 表示客观事实或普通真理 不受时态限制 表示客观事实或普通真理.(不受时态限制 不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. 地理老师告诉我们地球绕着太阳转。 地理老师告诉我们地球绕着太阳转。 Japan lies to the east of China. 日本位于中国的东方。 日本位于中国的东方。 The sun rises in the east and sets in the 太阳东升西落。 太阳东升西落。 west.
2 表示现在经常或反复发生的动作或存在的状态 表示现在经常或反复发生的动作或存在的状态, 常和often, always, usually, sometimes, 常和 everyday, once a week 等表示频率的时间状语 连用. 连用
He takes a walk after supper every day. 他每天晚饭后散步。 他每天晚饭后散步。 My mother works at the same company as my father. 我母亲和父亲在同一家公司工作。 我母亲和父亲在同一家公司工作。 We always care for each other and help each other. 我们总是相互关心相互帮助。 我们总是相互关心相互帮助。
3 表示主语的特征、性格、能力等。 表示主语的特征、性格、能力等。 Mr. Smith hates fish and never eats any. 斯密斯先生讨厌鱼而且从来不吃。 斯密斯先生讨厌鱼而且从来不吃。 Mary speaks both English and French very well. 玛丽英语和法语都说的很好。 玛丽英语和法语都说的很好。
4 表示安排或计划好的肯定会出现的动 作或状态。 作或状态。 The plane takes off at 10:00 a.m. 飞机上午10点起飞 点起飞。 飞机上午 点起飞。 Tomorrow is Wednesday. 明天是星期三。 明天是星期三。
5 在时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表 在时间、 示将来的动作。 示将来的动作。 We will have to put off the sports meeting if it rains tomorrow. 如果明天下雨我们将不得不推迟会议。 如果明天下雨我们将不得不推迟会议。 I can’t leave unless my boss agrees. 除非老板同意,否则我不能走。 除非老板同意,否则我不能走。 Notes: if 引导的条件状语从句中可以用 引导的条件状语从句中可以用shall 表示意愿,但不表示时态。 或will 表示意愿,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.
II. Present continuous tense 1 表示说话时正在进行的动作。 表示说话时正在进行的动作。 what are you doing? I am writing a letter. It’s raining heavily now, so we must stay inside.
The water is boiling.
The sun is rising. The man is walking.
2 表示现阶段一直在进行的动作。 表示现阶段一直在进行的动作。 Jane is studying law while her sister is doing physics. 简在学习法律而她的姐姐在学习物理。 简在学习法律而她的姐姐在学习物理。 He is teaching English and learning Chinese. 他正在一边教英语一边学中文。 他正在一边教英语一边学中文。
3 表示按计划近期内即将发生的动作。 表示按计划近期内即将发生的动作。 I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. 我今晚要去见王先生。 我今晚要去见王先生。 I am going to Qingdao for the summer holiday this year. 我计划今年去青岛过暑假。 我计划今年去青岛过暑假。 The plane is leaving for London soon. 飞机即将飞往伦敦。 飞机即将飞往伦敦。
4 与always often 等频度副词连用表示经常 反复的行为或某种感情色彩。 反复的行为或某种感情色彩。 The girl is always talking loud in public. 那个女孩总爱当众大声喧哗。 那个女孩总爱当众大声喧哗。 She is often borrowing money and forgetting to pay me back. 她经常借钱却忘记还。 她经常借钱却忘记还。 She is constantly complaining about her fate. 她不停地抱怨自己的命运不好。 她不停地抱怨自己的命运不好。
Notes: 以下四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 以下四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 A 表示心理状态、情感的动词 表示心理状态、 Like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need B 表示存在状态的动词 appear, exist, lie, remain, seem, belong to, depend on C 表示瞬间动作的动词 allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete D 表示感官的动词 see, hear, notice, smell, sound, taste, look
III. The present perfect tense 1 表示反复发生的经历 He has hosted the show eight times. 他已经连续八次主持表演。 他已经连续八次主持表演。 Billy Crystal has been in many films and television shows. 贝利克克里斯托已经出演过多部电影和 电视剧。 电视剧。 We have been to the Great Wall many times. 我们已去过长城多次。 我们已去过长城多次。
2 表示动作发生在过去,但对现在仍留 表示动作发生在过去, 下某种后果和影响。 下某种后果和影响。 He has paid his income tax. 他已经交了个人所得税。 他已经交了个人所得税。 Doctors have found that people who laugh a lot live longer! 医生们已经发现经常大笑的人长寿。 医生们已经发现经常大笑的人长寿。
3 表示动作发生在过去但持续到现在。 表示动作发生在过去但持续到现在。 My mother has been ill for three days. 我妈妈已经生病3天 我妈妈已经生病 天。 Most of us have studied English for 5 years. 我们大部分人已经学了5年英语了 年英语了。 我们大部分人已经学了 年英语了。
4 下列句型中常用现在完成时。 下列句型中常用现在完成时。 It is (has been) +一段时间+ since +从句 一段时间+ 一段时间 从句 This (that/ It ) is the first (second…) time that + 完成时 This (That/ It) is the best/ finest / most interesting….+that+完成时 完成时 It’s/ It has been 3 years since they got married. It’s the first time that I have been to the Great Wall. This is the most interesting film that I have seen.
Notes: 在时间或条件状语从句中,现在 在时间或条件状语从句中, 完成时可以代替一般将来时, 完成时可以代替一般将来时,表示将来 某个时间之前已经完成的动作。 某个时间之前已经完成的动作。 If you have done the experiment, you’ll understand the theory better. 如果你做完试验, 如果你做完试验,你会更好地理解这个 理论的。 理论的。 Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. 车停稳之前,别忙着下车。 车停稳之前,别忙着下车。
Notes:
注意区分一般过去时与现在完成时 时间上有差异:凡有具体的过去时间, 时间上有差异:凡有具体的过去时间, 均用过去时态,不能用完成时, 均用过去时态,不能用完成时,如: ago, last year, just now, the other day 等。 结果上有差异: 结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对 现在”的影响和结果, “现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚 完成或还在继续; 完成或还在继续;一般过去时强调的动 作发生在过去,和现在没有关系。 作发生在过去,和现在没有关系。
现在完成时的标志:

  1)already, yet, ever, just, recently, lately, never, before(adv.),…times(次数) ①The boy has already got home. ②I haven’t heard from him recently. (
  2)so far; up to now;till/until now; in the ) past/last…years; since+时间点或从句 时间点或从句;for+ 时间点或从句 一段时间 Great changes have taken place in the past few years in China.
IV. the present perfect continuous tense 表示从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在的动作, 表示从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在的动作, 这个动作可能刚刚结束,也可能还要继续下去。 这个动作可能刚刚结束,也可能还要继续下去。 Chinese have been making paper for more than 2000 years. 中国造纸的历史已有2000多年了。 多年了。 中国造纸的历史已有 多年了 Doctors have been researching that question for many years. 多年来,医生们一直在研究这个问题。 多年来,医生们一直在研究这个问题。 The children have bee watching TV all morning. 孩子们一上午一直在看电视。 孩子们一上午一直在看电视。
Check the answers(p9 A):
am I tired, but happy today. I have been writing my play since am looking January, and now I is for actors to perform in it. It exciting to think of them saying the have been imagining words I for months. I have already found one is enthusiastic actor who super.
He a film right now, but is making has been planning to be in a play for many years. I several have designed advertisements for my play. We are printing them next week. Tickets are going on sale next week. is hope Writing tough work, but I it will all be worthwhile, and I will be opens famous when the play .
am performing
  1. I at the comedy Club tonight.
have been practising 2 I my jokes in front of the mirror for the last three hours.
is coming 3 My family to watch my show.
4 I nervous about the show. am
Check the answers(p102C
  1):

  1. plays; has not had
  2. leave
  3. are making
  4. Have seen
  5. are saving
  6. don’t need
  7. have taken
  8. has been developing
Check the answers(p102C
  2):
The environment in the north of China has improved greatly since the government took measures to plant has not been more trees. Beijing experiencing as many sandstorms as it used to. There have beenthree sandstorms in Beijing since the beginning of this year. This is good considering that Beijing experienced more than a dozen sandstorms a year during the 1990s.
The Chinese government and the Chinese people are paying more attention to the environment now. Many trees have been planted in the west and even more will be planted over the next few years.The young trees are growing quickly. These trees will stop the soil from being carried away by strong winds. Unhealthy trees are cut down from time to time.
The villagers in the west have been highly involved in the project. They plant trees, water them, and make sure their cows do not knock them down or eat them. They have been trying their best to protect the trees. It’s hard work but they think it’s worth it.
高考链接
Although he has lived with us for years, he us much impression. A hadn’t left B didn’t leave C doesn’t leave D hasn’t left
In such dry weather, the flowers will have to be watered if they . 年上海) (2001年上海) 年上海 A have survive B are to survive C would survive D will survive
(NMET 2003年)All morning as she 年 waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness. A has grown B is growing C grew D had grown
―― David and Vicky married? ――For about three years. (NMET 2003年北京 年北京) 年北京 A How long were; being B How long have; got C How long have; been D How long did; get
(NMET 2002年春季北京 年春季北京) 年春季北京 John and I friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we each other a couple of times before that. A had been; have seen B have been; have seen C had been; had seen D have been; had seen
Translate the following sentences:
火车将在上午
  9: 点钟开 点钟开。 火车将在上午 :00点钟开。 The train starts at nine in the morning. 那个小孩总是爱惹麻烦。 那个小孩总是爱惹麻烦。 That boy is always making trouble. 我做完家庭作业就去你家。 我做完家庭作业就去你家。 I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework. 你在逛街的时候别忘了交通规则。 你在逛街的时候别忘了交通规则。 When you are going around the street, don’t forget the traffic rules.
用所给动词的一般现在时, 用所给动词的一般现在时,现在完成 时,现在进行时或现在完成进行时的 形式填充。 形式填充。
have How long David and Vicky been (marry)? married For about three years. is
  2.Come and see me whenever it (be) convenient to you.
  3. The water will be further polluted unless are taken some measures (take).
is
  6.Because the shop closing (close) down, all the T-shirts are sold at half price. has been tried
  7. Every possible means (try) to prevent the ai
 

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