非谓语动词 动词不定式
动词不定式是一种非谓语动词,由不定式符号 to 加原形动词构成,动词不定式保留着动词的一些特征: (
  1)带宾语或表语。例如: I want to watch TV. I hope to be an outstanding student. (
  2)可由状语修饰。例如: I expect you to study hard. (
  3)有时态和语态的变化。例如: I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.(完成时) The questions to be answered are on page
  10.(被动式) 动词不定式和它的宾语,状语,或表语一起构成不定式短语。不定式或不定式短语具有名词,形容词,和副词的性质,因而可以在 句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语,和状语。 在不定式符号 to 前加上 not 构成不定式的否定式。例如: He told me not to touch the wire. I. 动词不定式的句法作用
  1.作主语 To master a foreign language is very important. Not to smoke will do you a lot of good. To obey the laws is everyone’s duty. 动词不定式作主语时,常常用先行词 it 作形式主语,放在句首,将不定式移到谓语之后作实际主语。例如: It is difficult to answer such a complicated question in English. It has been possible to send man to space. It takes the electronic computer only a few seconds to solve the problem. Example: only five minutes to finish the task. a. It took myself b. It required me c. It should be needing d. It took me
  2.作表语 Our main task is to carry these building materials to the work site. The most common way of getting heat is to burn fuel. Our goal is to accomplish the modernization of agriculture, industry, national defence, and science and technology. Example: My job these children. a. was to look after b. was looking c. is to looking after d. has looked after
  3.作宾语 在及物动词 begin, cease, choose, continue, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate, help, hope, intend, like, love, manage, mean, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, promise, refuse, remember, try, want, wish 等后边常用不定式作宾语。例如: 等后边常用不定式作宾语。 When did you begin to learn English? Once you turn off the switch, electricity ceases to flow. He promised to keep the secret for you. Example: Galieo planned to the problem, but failed to do so. a. solving b. have solved c. be solved d. have been solved If you promise angry with me, I’ll tell you what I broke. a. get not b. not get c. not to get d. not getting 注意: 注意:当不定式作直接宾语,它后面还有宾语补足语时,需用 it 作形式宾语代替不定式,而把不定式放在补足语之后。例如: I found it difficult to identify mistakes. 我发现辨认错误很难。 Do you consider it wise to ignore him? 你认为不理睬他是明智的吗? Example: I found to answer all the questions within the time given. a. no possibility b. there was impossibility c. impossible d. it impossible 以外) 不由得,只好) 动词不定式也可作介词 but, except, save(除......以外)的宾语,但在词组 can not but (不由得,只好), cannot help but(不得不), ( 以外 的宾语, (不得不) do nothing but(别无它法只有 )后面,接不带 to 的不定式。在 except, save 后可带 to 也可不带 to。例如: 的不定式。 (别无它法只有......)后面, 。 The National Guardsmen were given no choice but to shoot over the heads of the unruly mob. She does nothing but cry all day. We cannot but believe in the youth who is always trying to improve himself. He did nothing except play all day long. There is nothing for it but to wait for an opportunity. Example: He was no alternative but to see him. a. go b. went c. going d. to go I at our teacher’s remarks. a. cannot but wonder b. cannot help but to wonder c. cannot but wondering d. cannot help but wondering
  4.作宾语补足语 有些动词如 allow, advise, ask, beg, believe, can’t bear, call, choose, cause, command, determine, enable, expect, fail, feel, find, force, get, have, hear, help, know, invite, lead, let, like, make, notice, order, prove, request, set, see, teach, tell, think, want, warn, watch, wish 等
1
后面常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语。 后面常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语。 注意: 注意:在 make(使), let(让), have(使,叫)等使役动词后;在 see(看), watch (观看), look at(看), behold(看), observe (观察,看见), perceive(看见), feel(感觉), hear(听), listen to (听...), notice(发现,注意)等表示感官的动词后及在 know(了 解), please(请)等后面省去动词不定式符号“to”。 在动词 find 与 help 之后的“to”可省也不可省。例如: I asked him to tell me the results of the scientific research. Can you help me (to) clean the windows? Ask her to wait for me at the gate. Her mother never has her do that heavy work. Example: Professor Black had us compositions every Friday. a. to write b. written c. write d. wrote My boss asked me to answer the phone, to take all messages, and some letters. a. to type b. typing c. type d. typewrite My teacher told me so careless. a. not be b. don’t to be c. not to be d. won’t be 有些动词如 consider, prove, think, know, feel, suppose, discover, imagine, find 等也可跟 “宾语 + to be”的形式,使用中应注意。例如: ”的形式,使用中应注意。 We found him (to be ) dishonest. 我们发现他不诚实。 We all know him to be dead. 我们都以为他死了。 Example: We Mr. Brown to be a fine writer. a. accept b. receive c. think d. regard
  5.作主语补足语 如果把动词不定式作宾语补足语的句中的谓语由主动语态改为被动语态,则宾语补足语就成了主语补足语。 如果把动词不定式作宾语补足语的句中的谓语由主动语态改为被动语态,则宾语补足语就成了主语补足语。要注意作宾语补足语 此时一般不能省去。 时在某些动词后省去的不定式符号 to, 此时一般不能省去。例如: Plastics are found to be good insulators. Water power can be made to produce electricity. The laboring people of the world are called on to unite. 号召全世界的劳动人民团结起来。 Example: Children should be allowed their own decisions. a. making b. to make c. make d. having made
  6.作定语 My father didn’t have any chance to go to school before liberation. Energy is the ability to do work. Please give me something to drink. Example: The order pumps will come from the control room. a. stopping b. to stop c. stopped d. stops Have you any other question? a. ask b. for ask c. to ask d. asking 注意: ,不定式结尾表示动宾关系的介词不要丢掉。例如: 注意:当被不定式修饰的名词与后面的不定式有动宾关系时(即为逻辑宾语) At last we found a room to live in. I haven’t got a chair to sit on. Example: I’m not sure which restaurant . a. to eat on b. eating at c. to eat at d. for eating “I want to buy a camera.” “We have several models” a. for you to choose from b. for your choice c. for the choice of yours d. for you to choose at
  7.作状语 表示目的,结果,原因等,常有以下几种情况: (
  1) 用 to + 原形动词,in order to + 原形动词或 so as to + 原形动词引起不定式短语表示 目的,结果,原因。例如: To meet the needs of our industry, we must produce more coal. 为了满足我国工业的需要,我们必须生产更多的煤碳。 (表目的) The temperature is so high as to change water into steam. 温度高到可使水变成蒸汽。 (表结果) They were glad to hear from you. 收到你的信他们很高兴。 (表原因) Example: Send him to the baker’s the bread. a. to buy b. in order he buys c. for to buy d. for buying Grace advised us to withdraw . a. so as to get not involved b. as not to get involved c. so as not to get involved d. so that not to involve (
  2) 用在 easy, difficult, hard, heavy, good 等形容词作表语的系表结构中的形容词后, 是存在谓语所表示的情况,不定式要用主动式。例如: Electricity is easy to transmit over long distances. This question is hard to answer. Example: Most college students want to be to choose their favorite subjects.
2
a. freely b. freedom c. free d. freed (
  3) 在 “too...to”句型中,不定式含有否定意义,表示“结果” 。 He was too busy to help me at the moment. He was too exited to speak. Example: They were to go any further. a. too frightened b. as frightened as c. so frightened as d. too frightened for 注:一般情况下,句子的主语也是不定式的逻辑主语,要注意它们的一致。 Example: To learn to speak English well, . a. much practice is needed b. one needs much practice c. much practice is in need d. much practice one is needed EXERCISE
  1. Please let me know what you intend . a. will do b. do c. to do d. doing
  2. Would you be to step this way, please? a. too kind b. so kind c. so kind as d. as
  3. They have made the oil and water from each other. a. to separate b. separate c. to be separated d. to have separated
  4. It is very important our teaching methods. a. to improve to b. improve c. improved d. to improve
  5. I have warned you time and again the wire. a. not touch b. not touching c. not to touch d. touch not
  6. “Where should I send my application?” “The Personnel Office is the place.” a. to send it b. send it to c. to send it to d. for sending it
  7. Would you please the door for me? a. holding b. not to hold c. hold d. held
  8. My brother’s wish is an engineer. a. becomes b. to become c. become d. becoming to be
  9. Have you heard him about his former teacher? a. spoke b. to speak c. speaks d. speak
  10. Can you let me the truth of the matter? a. to know b. knowing c. know d. known
  11. for the people is weightier than Mount Tai. a. Die b. Dead c. To death d. To die
  12. If you ask your mother, she will probably . a. let you to go b. allow you to go c. allow that you go d. let you go
  13. Did you notice the girl . a. cross the road b. across the road c. to cross the road d. having cross the road
  14. Comrade Li is known an advanced worker. a. being b. is c. be d. to be
  15. Seeing an old man getting off the train, she hurried over things for him. a carrying b. to carry c. carried d. for carrying
  16. We’d really like you to the party tonight. a. come b. to come c. will come d. should come
  17. It is a teacher’s duty the rising generation. a. educate b. educating c. to educate d. educates
  18. The best way this principle is to see how it actually works in practice. a. understanding b. to understand c. being understood d. to have understood
  19. If the maid comes today, please have her my shirts. a. washed b. washing c. to washing d. wash
  20. We can do nothing but the experiment. a. to repeat b. repeat c. repeating d. repeated
  21. Such a thing should never have been allowed in the first place. a. happens b. happen c. to happen d. happening
  22. In the days , China’s atomic energy industry will better serve the needs of the national economy and the people’s livelihood. a. will come b. come c. came d. to come
  23. Have you got any thing about this matter? a. saying b. to say c. said d. say
  24. He was not try it again. a. such a fool as to b. so a fool as to c. a fool such as to d. a fool so as to
  25. He was too excited . a. to go to sleeping b. to slept c. to go to sleep d. going to sleep
  26. We can’t have him like that all day. a. to work b. working c. to be worked d. work
  27. This will enable us the problem quickly and accurately. a. solving b. to solve c. to have solving d. solve
  28. All he wanted was his job well; he never sought personal gain. a. do b. in doing c. to do d. to doing
  29. I spoke so slowly and clearly as fully understood. a. making myself b. to make myself to be c. to make myself d. to make me to understand
  30. To die for the people’s sake is a worthy death.
3
a.
dead b. dying c. to die d. have II. 特殊不定式短语

  1. 不定式复合结构:for + 名词(代词)+不定式(短语) 一般说,句中谓语动词的主语就是动词不定式(短语)的逻辑主语。但是有时它还有自己的逻辑主语,由介词 for 引出。动词不定 式加上自己的逻辑主语一起构成复合结构。 这种复合结构在句中句法作用与不定式基本相同。 如果句中的形容词既指行为的性质又指行 为的人,则用 of 引出这一结构。例如: (
  1)作主语 It is necessary for us to catch up with the world’s advanced levels. It is very kind of you to send us so many books. (
  2)作表语 The question is for me to answer. The school regulations are for every student to observe. (
  3)作宾语 The development of the rocket makes it possible for man to enter space. Closed-circuit television makes it easy for a large number of students to see everything a teacher demonstrates. (
  4)作定语 In doing research work, there are often a lot of difficulties for the scientists to overcome. (
  5)作状语 He speaks too quickly fo
 

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