Automobile Professional English
Vocabulary Study Translation Skills Exercises
Chapter One Engine
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Engine Mechanical EFI System Engine Cooling and Lubrication System Engine Ignition, Starting and Charging System Engine Diagnosis System
Unit 1

  1. Cylinder Block
Engine Mechanical
engine 发动机 block 气缸体 cylinder 气缸 crankcase 曲轴箱 house 安装 crankshaft 曲轴 camshaft 凸轮轴 coolant 冷却液 oil pan 机油盘 water socket 水套 internally 内部地 adequately 充分地 lubricate 润滑
The engine block is the main supporting structure to which all other engine parts are 1attached. Fig. 1-1-1 shows a cylinder block. It has two main sections: the cylinder section and the crankcase section. The crankcase section is used to house the crankshaft, crankshaft, oil pan. Cooling passageways are built within the block. These passageways, sockets, also known as water sockets, surround the cylinders. They allow coolant to circulate throughout the cylinder area to keep the engine cool. There is also a drilled passageway within some blocks for the camshaft. camshaft. Many oil holes are drilled internally so that engine parts can be lubricated. adequately lubricated.
FourFour-Cylinder Engine Cylinder Block 四缸发动机气缸体) (四缸发动机气缸体)
1Fig. 1-1-1 1- cylinder block 气缸体) (气缸体) 2- cylinder 气缸) (气缸) 3- crankcase area 曲轴箱部分) (曲轴箱部分)

  2. Cylinder Liners The purpose of using a liner is that, if the cylinder is damaged, the liner can be removed replaced removed and replaced rather easily. There sleeves- are two types of sleeves-wet and dry. Seals Seals must be used on the top and bottom of the wet sleeve in order to keep the leaking coolant from leaking out of the cooling system.
  3. Cylinder Head The Cylinder head is used to hold the valves, ports valves, and it has ports to allow air, fuel and exhaust to move through the addition, engine. In addition, it has coolant Fig.1passages. Fig.1-1-2 shows a cylinder head. After the cylinder head has been cast, some areas must be machined so that manifolds intake and exhaust manifolds can be attached, valves can be seated, spark plugs injectors installed, plugs and injectors can be installed, and a good seal can be provided to the block.
liner( liner(发动机)气 缸套 remove 拆下 replace 取代 seal 密封,封条 leak 使渗漏 valve 气门;阀 port 孔管道 exhaust 排气 in addition 另外 intake 进气,吸入 manifold 歧管 spark 火花 plug 塞子 injector 喷油器 install 安装
Head(气缸盖) Cylinder Head(气缸盖)
1Fig. 1-1-2 cap(盖 21-cap(盖) 2- cylinder head bolt(气缸盖螺栓) bolt(气缸盖螺栓) 3-exhaust manifold gasket 排气歧管垫) (排气歧管垫) gasket( 4-cylinder head gasket(气缸 盖垫片) 盖垫片)5- intake manifold gasket(进气歧管垫) gasket(进气歧管垫) 进气歧管垫 (气缸盖 气缸盖) 6-cylinder head (气缸盖) 7-cylinder head cover gasket 气缸盖罩垫片)8 )8(气缸盖罩垫片)8- cylinder (气缸盖罩 气缸盖罩) head cover (气缸盖罩)

  4. Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly piston 活塞 The piston and connecting rod assembly connecting rod 连杆 transmits the power from combustion to combustion 燃烧 Fig.1the crankshaft. Shown in Fig.1-1-3 ,it consists of mainly 由...组成 consists of piston, compression rings, compression 压缩 oil control rings, piston pin and pin 销 fits connecting rod.(
  1)piston: Piston fits closely within the engine cylinder or fit 使配合 liner and is able to move alternately up closely 紧密地 and down in the cylinder.(
  2)piston rings: alternately 交替地 rings: There are two types of piston rings: up and down 上上下下 compression and oil control rings. The compression ring compression rings are used to seal the 气环 pressures of compression and power. The oil control rings are employed to scrape scrape 把...刮除 walls.(
  3)piston oil from the cylinder walls.(
  3)piston piston pin 活塞销 pin: pin: It is used to connect piston to connecting rod.(
  4)connecting rod: it is reciprocating motion 往复运动 used to connect piston to crankshaft and changes the reciprocating motion to the rotary 旋转的 rotary motion.
Piston and Rod Assembly 活塞和连杆总成) (活塞和连杆总成)
1Fig. 1-1-3 (活塞 活塞) 1- piston (活塞) (活塞环 活塞环) 2- piston rings (活塞环) pin(活塞销 活塞销) 3- piston pin(活塞销) (连杆 连杆) 4- connecting rod (连杆) 5- connecting rod bolts 连杆螺栓) (连杆螺栓) 6- connecting rod cap 连杆盖) (连杆盖) 7- connecting rod (连杆轴瓦 连杆轴瓦) bearing (连杆轴瓦)

  5. Crankshaft Assembly It is bolted to the bottom of the cylinder block. The crankshaft assembly includes the crankshaft, bearings, flywheel, harmonic balancer, gear, balancer, timing gear, and front seals.Fig.1and rear seals.Fig.1-1-4 shows crankshaft assembly.
  6. Camshaft Assembly The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft and used to open and close the valves. The camshaft assembly includes the camshaft, camshaft timing gear, camshaft bearing, and timing chain, belt used) (if used).
harmonic balancer 扭转减震器 timing gear 正时齿轮 chain belt 链(条)传动带

  7. Valve Drive Mechanism It is used to transfer the camshaft lift The valve drive mechanism consists of the lifters, pushrods lifters, the pushrods and the rocker arms Lifters change the rotary motion of the camshaft to reciprocating motion to open and close the valve. Hydraulic lifters are used to reduce noise and control the valve clearance on many engines. They absorb the valve train clearance by using oil pressure inside the lifter body. Pushrods are used only on engines that have the camshaft placed within the block. Overhead camshafts do not need pushrods. Rocker arms are designed to change the force. direction of the cam lifting force.
lifter n. 挺柱 pushrod n. 推杆 rocker arm 摇臂 hydraulic adj. 液压的 clearance n.间隙 n. lifting force 举升力
Assembly(曲轴总成) Crankshaft Assembly(曲轴总成)
1Fig. 1-1-4 (前端 前端) 2bearing(主轴颈) 1- front (前端) 2- main bearing(主轴颈) 连杆轴颈) 3- connecting rod bearing (连杆轴颈) crank(曲柄) counterweight(平衡重) 4-crank(曲柄) 5- counterweight(平衡重) flange(后端法兰) 6- rear flange(后端法兰) 凸轮轴总成) 7- camshaft assembly (凸轮轴总成)

  8. Valve Assembly Fig.1The valve assembly, shown in Fig.1-1-5, guides, includes the valves, valve guides, valve seats, seats, valve springs, spring retainers and seals. (
  1)valves:The intake valves and the exhaust valves are located within the cylinder head on most engines today. The exhaust valves are usually smaller in diameter than the intake ones, because on the exhaust stroke the gases move more easily for the pressure of the piston forcing them out.(
  2) valve guides: The valve guides support the valve in the cylinder head.(
  3) valve seats :The seats provide a surface for the intake and exhaust valves to chamber. seal the combustion chamber. They are pressed into the cylinder head and ground to the keepers correct angle.(
  4) valve springs, keepers and retainers: The valve springs keep the valves closed when the camshaft is not lifting the valves. Keepers and retainers are designed to secured keep the valve spring secured to the valve stem. stem.
valve guide 气门导管 valve seat 气门座 spring retainer 弹簧座圈 diameter 直径 combustion chamber 燃烧室 ground. 与水平面成 keeper 锁片 secure 紧固 stem 杆,柄
Translation Skill (
科技英语的翻译标准可概括为“忠实、通顺”四个字。 科技英语的翻译标准可概括为“忠实、通顺”四个字。 忠实,指忠实于原文内容。 忠实,指忠实于原文内容。 通顺,指译文语言必须通俗易懂,符合规范。 通顺,指译文语言必须通俗易懂,符合规范。 例如: 例如:
  1. The electric resistance is measured in ohms. 误译:电的反抗是用欧姆测量的。 误译:电的反抗是用欧姆测量的。 正译:电阻的测量单位是欧姆。 正译:电阻的测量单位是欧姆。
  2. The moment the circuit is completed, a current will start flowing the coil. 误译:电路被完成的片刻, 误译:电路被完成的片刻,一个电流将开始流向这个线 圈。 正译:电路一旦接通,电流开始流向线圈。 正译:电路一旦接通,电流开始流向线圈。
翻译的方法一般来说有直译( 和异译( 翻译的方法一般来说有直译(literal translation)和异译(free translation)两种。 两种。 直译, 既忠实于原文内容,又忠实于原文的形式”的翻译。 直译,指“既忠实于原文内容,又忠实于原文的形式”的翻译。 异译,指忠实于原文的内容,但不拘泥原文的形式。 异译,指忠实于原文的内容,但不拘泥原文的形式。 例如: 例如: Many oil holes are drilled internally so that engine parts can be adequately lubricated. 直译:有许多油孔在内部被钻出, 直译:有许多油孔在内部被钻出,以使发动机能够被充分的 润滑。 润滑。 异译:发动机内部钻有许多油道,可使其得到充分的润滑。 异译:发动机内部钻有许多油道,可使其得到充分的润滑。
Exercises(练习) Exercises(练习)

  1.Translate the following into Chinese

  1)valve spring retainer (
  2)valve drive mechanism (
  3)exhaust manifold gasket (
  4)valve stem (
  5)reciprocating engine (
  6)compression ratio (
  7)exhaust stroke (
  8)connecting rod bearing (
  1)气门弹簧座圈 ) (
  2)气门驱动装置 ) (
  3)排气歧管垫 ) (
  4)气门杆 ) (
  5)往复式发动机 ) (
  6)压缩比 ) (
  7)排气行程 ) (
  8)连杆轴承 )

  2.Translate the following into English

  1)曲轴主轴径 (
  2)缸盖螺栓 (
  3)活塞环 (
  4)连杆轴径 (
  5)气缸盖垫 (
  6)连杆螺栓 (
  7)摇臂轴 (
  8)液力挺柱 (
  8)液力挺柱 (
  1)Crankshaft main bearing (
  2)Cylinder head bolt (
  3)Piston ring (
  4)Connecting rod bearing (
  5)Cylinder head gasket (
  6)Connecting rod bolt (
  7)Rocker arm shaft (
  8)Hydraulic lifter

  3.Translate the following sentences into English
  1).The problem can often be (
  1)汽缸盖经常出现裂纹 (
  1)汽缸盖经常出现裂纹 associated with a crack in 或变形故障。 或变形故障。缸体上 cylinder head or possible warp of 的变形可能会使冷却 the cylinder head .A crack in the 液进入燃烧室, 液进入燃烧室,使排 block may also cause coolant to 气冒白烟。 气冒白烟。 the combustion chamber and cause (
  2)固定凸轮轴后 固定凸轮轴后, (
  2)固定凸轮轴后,安装 white exhaust smoke. 气缸盖时, 气缸盖时,在安装气 (
  2).When installing an exchange 盖之前, 盖之前,应在液力挺 cylinder head (with camshaft 和凸轮之间地接触面 installed )the contact surfaces 涂上机油。 涂上机油。 between the hydraulic lifters and the cam must be oiled before installing the cylinder head over.
  3).Metal shavings or large quantities of small metal particles found in the engine oil during repairs can be caused. If such particles are found, apart from thoroughly cleaning the oil passage, it is necessary to replace the oil cooler. (
  4).Oil holes are placed in the center of the crankshaft to supply oil to the connecting rods, bearing, pistons and other components. (
  5).Adjustment of the valve clearance is done by means of an outer shim type system, in which valve adjusting shims are located above the valve lifters

  3)对汽车进行维修时 会使金属屑或大量小金 属颗粒掉进发动机机油 中。如果发现这样的颗 粒,除了要完全清洁油 道外, 道外,还有必要更换机 有冷却器。 有冷却器。 (
  4)位于曲轴中心的油 孔负责向连杆、轴承、 孔负责向连杆、轴承、 活塞和其它部件供给机 油以便润滑。 油以便润滑。 (
  5)通过外部垫片形系 ) 统可以调节气门间隙。 统可以调节气门间隙。 气门调解垫片位于气门 挺住正上方。 挺住正上方。


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