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专题之七:完形填空题材突破
一、记叙文 (一)命题探究 完形填空考查考生在阅读理解的基础上对词汇知识的掌握情况。 要求考生通读全文, 掌握文章大意, 运用词汇、语法等知识,选择最佳答案,使文章意思畅通,结构完整。记叙型完形填空是高考和备考的 重点。研读记叙型完形填空,可看出以下趋势:
  1、首句完整,线索清楚。 一般作者在第一句就交代了人物的姓名、身份、业绩或事件发生的时间、地点,然后再介绍时间的 发生、发展,最后得出结果。
  2、叙述灵活,侧重语境。 文章以叙述为主, 人物间对话较少, 绝大部分篇章是作者在描述事件, 较少加入作者的观点或评论。 因此,常会出现态度与观点的跳跃变换,或语气的差异。这增加了情景的迷惑性和干扰性,从而突出了 对语境的依赖,实现了在理解上下文的基础上,通过语境,辨析词语,作出选择。
  3、实词为主,虚词为辅。 高考记叙型完形填空,篇章不长,一般在 200-260 个词左右,始终紧扣话题中心,形成一个主题连 续体。选项一般为同一词类或同一范畴。重点集中于动词、名词、形容词或副词等实词上,介词、连词、 冠词等虚词的考查相对较少。实词为主,虚词为辅,更能体现在语境中考查英语运用能力这一思路。 (二)技巧点拨
  1、重视首句,开篇明义。 从历年的试题可以看出,完形填空首句一般不设题。这为我们理解文章的内在联系提供了一个“窗 口” ,它的句意往往为全文提供中心信息。所以应充分重视首句的指示作用,利用它为解题找到一个突 破口,据此拓展思维,争取开局胜利。
  2、利用语境,猜摩心态。 高考完形填空题逐渐屏弃语法分析, 朝着深层化和语境化的方面挖掘, 因此考生只有借助上下文乃 至全文语境启示或限定,猜摩作者的心情,以及他对各个角色、各个事件的态度。在答题过程中,除了 对关联用语的把握外,还要把握语气、动作等描写。
  3、理清线索,把握方向。
  4、记叙文一般按事件发展顺序叙述,有时用倒叙。答题时,通过理清人物间的关系,把握人物各 自所做的事情,从而把握细节,找准作者的记叙方向,正确理解文章。 (三)巩固练习
  1、05 全国卷 One afternoon I was sitting at my favorite table in a restaurant , waiting for the food I had ordered to arrive . Suddenly 1 that a man sitting at a table near the window kept glancing in my direction , 2 he knew me . The man had a newspaper 3 in front of him , which he was 4 to read , but I could 5 that he was keeping an eye on me . when the waiter brought my 6 the man was clearly puzzled by the 7 way in which the waiter and I 8 each other .He seemed even more puzzled as 9 went on and it became 10 that all the waiters in the restaurant knew me . Finally he got up and went into the 11 When he came out ,he paid his bill and 12 without another glance in my direction . I called the owner of the restaurant and asked what the man had 13 . “Well,” he said , “that man was a detective . He 14 you here because he though you were the man he 15 .” “What ?” I said , showing my
  16. The owner continued , “He came into the kitchen and showed me a photo of the wanted man. I 17 say he looked very much like you!Of course ,since we know you ,we told him that he had made a 18 .” “Well , it’s really 19 I came to a restaurant where I’m known ,” I said . “ 20 , I might have been in trouble .”
  1.A.knew B.understood Cnoticed D.recognized
  2.A.since B.even if C.though D.as if
  3.A.flat B.open C.cut D.fixed
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  4.A.hoping B.thinking C.pretending D.continuing
  5.A.see B.find C.guess D.learn
  6.A.menu B.bill C.paper D.food
  7.A.direct B.familiar C.strange D.funny
  8.A.chatted with B.looked at C.laughed at D.talked about
  9.A.the waiter B.time C.I D.the dinner
  10.A.true B.hopeful C.clear D.possible
  11.A.restaurant B.washroom C.office D.kitchen
  12.A.left B.acted C.sat down D.calmed down
  13.A.wanted B.tried C.ordered D.wished
  14.A.met B.caught C.followed D.discovered
  15.A.was to beat B.was dealing with C.was to meet D.was looking for
  16.A.care B.surprise C.worry D.regret
  17.A.must B.can C.need D.may
  18.A.discovery B.mistake C.decision D.fortune
  19.A.a pity B.natural C.a chance D.lucky
  20.A.Thus B.However C.Otherwise D.Therefore key: 1-5CDBCA 6-10DBABC 11-15DAACD 16-20BABDC
  2、04 重庆卷 A little boy invited his mother to attend his school’s first teacher-parent parent meeting. To the little boy’ 1 ,she said she would go. This 2 be the first time that his classmates and teacher 3 his mother and s he felt 4 of her appearance. Although she was a beautiful woman, there was a severe scar(疤痕)that 5 nearly the entire right side of her face. The boy never wanted to 6 why or how she got the scar. At the meeting, the people were 7 by the kindness and natural beauty of his mother 8__the car, but the little boy was still embarrassed and 9 himself from everyone. He did, however, get within 10 of a conversation between his mother and his teacher. The teacher asked 11 ,“How did you get the scar on your face?” The mother replied,“ 12 my son was a baby, he was in a room that caught fire. Everyone was 13 afraid to go in because the fire was 14 ,so I went in. As I was running toward his bed, I saw a loing piece of wood coming down and I placed myself over him trying to protect him. I was knocked 15 but fortunately, a fireman came in and saved both of us.” She 16 the burned side of her face. “This scar will be17 ,but to this day, I have never 18 what I did.” At this point, the little boy came out running toward his mother with tears in his eyes. He held her in his arms and felt a great 19 of the sacrifice that his mother had made for him. He held her hand 20 for the rest of the day.
  1.A.enjoyment B. disappointment C. surprise D. excitement
  2.A. would B. could C. should D. must
  3.A.noticed B. greeted C. accepted D. met
  4.A. sick B. ashamed C. afraid D. tired
  5. A. included B. passed C. covered D. shaded
  6. A. talk about B. think about C. care about D. hear about
  7. A. impressed B. surprised C. excited D. comforted
  8. A. in sight of B. by means of C. by way of D. in spite of
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  9. A. hid B. protected C. separated
  10. A. understanding B. reminding C. hearing
  11. A. carefully B. seriously C. nervously
  12. A. As B. When C. Since
  13. A. so B. much C. quite
  14. A. out of control B. under control C. in control
  15. A. helpless B. hopeless C. senseless
  16. A. pointed B. showed C. wiped
  17. A. ugly B. lasting C. serious
  18. A. forgot B. recognized C. considered
  19. A. honor B. sense C. happiness
  20. A. quietly B. slightly C. tightly Key: 1-5BADBC 6-10AADAC 11-15BBDAC 16-20DBDBC
D. escaped D. learning D. anxiously D. While D. too D.over control D. useless D. touched D. frightening D. regretted D. pride D. suddenly

  3、04 全国卷 It was the night before the composition was due. As I looked at the list of topics , "The Art of Eating Spaghetti (意大利面条) " caught my eye. The word "spaghetti" brought back the__1 of an evening at Uncle all of us were seated around the table and Aunt Pat 3 spaghetti for supper. Alien' s in Belleville 2 Spaghetti was an exotic (外来的) treat in 4 days. Never had I eaten spaghetti, and 5 of the grown-ups had enough experience to be 6 it. What laughing 7 we had about the 8 respectable method for moving spaghetti from plate to mouth. 9 , I wanted to write about that, but I wanted to 10 it down simply for my own 11 , not for Mr. Fleagle, my composition teacher. 12 , I would write something else. When I finished it the night was half gone and there was no 13 left to write a proper composition for Mr. Fleagle. There was no choice next morning but to 14 my work. Two days passed before Mr. Fleagle returned the 15 papers. He said, "Now, class, I want to read you a composition, “The Art of Eating Spaghetti'. " My words! He was reading my words out 16 to the whole class. 17 laughed, then the whole class was laughing with open-hearted enjoyment. I did my best not to show 18 , but what I was feeling was pure happiness, 19 my words had the power to make people 20 .
  1. A. memory B. thought C. knowledge D. experience
  2. A. when B. where C. since D. after
  3. A. cooked B. served C. got D. made
  4. A. their B. past C. last D. those
  5. A. none B. one C. earns D. neither
  6. A. careful about B. good at C. fond of D. interested in
  7. A. speeches B. lessons C. sayings D. arguments
  8. A. nearly B. naturally C. officially D, socially
  9. A. Especially B. Probably C. Suddenly D. Fortunately
  10. A. settle B. put C. Bite D. let
  11. A. work B. story C. luck D. joy
  12. A. However B. Therefore C. As for him D. Except for that
  13. A. time B. excuse C. way D. idea
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  14. A. give up B. continue C. hand in
  15. A. written B. graded C. collected
  16. A. laid B. fast C. publicly
  17. A. People B. Nobody C. Somebody
  18. A. shock B. wonder C. worry
  19. A. if B. for C. while
  20. A. excited B. satisfied C. think key: 1-5AABDA 6-10BDDCB 11-15DCACB 16-20ACDBD 二、说明文
D. delay D. calmly D. calmly D. I D. pleasure D. although D. laugh
(一)命题探究 说明型完型填空选材难度一般低于试卷中的阅读理解大题。 在设空与选项设计方面设计方面充分体 现了语言知识运用题的要求:以实词为主,名,动,形,副等词类占全部小题数的 90%,绝大多数小 题都要从全文角度进行判断。这一命题思路体现了“语篇意识” 。说明型完型填空一般用言简意赅的文 字,按照一定的方法介绍事物,解释事理。最显著的特点是:
  1、开头点题 、 做说明型完型填空时,要明确说明的对象是什么,是具体实物还是理论性概念。因此,明确说明的 对象是掌握说明细节的前提。在近年的说明型填空中,作者一般在文章的首句直接提出说明的对象。
  2、结构清晰 、 把握语篇特征对理解文章与答题极为有利。说明文的写作一般按时间顺序(指先后顺序) ,空间顺 序(从局部到整体,从上到下,从内到外) ,逻辑顺序(前因后果,先果后因,先主后次) ,认识顺序(由 此及彼,由浅入深,由具体到抽象,由现象到本质) 。 (二)技巧点拨
  1、通过短文抓主旨 、 一般情况下,完型填空短文都不给标题,不容易把握文章的主题和大意。但短文首句通常不设空格,这 就为我们窥视文章全貌提供了一个窗口,而尾句往往是文章的总结,结论和点睛之笔,所以抓住开篇启 示作用的首句和总结概括性的尾句是必要的。
  2、精读短文析文章 、 应逐句精读短文,逐题分析选项,对特定的语境作深入的理解,克服 “思维定势” ,根据全文大意 和词不离句,句不离文的原则,逐项填空,要吃透文章,理解到位,应作到以下几点: 第一点:从上下文的角度考虑,注意其内在的联系点。 第二点:从词汇意义及用法,惯用方式和搭配角度去考虑,准确判断。 第三点:从逻辑推理,常识等角度,挖掘文章的寓意及隐含的意义。 第四点:从英汉两种语言的差异角度去考虑,避免错误。
  3、复读全文再检查 、 在做完一篇完型填空后,文章完整了,应从头到尾读一遍,根据复读的语感和对整篇的理解,再次 将较明显的错误改正,个别需要推敲的再做调整,尽可能少出错。 (三)巩固练习
  1、04 北京卷 Don’t Take the Fun Out of Youth Sports When I joined a private football league a few years ago, the sport meant everything to me. My coach said that I had lots of potential , and I became captain of my 1 . That was before all the fun was taken out of 2 .
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