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专题之八:阅读理解题材突破
阅读理解专题之一: 阅读理解专题之一:人物传记类 (一)命题探索 人物传记以名人生命或逸事为主.体裁一般是记叙文,包含记叙文的时间,地点,人物,事件等要 素.写作手法多采用时间,空间或逻辑线索贯穿文章始终.命题以细节为主,推理为辅.近年来,人物 传记类阅读文章在高中阅读理解题中有所减少. (二)技巧点拨 人物传记类文章多为记叙文,为了支撑所要描述的人物,短语往往会出现大量细节,这些细节有时 很直接,理解字面意思即可,有时则很间接,需要综合,归纳,推理才能判断.准确理解细节是做好这 类题的关键.那么,怎样准确理解细节呢? 首先,从问题中找到关键词;然后以此为线索,运用略读和查阅的技巧在文中迅速找细节;找到后 再把这一部分内容仔细阅读,认真比较选项和文中细节的区别;最后,在正确理解细节的前提下,确定 最佳答案. 篇目 内容 年 份 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 (全国卷 Ⅰ) 2005 (全国卷 Ⅱ) (三)实战演练 1,05 年浙江卷 C 篇 , In the course of working my way through school, I took many jobs I would rather forget. But none of these jobs was as dreadful as my job in an apple plant. The work was hard; the pay was poor; and, most of all, the working conditions were terrible. First of all, the job made huge demands on my strength. For ten hours a night, I took boxes that rolled down a metal track and piled them onto a truck. Each box contained twelve heavy bottles of apple juice. I once 动物:宠物 广告:招生 新闻:纽约停 电 新闻:汽车租 赁 科幻:开发地 下 地理:小岛轶 闻 故事:烹调轶 事 旅游:冰屋旅 馆 科技:生态食 品 动物:小狗助 读 简讯:学校生 活 新闻:边界问 题 社会科学:决 策论 科技环保:绿 色消费 广告:演出公 告 广告:科普书 介 社会:人际关 系心理 哲学:人文历 史 语言:英语简 史 新闻综述:读 书寻宝 语言文化:日 语,外来语 科普:新型飞 机使用前的必 检步骤 社会:人际关 系 科技环保:垃 圾回收 社会:人际关 系心理 报道: Party 套 餐 科技环保:网 络,办公用纸 社会科技:找 工作 A B C D E
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figured out that I was lifting an average of twelve tons of apple juice every night. I would not have minded the difficulty of the work so much if the pay had not been so poor. I was paid the lowest wage of that time?two dollars an hour. Because of the low pay, I felt eager to get as much as possible. I usually worked twelve hours a night but did not take home much more than $ 100 a week. But even more than the low pay, what made me unhappy was the working conditions. During work I was limited to two ten-minute breaks and an unpaid half hour for lunch. Most of my time was spent outside loading trucks with those heavy boxes in near-zero-degree temperatures. The steel floors of the trucks were like ice, which made my feet feel like stone. And after the production line shut down at night and most people left, I had to spend two hours alone cleaning the floor. I stayed on the job for five months, all the while hating the difficulty of the work, the poor money, and the conditions under which I worked. By the time I left, I was determined never to go back there again.
  1. Why did the writer have to take many jobs at that time? A. To pay for his schooling. C. To support his family A. loading boxes in the freezing cold C. working and studying at the same time
  3. What is the subject discussed in the text? A.The writer's unhappy school life. D.The writer's hard work in an apple plant.
  4. How is the text organized? A.Topic?Argument?Explanation B.Opinion?Discussion?Description C.Main idea?Comparison?Supporting examples D.Introduction?Supporting examples?Conclusion Key: ACDD 阅读理解专题之二: 阅读理解专题之二:社会文化类 (一)命题探究 语言是社会文化的重要载体.学习英语的目的之一就是"提高初步运用英语进行交际的能力,增强 对外国文化,特别是英语国家文化的了解" .因此,社会文化类试题出现在高考试卷中是必然的.社会 文化类文章的命题有以下趋势:
  1.以中西文化差异作为选材的重点.如礼仪,语言,生活习惯,世界观,价值观等为主题.题材涉 及社会,文化,教育,体育等方面的内容.
  2.一般一篇文章一个主题.以议论文,记叙文居多.
  3.命题方面,既重主旨把握,又重特定细节,时有推断. (二)技巧点拨 对英语语言,社会,文化的了解是一个长期的过程,在复习时要注意:
  1.重视英语词汇,语法和习惯用法的掌握. B.The writer's eagerness to earn money. C.The writer's experience as a full-time worker. B. To save for his future. D. To gain some experience B. having limited time for breaks D. getting no pay for lunch time

  2. The following facts describe the terrible working conditions of the plant EXCEPT .
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在复习过程加强对语言基础知识的掌握.对于普通中学毕业生来说,应具备 2,000~35,000 的词 汇量,并掌握其词类,意思和基本用法.掌握句子结构和句子成分之间的关系.熟悉固定词组,固定搭 配等约定俗成的语法项目.
  2.扩展文化背景知识,认真研读历届高考题. 从近五年的高考题看,阅读内容的社会实用性越来越强,更重视语言和文化的关系,阅读材料会更 多地涉及社会化背景知识.因此,要通过阅读更多地涉及社会文化背景知识,要通过阅读更多地了解并 丰富自己的知识. 同时,要认真研读近五年的高考篇目,增加语言经验,适应选材特点,熟悉题材和体裁.了解设问 形式,感悟设问特点.
  3.广泛涉猎,丰富消遣阅读. . (三)实战演练 1,05 年重庆卷 C 篇 , "My kids really understand solar and earth-heat energy," says a second-grade teacher in Saugus, California. "Some of them are building solar collectors for their energy course. " These young scientists are part of City Building Educational Program (CBEP), a particular program for kindergarten through twelfth grade that uses the stages of city planning to teach basic reading, writing and math skills, and more. The children don't just plan any city. They map and analyze (分析) the housing, energy, and transportation requirements of their own district and foretell its needs in 100 years. With the aid of an architect ( 建筑师) who visits the classroom once a week, they invent new ways to meet these needs and build models of their creations. " Designing buildings of the future gives children a lot of freedom," says the teacher who developed this program. "They are able to use their own rich imagination and inventions without fear of blame, because there are no wrong answers in a future context. In fact, as the class enters the final model-building stage of the program, an elected ' official' and ' planning group' make all the design decisions for the model city, and the teacher steps back and becomes an adviser. " CBEP is a set of activities, games and imitations that teach the basic steps necessary for problem-solving: observing, analyzing, working out possible answers, and judging them based on the children's own standards. 1 The Program is designed . A. to direct kids to build solar collectors B. to train young scientists for city planning C.to develop children's problem-solving abilities D. to help young architects know more about designing
  2. An architect pays a weekly visit to the classroom . A. to find out kids' creative ideas C. to give children lectures 3 Who is the designer of the program? A. An official. A. B. An architect. C. A teacher. D. A scientist. 4 The children feel free in the program because. they can design future buildings themselves B.they have new ideas and rich imagination B. to discuss with the teacher D. to help kids with their program
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C.they are given enough time to design models 2,05 年山东卷 , Last August, Joe and Mary Mahoney began looking at colleges for their 17-year-old daughter, Maureen. With a checklist of criteria in hand, the Dallas family looked around the country visiting half a dozen schools. They sought a university that offered the teenager's intended major, one located neat a large city, and a campus where their daughter would be safe. "The safety issue is a big one," says Joe Mahoney, who quickly discovered he wasn't alone in his worries. On campus tours other parents voiced similar concerns, and the same question was always asked : what about crime? But when college officials always gave the same answer ??"That's not a problem here," ??Mahoney began to feel uneasy. "No crime whatsoever?" comments Mahoney today. " I just don't buy it." Nor should he: in 1999 the U.S. Department of education had reports of nearly 400,000 serious crimes on or around our campuses. "Parents need to understand that times have changed since they went to college," says David Nichols, author of Creating a Safe Campus. "Campus crime mirrors the rest of the nation." But getting accurate information isn't easy. Colleges must report crime statistics(统计数字)by law, but some hold back for fear of bad publicity, leaving the honest ones looking dangerous. "The truth may not always be serious," warms S. Daniel Carter of Security on Campus, Inc., the nation's leading campus safety watchdog group. To help concerned parents, Carter promised to visit campuses and talk to experts around the country to find out major crime issues and effective solutions.
  1. The Mahoneys visited quite a few colleges last August A. to express the opinions of many parents C. to check the cost of college education A. receive too many visitors B. to choose a right one four their daughter D. to find a tight one near a large city D.they need not worry about making mistakes

  2. It is often difficult to get correct information on campus crime because some colleges B. mirror the rest of the nation C. hide the truth of campus crime D. have too many watchdog groups 3 The underlined word "buy" in the third paragraph means A. mind B. admit C. believe D. expect B. that report campus crimes by law D. that enjoy very good publicity B. Crimes on or around campuses D. Concerns about kids' campus safety
  4. We learn from the text that "the honest ones" in the fourth paragraph most probably refers to colleges . A. that are protected by campus security C. that are free from campus crime
  5. What is the text mainly about? A. Exact campus crime statistics C. Effective solutions to campus crime 3,05 年安徽卷 , Handshaking, though a European practice, is now often seen in big cities of China. Nobody knows exactly when the practice started in Europe. It is said that long long ago in Europe when people met, they showed their unarmed (无武器的) hands to each other as a sign of goodwill. As time went on and trade in cities grew rapidly, people in cities began to clap each other' s hands to make a deal or to reach an agreement.
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This practice was later changed into shaking hands among friends on meeting or leaving each other. "Let' s shake (hands) on it" sometimes means agreement reached. Do the Europeans shake hands wherever they go and with whomever they meet? No. Sometimes the Chinese abroad reach out their hands too often to be polite. It is really very impolite to give your hand when the other party, especially when it is a woman, shows little interest in shaking hands with you and when the meeting does not mean anything to him or her. Even if, for politeness, he holds out his unwilling hand in answer to your uninvited hand, just touch it slightly. There is generally a misunderstanding(误解) among the Chinese that westerners are usually open and straightforward, while the Chinese are rather reserved (保守的) in manner. But in fact some people in western countries are more reserved than some Chinese today. So it is a good idea to shake hands with a westerner only when he shows interest in further relations with you.
  1.In the old days in Europe, people put out their unarmed hands to each other A. to make a deal C. to show friendliness
  2. The first paragraph mainly tells us. A. where handshaking was first practiced B. how handshaking came about C. about the relationship between handshaking and trade D. about the practice of handshaking both in Europe and in China
  3. According to the text, which of the following statements is true? A. Westerners are more reserved than the Chinese. B. Westerners are unwilling to shake hands. C. We should make a judgment before shaking hands. D. We shouldn't' t shake hands with European women.
  4. The main purpose of the text is. A. to tell us some differences between the East and the West B. to offer us some important facts about handshaking C. to introduce us to some different customs in the West D. to give us some advice before we travel abroad 4,05 年全国一,二卷 A 篇 , 年全国一, Pet owners are being encouraged to take their animals to work , a move scientists say can be good for productivity , workplace morale (士气), and the well-being of animals . A study found that 25% of Australian women would
 

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