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初三英语短文填空 (五)短文填空题的命题特点 短文填空是陕西省、重庆市、武汉市、黄冈市、福州市等省、市近两年才创 设的一种新题型。这种题型通常有四种形式:
  1、给出一篇难易适中的短文,中间去掉几个单词,让考生根据上下文填上 所缺的单词。
  2、给出一篇难易适中的短文,中间去掉几个单词,但给出这些单词的第一 个字母,让考生根据短文的上下文的意思和所给的提示字母,天上所缺的单词。
  3、给出一篇难易适中的短文,中间去掉几个单词,同时在一个方框内给出 一些单词, 让考生根据短文的内容, 把这些单词填入空白处, 使文章正确、 通顺。
  4、给出一篇难易适中的短文,中间去掉几个单词或短语,同时给出这些单 词或短语的汉语意思,让考生根据短文的上下文和所给汉语的提示,填上适当地 单词或短语。陕西省的短文填空题采用的基本上是第四种形式。 这种题型考查的是考生的整体阅读能力、 基础语法的运用能力和书面表述能 力,特别是单词和短语的拼写能力。它是介于阅读理解和书面表达之间的一种题 型。 陕西省中考英语题中的短文填空题又有什麽具体特点呢?
  1、从文体上看,议论文和叙事文为主。 2002 年陕西省的短文填空题所给的短文是一篇论说文,论说的主题是:只 有母亲的爱是真正的爱。2003 年的中考说明样题所给的短文是一篇叙事文。讲 述的是圣诞节的情况。2003 年的中考题中的短文填空题也是一篇叙事文。讲述 的是主题是因特网的历史。
  2、从填空的内容上看,以词组和短语为主。 2002 年短文填空题共有 10 个空,其中 6 个空填的是词组和短语。2003 年中 考说明中短文填空题共有 10 个空,其中 7 个空填的是词组和短语。2003 年中考 题中的短文填空题共有 10 个空,其中 5 个空填的是词组和短语。也就是说短文 填空题要填的词组和短语总体上保持在 5-7 个。
  3、从考查的范围上看,以英语的一些特殊用法为主。 2002 年的短文填空题考到了 enough 作副词,放在被修饰词之后的用法,考 到了“with+名词”构成的介词短语的用法。2003 年终考说明中的短文填空题又 一次出现了“with+名词”构成的介词短语用法。2003 年中考题的短文填空题考 查了 something wrong 这样的形容词后置的特殊用法。
  4、从所留的空白上看,以给出汉语提示为主。 2003 年中考说明的短文填空题共留出 10 个空白, 其中 8 处给出了汉语提示, 2 处没有任何提示。2003 年中考的短文填空题同样是 10 个空白,全部给出了汉 语提示。 二、短文填空题的解题技巧 做好短文填空题要求考生具备坚实的语法基础,理解文章大意和主旨的能 力,牢固掌握英语的习惯用法和固定搭配,熟记英语单词的拼写。做短文填空可
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以从以下几个方面着手:
  1、从语法方面考虑 短文填空题所涉及的语法内容通常包括:名词的单复数、形容词和副词的 比较等级、主谓一致、动词的时态和语态、介词和连词的选用等。例如 2003 年 中考的短文填空题的第一个空: “Most of us 1 (忙于)talking about and using the Internet every day….” 在这里,用英语表示“忙于”不仅要用 busy, busy 之前还 要加 be, 而 be 还要和主语 most of us 保持一致,变成 are。
  2、从习惯用法和固定搭配方面考虑 如上所说,陕西省的短文填空以词组和短语为主,而词组和短语必然会涉 “ 及到很多习惯用法和固定搭配。 例如 2003 年中考说明短文填空的第 8 个空: 8 (在圣诞夜)children are very happy.” 用英语表示“在圣诞夜”必须用 On Christmas Eve。因为在“某一天的晚上”习惯上用介词 on。
  3、从上下文的结构方面考虑 有的空白必须根据上下文的结构才能判断应该填什麽样的单词或短语。例 如 2003 年考试说明短文填空的第 9 个空: They put their stocking at the end of their beds 9 their parents can put presents in them.从上下文文我们可以看出,他们把 他们的长筒袜放在床头上是为了让他们的父母亲能够把礼物放在里面。以此判 断,后面的句子应是一个目的状语从句。因此,应填 so that。 三、短文填空题的实例分析 (20
  03,陕西省) (共 10 空,计 10 分。单词拼写错误不给分,短语中单词大小写、 V. 短文填空: 拼写错误扣
  0.5 分) 根据上下文和括号里的汉语提示, 在下面短文的空白处写出正确的单词或词 组。使短文意思完整,语句连贯。 Most of us 1 (忙于)talking about and using the Internet every day, but how many of us know the 2 (历史)of the Internet? Many people are 3 (惊讶)when they find that the Internet was set up in the 1960s. 4 (那时),computers were large and 5 (贵的). Computer networks didn’t work 6 (好). If there was 7 (出故障)with one computer in the network, the whole network stopped, so a network system had to be set up. It should be good enough to be used by many 8 (不同的)kinds of computers. If 9 (任何部分)of the network was not working, information could be sent through another part. 10 (用这种方法), computer network system would keep on working all the time….
  1. are busy。汉语提示应填“忙于” ,根据句子结构判断,所填的词或短语在句 中作谓语,英语应为 be busy。句子的主语是 most of us, 谓语应用复数形式。 Be busy 应变为 are busy。
  2. history。汉语提示为“历史” ,在定冠词之后应为名词。
  3. surprised。汉语提示为“惊讶” ,在句中作表语,句子的主语是人,人感到惊 讶,应用过去分词 surprised。
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  4. At that time。汉语提示为“那时” ,其真正意思是“在那个时候” ,又因为这 个短语在句首,第一个字母应大写,相应的英语短语应是 At that time。
  5. expensive/dear 。 汉 语 提 示 为 “ 贵 的 ” 因 为 在 句 中 作 表 语 , 应 用 形 容 词 。 expensive/dear。 ,在句中作状语,因此用 well 表示。
  6. well。汉语提示为“好”
  7. something wrong。汉语提示为“出故障” ,英语表示“某个东西出了故障”常 常用 There was something wrong with sth.这个句型。
  8. different。汉语提示为“不同的” ,其形容词形式是 different。
  9. any part。汉语提示为“任何部分” ,相应的英语表达应是 any part。 ,又因为这个短语在句首,第一个字
  10. In this way。汉语提示为“用这种方法” 母大写。所以其英语表达应是 In this way。 能级演练 1 Most of American businesses are open five days a week. American school children attend school five days a week as well. weekend. The weekend is Saturday American families usually have a 1 (两天) and Sunday. Over the weekend people spend their time 2 (以许多不同的方式) . Many families enjoy weekends 3 (一起) . They may go shopping, go for a drive or visit friends. They may also invite friends over and 4 (聚会) at home. Many ( in American families participate 参加) sports during the weekend. 5 (跑步), biking, playing volleyball and swimming 6 (流行)in summer. Skiing and skating are the 7 (最喜爱的) winter sports. Weekends are also a time for American families to work on something in their yards or in 8 (他们的) houses. Many families plant flowers and have vegetable gardens. Some families use the weekends 9 (粉刷)or repair their houses. 10 (对 大部分美国人来说), weekends are very busy.
  1. two-day
  2. in many different ways
  3. together
  4. have a party
  5. Running
  6. are popular
  7. favourite
  8. their
  9. to paint
  10. For most Americans 2 Perhaps more than any other people, Americans have come to depend on their cars. The family car 1 (一直是) a common thing 2 (从……以来) the early twentieth century, and it has changed American life. Many people have moved 3 (外面) of the large cities to the suburbs. Some Americans spend 4 (每天两小时) or more in their cars 5 (去上班) and home again. Cars have become the 6 (工具) of transportation for most Americans going shopping, and even going on vacations. Americans 7 (过去常常) like big cars, and gasoline used to be very inexpensive. Recently, 8 (然而), the cost of gasoline has increased, smaller cars have become 9 (更常见). Also foreign cars have become very common. Americans have bought 10 (大量的)Japanese and German cars. They have bought cars from several other
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countries as well.
  1. has been
  2. since
  3. outside
  4. two hours a day
  5. going to work
  6. means
  7. used to
  8. however
  9. more common
  10. large numbers of 3 In American high school 1 (大多数) students take English, science, math and history. 2 (在英语课堂上) , the students study grammar and read famous literature. In science class, they study biology, chemistry or physics. History is 3 (更有趣) to some students because they learn about important events and places 4 (在美国) . Students take 5 (其它) courses, too. These are electives. Some study 6 (音乐) because they feel it is more enjoyable. Some study 7 (计算机科学)because they 8 (认为)it is more practical. 9 (在各自课堂上) , teachers give students exams. Some exams are more difficult than others, but a good student can always do 10 (好).
  1. most
  2. In English class
  3. more interesting
  4. in the United States
  5.other
  6. music
  7. computer science
  8. think
  9. In each class
  10. well 4 One kind of vacation that many Americans enjoy is camping. Each summer 1 (数百万的) Americans drive to the countryside where they find places 2 (野营). The national parks, many of which are 3 (在山里) , are favourite camping places. Campers enjoy the 4 (新鲜空气) the lakes and the forests which they find in these , parks. Campers hike, swim and fish. They can also find 5 (许多种)animals and plants in the parks. Mostly campers have trailers which they drive or pull behind their cars to their campsites. Trailers are like houses 6 (在轮子上). They have many ( conveniences which people have in their homes, 7 例如) electricity and hot water. But 8 (大多数) campers don’t have trailers. They camp in tents which they 9 (搭起)in their campsites. Campers in tents don’t have the conveniences that campers in trailers have. Tent campers enjoy 10 (一种简单的生活) .
  1. millions of
  2. to camp
  3. in the mountains
  4. fresh air
  5. many kinds of
  6. on wheels
  7. such as
  8. most
  9. set up
  10. a very simple life 5 Farm Life in the United States All big cities are quite similar. Living in a modern Asian city is not very 1 (不 同於)living in an American city. The same cannot be said about living 2 (在农场 上), however. In many parts of the world, farmers and their families live 3 (在村庄和城镇里). In the United States, however, each farm family lives on its own fields, often beyond the sight of any neighbors. 4 (不用) traveling from a village to the fields every morning, American farmers stay 5 (在他们的土地上)throughout the week. They travel to the nearest town 6 (在星期六)for shopping or on Sundays for church. The children ride on buses to large schools which serve 7 (所有的农场家庭) living
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in the area. In some areas, there are small schools serving a few farm families, and the children walk to school. 8 (当然)life keeps changing for everyone, including farmers. Today there are cars, good roads, radios, and television sets. And of course there are modern machines for farming. All of these have changed farm life. For many years, however, farming in America was often a lonely way of living. Farmers 9 (不得不)deal with their own problems, instead of getting help from others. They 10 (学会)to try new methods, and to trust their own ideas instead of following older ways.
  1. different from
  2. on farms
  3. in villages or towns
  4. Instead of
  5. on their land
  6. on Saturdays
  7. all of the farm families
  8. Of course
  9. had to
  10. learned 6 He was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on January 15,19
  29. He was black. He lived 1 (仅仅)thirty-nine years, but he became world-famous in that short time. He 2 (长 大) in the southeastern part of the United States. He studied at Morehouse College where he met many outstanding men whose ideas he found important and exciting. There he read the writings of Thoreau, which gave him many ideas 3 (关于自由) . After he graduated from Morehouse, he 4 (接着) to study at the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University, and Boston University. At Boston University, he m
 

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