高级语法讲义
主讲: 主讲:屠浩民
省略: 省略:
定语从句的回顾
Fruit that contains vitamin C can relieve a cold. The man who we met yesterday is a famous psychologist. iuThis is the right book that you are looking for. 二、关系词充当宾语的时候 三、关系词充当主语 (
  1)谓语结构为实词 (
  2)谓语结构为 be + 名词 四、先行词为 the way
定语从句省略
A control box fitted to the car contains a mini-cellphone, a micro-processor and memory, and a GPS (全球定位系统) satellite positioning receiver. (
  06。6 旧)
  06。 She is likely to have fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her children, ensuring that her daughters are given a fair chance. (
  06。
  06。 6 旧) Interest in pursuing international careers has soared in recent years, enhanced by chronic (长久的) personnel shortages that are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent.(
  06。6 旧) (
  06。 It enrolls 90,000 student , a statistic used to support its claim to be the largest private university in the country.(
  07.
  12) Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at annual rate of
  3.9 percent, form 800,000 in 1975 to
  2.5 million in 20
  04. (
  07.
  12)
  18. W: You had a job interview yesterday, didn’t you? How did it go? M: Not too bad, I guess. There were about 20 candidates competing for the sales manager’s job. And finally it was down to three of us, but the other two seemed better qualified. Q: What does the man imply? A)He is confident he will get the job. B)His chance of getting the job is slim. C)It isn’t easy to find a qualified sales manager. D)The interview didn’t go as well as he expected.
0
Hamilton isn’t the only educator crossing the Atlantic.
  09.12 汉密尔顿并不是第一位跨越大西洋到外国任职的教育家。 when the board of the University of Colorado searched for a new president, it wanted a leader (who is) familiar with the state government, a major source of the university’s budget. 科罗拉多大学董事会在遴选新校长时, 想聘用一个与州政府熟悉的 领导人,因为州政府是学校的主要资金来源。
  09.12 Career experts say that one of the ways (that) job seekers can stay safe while using the Internet to search out jobs is to conceal their identities. 职业专家说求职者 用因特网找工作时保持安全的一个方法是隐瞒其真实身份。
状语从句省略

  1、 主句和从句的主语保持一致,称为分词作状语。
  2、 若前后主语不一致,则称作独立主格结构。
  1、 分词作状语 (
  1)条件:状语从句,前后主语一致 (
  2)形式:分词作状语在句首+分词作状语在句后 (
  3)省略方式:关系词(可保留)+动词形式变化(-ing/-ed) 一、用作时间状语
  1. 典型例句 When [As soon as] the mouse saw the cat, it ran off. Seeing the cat, the mouse ran off. 见到猫,老鼠就跑了。 真题示例:When different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. (2006 浙江卷) A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared 二、用作原因状语
  1. 典型例句 As she was very weak, she couldn’t move. Because she was much discouraged, she moved on to London. (
  1) with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. (2006 四川卷) A. Faced B. Face C. Facing D. To face 三、用作条件状语
  1. 典型例句 If you work hard, you will succeed. If we are united, we stand; if we are divided, we fall. If we had been given more time, we could have done it better. 四、用作让步状语
1 1

  1. 典型例句 Although living miles away, he attended the course. 虽然住在几英里以外, 他仍去上课。 五、用作伴随状语
  1. 典型例句 He sat in the chair reading a newspaper. 他坐在椅子上看报。 He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。 My cousin came to see me from the country, me a full basket of fresh fruits. A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs, that all children like these things. A. thinking B. think C. to think D. thought 六、用作方式状语
  1. 典型例句 He came as we expected. He came as he was expected. I'm returning your letter as requested. 我按要求给你退信。 七、用作结果状语
  1. 典型例句 He fired and killed one of the passers-by. He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。 He died and left his wife with five children. He died, leaving his wife with five children. 他死了,留下他妻子和五 个孩子。 He glanced over at her, that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got a great catch. But he is in for an unwelcome surprise. (
  06.6 旧) by the superstars on television, the young athletes trained hard and played intensely. A) Imitated B) Imposed C) Insured D) Inspired (
  06.6 旧) When applying for a job, one usually has to submit a resume or curriculum vitae (CV). Alarmed by this state of , the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) proceeded a comprehensive study of the market in 20
  06. (
  09. 完形)
2
2
A) mess B) boom C) growth D) decay Sticking to the low end of the government estimates, the National Resources Defence Council says there were maybe no more than
  3.2 billion barrels of economically recoverable oil in the coastal plain of the ANWR, a drop in the bucket that would do virutally nothing to ease America's energy problems.. 在状语从句中,若前后主从句主语一致,则省略从句的主语,将后面的动词发生形式上 的变化, 主动语态变成 ing 形式,若是被动语态,则变为 ed 形式。
独立主格结构
一 、独立结构的构成: 只有当分词短语的逻辑主语和句子主语不一致时, 我们才能用独立结构。 独立结构只 用做状语,多用于书面语言。常见的独立结构有以下几种: (一) 名词/代词+分词(包括现在分词和过去分词) : 1 The boy ran quickly, his father following. (表示伴随情况) 2 He lay on his back, his hands acrossed under his head. (表示伴随情况) (二)名词/代词+形容词:
  1、They started home, their minds full of plans for increasing production. (表 示伴随情况)
  2、 He was silent for a moment, his lips tight. (表示伴随情况) (三)名词/代词+副词:
  1、 He put on his socks, wrong side out. (表示补充说明) 2 、The war over, all the Chinese people’s volunteers came back to China. (表 示补充说明) (四)名词/代词+介词(短语) 1 、She came in, a baby in her arms. (表示伴随情况) 2 、He went off, gun in hand. (表示伴随情况) 二 独立结构在句子中的作用。 独立结构在句子中只能做状语,这种结构可以用来: (一)表示时间: His homework done, Jim decided to go and see the play. (=After his homework was done, he decided to go and see the play.) (二)表示原因: The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. (=Because the last bus having gone, we had to walk home. ) (三)表示条件: Weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow. (=If weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.) (四)表示伴随情况或伴随状况: They walked through the forest, an old hunter leading the way. (五)表示补充说明: He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one being a bedroom and the other
3 3
being an office. (=He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one was a bedroom, the other was an office.) 三 独立变格的变化 在带有逻辑主语的分词及其短语前加”with”
  1、 ??Why are they talking all the equipment away? ??The job ( ), they are packing up to leave. A it to done B did C was did D done
  2、Other things being equal, a man who expresses himself effectively is sure to succeed more rapidly than the man whose command of language is poor.
虚拟语气

  1. if 引导的虚拟语气
  2. 倒装形式 Were I you (=if I were you) , I would get up early in the morning. Had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday(=If you had arrived…), you could have caught the train. Should it rain (=If it should rain), the crops would be saved. 【
  2】馒头面条原理 【
  3】固定句型 It is time that ... Would rather that ..... (
  1).I would rather he came tomorrow than today. (
  2).John would rather that she had not gone to the party yesterday evening. (
  4).I would rather everything hadn' t happened in the past. (was)+形容词 或过去分词)+that……”结构中的虚拟语气 形容词( “It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that……”结构中的虚拟语气
  1. It is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同)have a walk now.
  2.It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.
  3. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.
  4. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand the rule of school. 练习
  1. He’ll be busy this afternoon. If he free, he to the cinema with you. A.were to be; might go B. am going to be; will go C.will be; might have gone D. is; will go
  2. When Edison died, it was proposed that the American people all power in their homes, streets, and factories for several minutes in honor of this great man. A. turn off B. turned off
4 4
C. would turn off
D. had turned off

  3. Had I known her name, . A. or does she know mine? B. and where does she live? D. she would be beautiful C. I would have invited her to lunch
  4. I’d rather you by train, because I can't bear the idea of your being in an airplane in such bad weather. A. would go B. should go C. went D. had gone
  5. The victim (本来会有机会活下来) if he had been taken to hospital in time. would have a chance to survive (
  06.12 翻译)
  6. The professor required that (我们交研究报告)。 we hand in our research report(s) (
  06.6 翻译)
  7. If Sept. 11 had never happened, the airport workers would not have been arrested and could have gone on quietly living in America, probably indefinitely. (
  06.6 阅读)
  8. W: What would you do if you were in my place? M: If Paul were my son, I’d just not worry. Now that his teacher is giving him extra help and he is working hard himself, he’s sure to do well in the next exam. Q: What’s the man’s suggestion to the woman?
  13. A) Teaching her son by herself. C) Asking the teacher for extra help. B) Having confidence in her son. D) Telling her son not to worry. (
  07.
  12)
  1.You’d better take a sweater with you (以防天气变冷) in case it (should) turn cold. (
  08.
  12)
  10. If she had returned an hour earlier , Mary . wouldn’t have been caught by the rain (就不会被大雨淋湿了).
  09.6

  11. You would not have failed if you (按照我的指令去做). had followed my instructions/orders (
  09.
  12)
倒装: 倒装:
全部倒装
在大学级别的考试中,应用是非常广泛的,包括在阅读、完形、写作以及翻译当中; 总共分为两种形式:全部倒装和部分倒装 全部倒装:主谓宾构成了正常的语序,把谓语动词提到了动词的前面,谓语动词直接发
5 5
生在主语之前,那么就是全部倒装。 另外一种情况就是,仍然是主、谓、宾结构,谓语动词都有时态、人称的变化,把谓语 动词上的助动词提到了主语的前面,这个就叫做部分倒装。 全部倒装的情况:
  1. The bus is coming here. Here comes the bus. 进行时态在变为倒装的时候要变为一般现在时。
  2. Students went away. Away went students.
  3. The boy rushed out. Out rushed the boy. here/away/out/ 在英语当中称作方位副词或时间副词。 ①当首句为方位或时间副词,谓语动词为 go,come 等时通常用全部倒装。如果是进行 时态的话,倒装后要改为一般现在时。 Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. 方位副词或时间副词置于句 首 ② 如果句首出现了地点状语,句子也可以进行全部倒装。 The old man lives in the city center. In the city center lives the old man. A temple stands on the mountain . On the mountain stands a temple. ③ 当句子当中出现分词结构的时候,可以把现在分词或过去分词和地点状语联系在一 起放在句首,把 be 动词留在中间当作谓语动词,主语放在后面。 Lying on the floor was a boy aged about
  18. On the floor lies a boy aged about
  18. Sitted on the ground are a group of yound people. eg. 访问北京的是 300 名日本青年。/ 300 名日本青年正在访问北京。 300 Japanese young people are visiting Beijing. Visiting Beijing are 300 Japanese young people. 全部倒装的情况: ①当首句为方位或时间副词,谓语动词为 go,come 等时通常用全部倒装。 ② 如果句首出现了地点状语,句子也可以进行全部倒装。 ③ 当句子当中出现分词结构的时候,可以把现在分词或过去分词和地点状语联系在一 起放在句首,把 be 动词留在中间当作谓语动词,主语放
 

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