主讲: 主讲:屠皓民
第一讲 句子的基本成分 句子成分:主语、谓语、宾语/表语、定语、状语和补语。注: “”的部分是主干部分。 例:Such characteristics make them perfect candidates. 谓语是整个句子的最重要的部分,也是整个句子的突破口。只有谓语是没有从句的概念的。 一、谓语
  1、 实义动词,即行为动词,watch, play 及物动词:后面直接宾语 不及物动词:后面加介词+宾语 We have friends all over the world. The examination ended at 11:30 am. They are looking for the lost wallet.. 不及物动词有的时候也可以做及物动词来用,比如 close,begin, study, leave, work 等 The post offices close at 9:00 o’clock PM. Close the window! 形式变化:时态变化,语态变化,用情态动词+实义动词的原型,情态动词+ have+过去分词 形式
  2、 系动词 (构成系表结构) Be 动词 持续的系动词:keep,taste,…后面加形容词 He always kept silent at the meeting. The search proved difficult. 二、主语和宾语 (
  1)认识名词: ①名词是用来表示人,事物,地点,以及抽象事物名称的。比如: 人:John,sister,father 事物:water,air,sun,computer 地点:London,theater 抽象事物:love,happiness,imagination,hope ②名词的数:注意单复数 ③名词的格: ‘s 以及 of 逻辑语义: Rachel:I’m Carol’s ex-husband's sister's roommate. Doctor:I’m your roommate's brother's ex-wife's obstetrician. (产科医生) ??老友记 of: 理清逻辑语义 表示所有关系: 翻译方法: “A of B”翻译成“B 的 A” The rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird is remarkable. The coming of age of post-war baby boom brought remarkable influence upon American society. 特殊: China is proud of its five thousand years of the history and culture.
  2)语法功能:充当句子中主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、同位语等成分。 例:The reasons are clear now. Why he murdered his wife is clear now. He has made clear the facts. He has made clear what they had done yesterday. It is the question. It is whether the book is worth reading. We found out the murderer,Tom. We found out the fact that he was killed. 注:代词与名词关系十分紧密,与名词形成特定的指代关系。 分为以下几类: 人称代词:I/you/he/she/it/me/you/him/her/it 形容词性物主代词:my/your/his/her/its/ 名词性物主代词:mine/yours/his/hers/its 反身代词:myself/yourself/herself/himself/itself 不定代词:every/both/all/none/something/anything/everything(注意否定) 疑问代词:that/what/which/whose/who/whom (
  3)名词性结构:动名词与不定式 ①动名词与不定式做主语 例:Watching TV is my hobby. Getting enough vitamins is essential to life. Really using a language is not an easy task. (2006 完形)Finding ways to assist this growing homeless population has become increasingly difficult. (20
  09.阅读) Knowing what you are good at and doing even more of it creates excellence. To master a language is not an easy thing. To err(犯错)is human;to forgive,divine(神圣的). It is surely not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past of future. ②动名词与不定式做宾语 例:Other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. Bad weather prevented him from starting out for Beijing on time. (2003Text
  1)The latest revolution isn't simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemen’s e-mail. ③动名词与不定式检测题 (2004Text
  1)With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet , finding promising openings(空缺)can be time-consuming and inefficient……Working with a personal search agent means having another set of eyes looking out for you. (2004 完形)All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act. (
  4) 主语从句、宾语从句 注:把原来是词的位置转换成句就成了相应的从句。 ①主语从句: that 引导(陈述句)、 whether(一般疑问句)、 what 等疑问词引导(特殊疑问句)。 That English is important is an undoubted fact. Whether he will come to my party makes no difference to me. What we forget ?? what our economy depends on us forgetting ?? is that happiness is more than pleasure without pain. ②宾语从句:that 引导(可省?陈述句)、whether 等疑问词引导(一般疑问句)。 I've known that you are my source of endless inspiration. I don't know if/whether he needs my help. I don't know how he can come here.
He has made clear what they had done yesterday. (
  5)从句检测题: That each large firm will act with consideration of its own needs and thus avoid selling its products for more than its competitors charge is commonly recognized by advocates(倡导者)of free-market economic theories. (19
  75) Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force.
  4. 定语 (
  1)形容词: He is a handsome boy. He is a boy who is handsome. We should know the culture past and present. (
  2)形容词性从句:定语从句??限定性定语从句(that 可)、非限定性定语从句(that 否)。 Mr. Zhang,who came to see me yesterday,is an old friend of mine. He studies hard at school when he was young,which contributes to his success in later life. 例:(20
  47)Multi-media groups have been increasingly successful:groups which bring together television,radio,newspapers,magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. ①关系代词引导的定语从句:that 引导(做连词可省)、which 引导、who 引导、whom 引 导、whose 引导。 例: Most journalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates(模式)into which they plug(嵌入,套入)each day’s events. Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed. The“housing slave”is a new expression in China,referring to people who use most of their salary to repay bank loans due to soaring housing prices. 注:先行词被 any,only,all,every,no,some,much,few,little 序数词,形容词最 高级,the only. the one,the very,the right 和 the last 等成分修饰时,用 that. This is the most interesting book that I have read. that 不用在非限定性定语从句在中 that 不用在介词后面 ②关系副词引导的定语从句:when 引导、where 引导、why 引导、whereby 引导。 The day when we stop learning is the day when we die. Literature is the place where the past meets the present to contemplate the future. ③as 引导的定语从句: a. 引导限定性定语从句 such…as…,the same…as(that)…,as…as…; 例:(2001 Text
  4)The most important forces behind the massive(巨大的)M&A(并购)wave are the same that underlie(引起)the globalization process. The Sun gives us as much energy every minute as mankind uses in a year. b. 引导非限定性定语从句: 作文常用句型: is shown in the pictures, is seen from the chart,As is vividly betrayed As As in the cartoon above… (1 994 完形
  54)The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener 45 interfere with his comprehension. A. who B. as C. which D. what (
  3)分词:现在分词、过去分词??时态与主被动 ①语法功能:定语、表语、宾语/主语补足语、状语。
定语: a. We are often attracted by enchanting music. They are repairing the broken window. b. The American President visiting China now will return on Saturday. I like reading books written by Mark Twain. c. 分词作定语检测题: (1 996 年语法)There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently 4 what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic. A. giving B. gave C. to give D. gives (2003 年 63 题)The emphasis on data gathered first hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.
  5. 状语 (
  1)副词 注:状语修饰动词、形容词和整句。 例: She carefully picked up all the bits of broken glass. Our country is becoming increasingly strong. He is old enough to get married. He passed the first-round of the examination. However, he was not admitted by Renmin University because his performance on oral English was really bad. (表示上下文关系) (
  2)介词充当状语 ①介词的定义: 中介作用(介词与名词的搭配, 介词与形容词的搭配, 介词与动词的搭配) ②常见介词基本意义总结: 空间关系:in,on,at 时间关系:in,on,at 论及、牵涉关系:about,on, over 介词 原因关系:because of,for 方法手段:by,with,in 组成构成:of, from,with 让步关系:despite,in spite of 排除关系:except,but 其他常见介词:besides;among;towards;between ③介词或短语介词的语法功能在句中的体现: 注:无论是介词还是短语介词后面所接的词都是名词性的。 Apart from women's own happiness,the needs of the community must be considered. Advertisements may be classified into three types according to the kind of appeals they use. (
  3)副词性从句:状语从句……时间状语从句、地点状语从句、条件状语从句、原因状语 从句、 结果状语从句、目的状语从句、方式状语从句、让步状语从句、比较状语从句。 ①时间状语从句:正点……as,till,(not)until,as soon as…,every(each)time,the instant, the minute,the moment,the second,no sooner. . . than,hardly. . . when;之前……before;之 后……after,since,once; 例:The baby start’s crying the minute he sees his father. No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy(困倦的). ***“not. . . until"的四种不同句式:
a. 正常句式 We didn’t go home until we finished our homework. b. Until 在句首 c. 倒装句式 Not until we finished our work did we go home. d. 强调句式 It was not until……that we went home. 注:分享同一翻译:直到……才。 (1 994Text
  2)While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. 时间状语从句检测题: (1991 年语法)to speak when the audience interrupted him. A. Hardly had he began B. No sooner had he began C. Not until he began D. Scarcely did he began (1998 年 Text
  2)Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true??it comes to classroom tests. A. before B. as C. since D. when (20
  22)As was discussed before,it was not?the 19th century that the newspaper became the dominant pre-electronic medium, following in the wake of the pamphlet(小册子)and the book and in the company of the periodical(期刊). A. after B. by C. during D. until ②地点状语从句:everywhere/anywhere/wherever; 例:(1998Text
  2)Everywhere you go in America,you hear tales of corporate revival. ③条件状语从句:suppose/supposing,assuming,provided/providing,as(so)long as; if only:只要;only if: 只有 :只要; (1996年语法)The senior librarian at the circulation desk promised to get the book for me 3 She could remember who last borrowed it. A. ever since B. much as C. even though D. if only (2004年完形
  42) He can continue to support himself and his family__ he produces a surplus. A. only if B. much as C. long before D. ever since suppose/supposing, assuming, provided/providing 注:相当于 相当于if 例: Suppose/Supposing that it rains, can we play football indoors? Farmers will have a good harvest, assuming the weather is favorable. Provided/Providing we get good weather it will be a successful holiday. (1993语法) You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting night train. A. provided B. unless C. though D. until you don't mind taking the
as long as... (2002Text
  4) As long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten (加速) death. ④原因状语从句: as, since, in that; considering; now that, as(so) long as; on the grounds that; 例(20
  03.37 )__ they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the confidence that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishment are admired by others. A. If B. Although C. whereas D. Because (1995语法)Hydrogen(氢元素) is the fundamental element of the universe __ it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced. A. so that - B. but that C. in that D. provided that
  96.46 ) Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements?usually carbon (碳元素),hydrogen,oxygen(氧元素),and sometimes nitrogen(氮元素). They are different__ their elements are arranged differently. A. in that B. so that C. such that D. except that (20
  22) Theories centering on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavi



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