Part II Text A
lexf Organization
": ........................... ■■■■ ........................................... ■■ -
Parts
Part One
Paragraphs'
Paras 1-2
' Main Ideas
Introduction ? Both Napoleon's and Hitler's military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter. Napoleon's military campaign against Russia Hitler's military campaign against the Soviet Union Conclusion?The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign.
Part Two Part Three Part Four
Paras 3-11 Paras 12-20 Para 21

  2. Sections Section One Section Two Section Three Vocabulary I.
  1.
  1) alliance
  3) stroke
  5) minus
  7) declarations
  4) limp
  6) regions
  8) siege
  2) at the cost of Paragraphs Paras 12-13 Paras 14-18 Paras 19-20
Main Ideas
Hitler's blitzkrieg against Russia and Stalin's scorched earth policy the battles fought at Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad the Russian counter-offensive and the outcome of the war
Appendix
I
- $9

  9) raw
  11) have taken their toll
  2.
  1) is faced with
  3) is pressing on / pressed on
  5) get by
  7) have cut back

  10) bide his time
  12) in the case of
  2) get bogged down
  4) drag on
  6) dine out
  8) get through

  3.
  1) The rapid advance in gene therapy may lead to the conquest of cancer in the near future.
  2) Production in many factories has been brought to a halt by the delayed arrival of raw materials due to the dock workers’ strike.
  3) Sara has made up her mind that her leisure interests will/should never get in the way of her career.
  4) Obviously the reporter's question caught the foreign minister off guard.
  5) The introduction of the electronic calculator has rendered the slide rule out of date / obsolete.
  4.
  1) Being faced with an enemy forces much superior to ours, we had to give up the occupation of big cities and retreat to the rural and mountainous regions to build up our bases.
  2) Unity is crucial to the efficient operation of an organization. Failure to reckon with this problem will weaken its strength. In many cases, work may be brought to a halt by constant internal struggle in an organization.
  3) The Red Army fought a heroic battle at Stalingrad and won the decisive victory against the Germans. In fact, this battle turned the tide in the Second World War. During this famous battle, the Soviet troops withstood the German siege and weakened the German army by launching a series of counterattacks. II. More Synonyms in Context
  1) During the First World War, battles occurred here and there over vast areas. Some of the most dramatic fighting took place in the gloomy trenches of France and Belgium.
  2) Elizabeth made careful preparations for the interview and her efforts / homework paid off.
  3)1 spent hours trying to talk him into accepting the settlement, but he turned a deaf ear to all my words.
  4) Pneumonia had severely weakened her body, and I wondered how her fragile body could withstand the harsh weather.
- 90 -
Appendix I
III. Usage
  1) But often it is not until we fall ill that we finally learn to appreciate good health.
  2) A rich old lady lay dead at home for two weeks?and nobody knew anything about it.
  3) It's said he dropped dead from a heart attack when he was at work
  1) Don't sit too close to the fire to keep warm?you could easily get burned, especially if you fall asleep.
  4) In those days people believed in marrying young and having children early.
  5) Little Tom was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes.

Structure
  1.
  1) To his great delight, Dr. Deng discovered two genes in wild rice that can increase the yield by 30 percent.
  2) To her great relief, her daughter had left the building before it collapsed.
  3) To our disappointment, our women's team lost out to the North Koreans.
  4) We think, much to our regret, that we will not be able to visit you during the coming Christmas.
  2.
  1) These birds nest in the vast swamps (which lie to the) east of the Nile.
  2) By 1948, the People's Liberation Army had gained control of the vast areas north of the Yangtze River.
  3) Michelle was born in a small village in the north of France, but came to live in the United States at the age of four.
  4) The Columbia River rises in western Canada and continues/runs through the United States for about 1,900 kilometers west of the Rocky Mountains.

Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze (A)
  1. invasion
  3. Conquest
  5. launching
  7. campaign
  9. reckon with

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
  10.
stand in the way catching... off his guard declaration drag on bringing...to a halt
Appendix I (B)
  1. allow
  3. highly
  5. rapidly
  7. delivery
  9. observing
- 91 -

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
  10.
reckoned forecasts instant advantage Powerful
II. Translation
  1. Mr. Doherty and his family are currently engaged in getting the autumn harvest in on the farm.
  2. We must not underestimate the enemy. They are equipped with the most sophisticated weapons.
  3. Having been cut of a job/Not having had a job for 3months, Phil is getting increasingly desperate.
  4. Sam, as the project manager, is decisive, efficient, and accurate in his judgment.
  5. Since the chemical plant was identified as the source of solution, the village neighborhood committee decided to close it down at the cost of 100 jobs. The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a gamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered.
Part III TextB
. -
Comprehension Check
  1. d
  3. b
  2. d
  4. a
- 92 -
Appendix I
Translation
(#JE Appendix III)
Language Practice

  1. boast
  3. was concerned
  5. paid off
  7. are contesting
  9. holdout
  11. responsible for
  13. favorable
  15. on the eve of
  17. complications
  19. withstand
  2. obstacles
  4. call ...off
  6. was pinned down
  8. prior to
  10. objective
  12. in case
  14. due to
  16. cancel
  18. stiff
  20. absent

Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Writing Strategy Tick which of the following is more convincing: It was reported that General Eisenhower, though indecisive sometimes, had no hesitation in ordering the assault on Normandy. √ Eisenhower's chief of staff, Brigadier General Water Bedell Smith, later wrote: "... He sat there ... tense, weighing every consideration. Finally he looked up, and the tension was gone from his face. He said briskly, 'well, we'll go." Model Paper Can Man Triumph over Nature? When people talk of man triumphing over nature, many things come to mind. One thinks of successes in medicine in the fight against disease, such as the invention of antibiotics and the promise held out by advances in biogenetic engineering. On a broader scale, one thinks of man's success in harnessing new forms of energy from steam power through oil to nuclear power. Yet, nature has often hit back in unexpected ways to these attempts to tame it. New forms of
Appendix 98 -
I
-
disease that are resistant to antibiotics are constantly developing. Burning fossil fuels has led to fears of global warming; while nuclear power has produced dangerous waste that will remain a hazard for generations to come. However, perhaps to talk of man triumphing over nature is the wrong way to look at the matter. We need to find ways to work with nature rather than forever fighting against it. (154 words)
 

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