全新版大学英语第四册 01
Unit one Fighting with the Forces of Nature
Pre-Reading task
pre-reading task
Hurricane Cave in Snow Storm Volcano Gale Mud-rock flow
Pre-reading task
Answer One Answer Two Answer Three
Pre-reading task
Answer one: Man changes nature in order to live. however man must also be careful not to disregard the laws of nature.
Answer two: Summon up all human beings to protect the environment Answer three: To save all the resources and keep the natural balance.

Text analysis
The icy defender
What does icy defender refer to in this text? Two subtitles indicate there are two historical events to illustrate the theme.
Text analysis
The icy defender
Napoleon’s Campaign
Hitler’s Invasion
Napoleon Bonaparte is the Emperor of the French. He is one of the greatest military commanders. He ever conquered the larger part of Europe. The Battle of Waterloo ( 18
  15) Napoleon’s Campaign to Russia (18
  12) turned out to be an empty victory.
Adolf Hitler is the German political and military leader and one of the 20th century’s most powerful dictators. He converted Germany into a fully militarized society and launched WWⅡin 19
  39. He built the Nazi party and hope to conquer the entire world but defeated finally. Hitler’s invasion of Soviet Union happened on June 22,1941 but turned out to be a military disaster for him.
Text analysis : (Two invasions)
Russia Napoleon Spring ,1812 600,000 Smolensk, Borodino, the Berezina River Snow, freezing temperature Soviet Union Hitler 6/22/1941 The largest land campaign in history Leningrad, stalingrad Heavy rain, general mud, snow, freezing temperature
Text analysis: (The two invasions)
October 1812,when Napoleon ordered a retreat Only 100,000 survived Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end 1943, when the Soviet troops pushed the German forces back Heavy losses Hitler committed suicide, his empire collapsing
Structure and uages

  1. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow-the raw bitter, bleak Russian winter.
但是他没有料到在莫斯科遭遇劲敌 俄 罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。


  2. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. To one’s surprise 令人吃惊的是… To one’s delight 令人高兴的是… To one’s relief 令人欣慰的是… To one’s disappointment… 令人失望的是 To one’s regret 令人遗憾的是…
Verb+ Adjective

  3. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Some intransitive like fall, lie, sit ,drop can be followed by an adjective which describes the subject of the sentence instead of the action of the verb. p19
Text analysis
6, The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign. 任何军事行动都必须考虑到自然的因素。 Be reckoned with: be taken into consideration e.g. All these problems had to be reckoned with as they arose. She is a woman to be reckoned with
Words and patterns
Alliance campaign casualty conquest crucial decisive declaration efficient engage heroic instruct invasion launch limp minus occupation offensive raw reckon region render retreat siege stroke toll weaken at the cost of be faced with be bogged down bring to a halt catch sb.off guard die from drag on in the case of press on stand in the way take a gamble take a toll thanks to turn the tide (against) vocabulary
launch: start 开始;send (sth.) on its course 发射 an attack 发动进攻 launch a company 开一家公司 launch threats at somebody 向某人发出威胁 launch a massive campaign 发动一场大规模的运动
Campaign: a series of military operations or planned activities with a particular aim. 战役,战争
Some people complained that too much money had been spent on political campaigns.
conquest: n.defeat ,征服,打败
  1.The year 1939 had witnessed the conquest of Poland by Germany.
retreat: vi./n. move back or withdraw when faced with danger or difficulty 撤退,退却

  1. We adopted the following strategies: when the enemy advances, we retreat; when they retreat, we pursue. 我们采用了以下策略:敌进我退,敌退我 进。
朝…前进 advance against( on/to/toward) 从…撤退 retreat from… 撤退到 retreat to…
be bogged down: be unable to make progress 陷入泥潭, 陷入泥潭,不能前进

  1.汽车陷入了泥塘。 The car got bogged down in the mud.
  2.The talks with the workers got bogged down on the question of working hours. (比喻)与工人就工作时间问题的会谈陷入了 僵局。
engage : v.
  1) begin fighting with sb. 与…交战 他们与敌人交战。 They engaged the enemy. (
  2)( cause to) take part in or do 使从 事 we tried to engage him in our conversation but in vain. engage ( sb.) in sth. 使某人从事某事 被动:sb. be engaged in sth.
  3) occupy 占用(时间,精力等) 工作占去她很多时间。 Work engages much of her time.
press on/ ahead: continue doing sth. in a determined way(不顾困难继续进行) 不顾困难继续进行) 不顾困难继续进行
Press on/ ahead with sth.
Our school authorities are keen to press on with educational reform. 学校官方不顾困难,致力于继续进行教育改革
drag on: move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediously. 费力地走, 费力地走,拖延

  1.How much longer is the meeting going to drag on? 这个会还要拖多久? (大会使人昏昏欲睡)
  2.These compensation cases have already dragged on for one year.
at the cost of : with the loss of 以…为代价
The local government developed its economy bit at the cost of environment. collocation: 不惜任何代价 at any cost 不惜一切代价 at all costs 不需花代价 at no cost
alliance: a union between countries or organizations 联盟

  1.WTO is considered as the most powerful economic alliance in modern world
  2. Japan and Germany made their formal alliance in 19
catch sb. off guard : take sb. by surprise 趁某人不备
  1.The invitation to his wedding caught me off guard.
instruct : vt.
  1) give orders or directions to (sb.) 指示,命令 pattern: instruct sb. to do sth. instruct sb. that instruct sb. with quote 我奉命在这里等老师来。 I have been instructed to wait here until the teacher arrives.
  2) teach (sb.) 讲授 pattern: instruct sb. in /on sth. 他们教给了我做这项工作的最好办法。 They instructed me in the best ways of doing the job.
render: vt.
cause sb./sth. to be in a specified condition( same as make) 使成为 地震导致成百上千的人无家可归。 Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by the earthquake. 以牙还牙 render blow for blow 以德报怨 render good for evil
bring to halt: stop completely 使停止
bring to death: 走向死亡 bring up:养大 bring out: 呕吐 bring about:带来
bring to life:复活
我们的旅行因风暴而终止。 Our journey was brought to a halt by a strom.
Turn the tide (against): change what looks like defeat into victory.扭转潮流 彻底改变形势(造 扭转潮流, 扭转潮流 彻底改变形势( 成对…不利 不利) 成对 不利)
Soviet victory in Stalingrad turned the tide of the war in Europe.
thanks to : because of 多亏,幸亏 多亏,

  1.Thanks to their tireless efforts, the performance was a great success.
  2.Thanks to our teachers help, we finally all passed the examination.
>>>more >>>more
reckon : v.
  1) count 计算 The existence of the U.S. is reckoned from the Declaration of Independence. (
  2) consider, think 认为 许多人认为他是一位伟大的篮球运动员。 Many people reckoned him to be a great basketball player. be reckoned with:be taken into consideration 被加以考虑
take its / a toll: cause damage, injuries or deaths 造成损伤(伤亡等) 造成损伤(伤亡等)
Take its/ a toll of/on…
The earthquake took a toll of 3,000,000 lives. 地震造成三百万人死亡。 这次洪水给几个村庄造成重大损失。 Back The flood took a heavy toll on several villages.
When Hitler decided to launch his of Russia, he thought that nothing could of his armies. , it seemed, was inevitable. He had surprised on his side, Stalin by his attack without a of war. Hitler expected the last only a few moths. In the event, it was to for much longer. Like Napoleon before him, he had made a fatal mistake in failing to the severity of the Russian weather. Many German soldiers were to the cold as winter set in, the German advance .
(in textbook)
Paragraph writing:
Can Man Triumph over Nature Using writing strategy: providing evidence
Fun time
A Song ? Heal the world
By Michael Jackson
Heal the World is an enchanting and breathtaking song. It’s sincere, caring and encouraging. You may sense more from its touching melody and lyrics. Lyrics
The End



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