Appendix I
Key to Exercises (Units 1-
  8)
Unit 1
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording: The song you are about to hear is based on a true story. It tells the tale of the sinking of a ship called The Edmund Fitzgerald that was caught in a storm on Lake Superior back in November 1975, with the loss of all on board. Lake Superior is an enormous lake and the wind can at times make it dangerous to shipping, whipping up huge waves. November is a particularly dangerous month for such storms. This had long ago been noticed by a local native American tribe, the Chippewa, who used to speak of how death threatened from the lake when storm clouds gathered in November. According to legend, the big lake, which they called Gitche Gumee, was without mercy in that month, never giving up those it had marked for death. It is this legend that starts the song before it moves on to talk of The Edmund Fitzgerald. The Edmund Fitzgerald, like many other ships that sail the lake, was built to carry iron ore. Filled with ore these ships lie low in the water and can find themselves in difficulties in rough weather. So, with a full load on board we can imagine the anxiety that must have begun to creep into the hearts of the sailors on board The Edmund Fitzgerald as they felt the cold wind beginning to rise and heard the sound of it singing as it blew through the wires. For, despite the fact that the captain and crew were all experienced, "well-seasoned" as the song says, they all knew the dangers of November storms. Before long their worse fears started to come true and the storm had risen to a hurricane. The despair of the crew is captured in the words of the cook. First he comes on deck to tell the sailors it is too rough to cook, they will have to wait for their supper. The next we hear from him he is saying
- $6 -
Appendix
I
goodbye to his shipmates. Water is pouring into the ship. The captain sends out a distress signal, but that is the last that is heard from the ship. It is swallowed up by the lake, leaving nothing behind but the mourning families of the twenty-nine sailors and the sound of the church bell ringing in their memory. Now let's listen to the song:
The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald
Gordon Lightfoot
The legend lives on from the Chippewa on down Or the big lake they call Gitche Gumee
Tke lake, it is said, rfever gives up her dead
When the skies or November turn gloomy Witk a load of iron ore twenty-six thousand tons more Than the Edmund Fitzgerald weighed empty That good ship and true was a hone to be chewed When the gales of November came early
Tke skip was tke pride of tke American side Coming back from
some mill in Wisconsin As tke kig freigkters go, it was kigger tkan most Witk a crew and good captain well seasoned Concluding some terms witk a couple of steel firms Wken tkey left fully loaded for Cleveland And later tkat nigkt wken tke skip's
kell rang Could it ke tke nortk wind tkey'd been feeling
Tke wind in tke wires made a tattle-tale sound
And a wave broke over tke railing And every man knew, as tke captain did too Twas tke witck of Novemker come stealing
Tke dawn came late and the breakfast had to wait
Wken the Gales of November came slashing When afternoon came it was freezing rain In the face of a hurricane west wind
Appendix
1
- 6? -
When suppertime came, the old cook came on deck saying
Fellas1, it's too rough to reed ya2
At seven PM a main hatchway caved in, he said
Fellas, it's heen good to know ya
The captain wired in he had water coming in And the good ship and crew was in peril
And later that night when his lights went out of sight Came the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald Does any one know where the love of God goes When
the waves turn
the minutes to hours The searchers all say they'd have made
Whitefish Bay If they'd put fifteen more miles hehind her They might
have split up or they might have capsized They may have broke deep and took water And all that remains is the faces and the names Of and the sons and the daughters J Lake Huron rolls, Superior sings In the rooms of her ice'water mansion Old Michigan steams
the wives
like a young man's dreams
The islands and hays are for sportsmen And farther helow Lake Ontario Takes in what Lake Erie can send her And the iron boats go as the mariners all know With the Gales of November remembered In a musty old hall in Detroit they prayed In the Maritime Sailors' Cathedral The church hell chimed til it rang twenty-nine times For each man on the Edmund Fitzgerald
■ ■ . ? ? . !
1 2
fella:
(slang) fellow
ya: (slang) you
- 66 -
Appendix
1 Trie legend lives on irom the Chippewa on down Or the nig lake they call Gitche Gumee Superior, they said, never gives up her dead When the gales or November come early
Part II Text A
lexf Organization
":..........................■■■■ ....................................... ■■ -
Parts
Part One
Paragraphs'
Paras 1-2
' Main Ideas
Introduction ? Both Napoleon's and Hitler's military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter. Napoleon's military campaign against Russia Hitler's military campaign against the Soviet Union Conclusion?The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign.
Part Two Part Three Part Four
Paras 3-11 Paras 12-20 Para 21

  2. Sections Section One Section Two Section Three Vocabulary I.
  1.
  1) alliance
  3) stroke
  5) minus
  7) declarations
  2) heroic
  4) limp
  6) regions
  8) siege Paragraphs Paras 12-13 Paras 14-18 Paras 19-20
Main Ideas
Hitler's blitzkrieg against Russia and Stalin's scorched earth policy the battles fought at Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad the Russian counter-offensive and the outcome of the war
Appendix
I
- $9

  9) raw
  10) retreat
  11) have taken their toll
  12) In the case of
  13) campaign
  14) at the cost of
  15) has been brought to a halt
  2.
  1) is faced with
  2) get bogged down
  3) is pressing on / pressed on
  4) drag on
  5) picking up
  6) falling apart
  7) cut back
  8) take over
  3.
  1) The rapid advance in gene therapy may lead to the conquest of cancer in the near future.
  2) The border dispute between the two countries resulted in thousands of casualties.
  3) Sara has made up her mind that her leisure interests will/should never get in the way of her career.
  4) Obviously the reporter's question caught the foreign minister off guard.
  5) The introduction of the electronic calculator has rendered the slide rule out of date / obsolete.
  4.
  1) At that time, the enemy forces were much superior to ours, so we had to give up the occupation of big cities and retreat to the rural and mountainous regions to build up our bases.
  2) Unity is crucial to the efficient operation of an organization. Failure to reckon with this problem will weaken its strength. In many cases, work may be brought to a halt by constant internal struggle in an organization.
  3) The Red Army fought a heroic battle at Stalingrad and won the decisive victory against the Germans. In fact, this battle turned the tide in the Second World War. During this famous battle, the Soviet troops withstood the German siege and weakened the German army by launching a series of counterattacks. II. More Synonyms in Context
  1) During the First World War, battles occurred here and there over vast areas. Some of the most dramatic fighting took place in the gloomy trenches of France and Belgium and in the no-man's-land between the trenches.
  2) Elizabeth made careful preparations for the interview and her efforts / homework paid off.
  3)1 spent hours trying to talk him into accepting the settlement, but he turned a deaf ear to all my words.
  4) Pneumonia had severely weakened her body, and I wondered how her fragile body could withstand the harsh weather.
- 90 -
Appendix I
III. Usage
  1) But often it is not until we fall ill that we finally learn to appreciate good health.
  2) A rich old lady lay dead at home for two weeks?and nobody knew anything about it.
  3) It's said he dropped dead from a heart attack when he was at work
  4) Don't sit too close to the fire to keep warm?you could easily get burned, especially if you fall asleep.
  5) In those days people believed in marrying young and having children early.
  6) Little Tom was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes.

Structure
  1.
  1) To his great delight, Dr. Deng discovered two genes in wild rice that can increase the yield by 30 percent.
  2) To her great relief, her daughter had left the building before it collapsed.
  3) To our disappointment, our women's team lost out to the North Koreans.
  4) We think, much to our regret, that we will not be able to visit you during the coming Christmas.
  2.
  1) These birds nest in the vast swamps (which lie to the) east of the Nile.
  2) By 1948, the People's Liberation Army had gained control of the vast areas north of the Yangtze River.
  3) Michelle was born in a small village in the north of France, but came to live in the United States at the age of four.
  4) The Columbia River rises in western Canada and continues/runs through the United States for about 1,900 kilometers west of the Rocky Mountains.

Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze (A)
  1. invasion
  3. Conquest
  5. launching
  7. campaign
  9. reckon with
  11. bringing...to a halt

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
  10.
stand in the way catching... off his guard declaration drag on die from
Appendix I (B)
  1. In
  3. the
  5. it
  7. of/about
  9. to
  11. to
  13. buried
  15. than
  17. from
  19. down
- 91 -

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
  10.
  12.
  14.
  16.
  18.
since and that/who across lost with in between to
II. Translation The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a gamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered.
Part III TextB
. -
Comprehension Check
  1. d
  3. b
  2. d
  4. a
- 92 -
Appendix I
Translation
(#JE Appendix III)
Language Practice

  1. boast
  3. was concerned
  5. paid off
  7. are contesting
  9. holdout
  11. responsible for
  13. favorable
  15. on the eve of
  17. complications
  19. withstand
  2. obstacles
  4. call ...off
  6. was pinned down
  8. prior to
  10. objective
  12. in case
  14. due to
  16. cancel
  18. stiff
  20. absent

Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Writing Strategy Tick which of the following is more convincing: It was reported that General Eisenhower, though indecisive sometimes, had no hesitation in ordering the assault on Normandy. √ Eisenhower's chief of staff, Brigadier General Water Bedell Smith, later wrote: "... He sat there ... tense, weighing every consideration. Finally he looked up, and the tension was gone from his face. He said briskly, 'well, we'll go." Model Paper Can Man Triumph over Nature? When people talk of man triumphing over nature, many things come to mind. One thinks of successes in medicine in the fight against disease, such as the invention of antibiotics and the promise held out by advances in biogenetic engineering. On a broader scale, one thinks of man's success in harnessing new forms of energy from steam power through oil to nuclear power. Yet, nature has often hit back in unexpected ways to these attempts to tame it. New forms of
Appendix
I
- 98 -
disease that are resistant to antibiotics are constantly developing. Burning fossil fuels has led to fears of global warming; while nuclear power has produced dangerous waste that will remain a hazard for generations to come. However, perhaps to talk of man triumphing over nature is the wrong way to look at the matter. We need to find ways to work with nature rather than forever fighting against it. (154 words)
Unit 2

Part I
Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording: What will the world be like in five hundred years' time? A thousand years' time? Or more? Some people are optimistic, looking forward to a better world. Others are pessimistic, and fear that things can only get worse. The writer of the song you are about to listen to takes the pessimistic view. Looking further and further into the future things seem to him to get worse and worse. By 3535, he foresees all our thoughts and feelings will be shaped by drugs. Looking further still into the future he foretells that our bodies will waste away as machines do everything for us. Family life as we know it will fade away as children are bred artificially, chosen, in the words of the song, "from the bottom of a long black tube." Given that man seems to pay so little attention to taking care of the planet and avoiding using up all its resources, he ends by wondering whether man will still be around in the future. It's enough, as he says, to make even God shake his head. Here is the song:
In the Year 2525
Zager & Evans
In the year 2525 If man is still alive If woman can survive They may find
- 9^ -
Appendix
I In the year 3535 Ain't gonna need* to tell the truth, tell
 

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