Grammar
Passive Voice 被动语态
主动语态(Active Voice)
种语态 英语的谓语动词有两种
被动语态 (Passive Voice)
(前者表示句子的主语为动作的发出者,后者表示句子的主语为动作的承受者。) 前者表示句子的主语为动作的发出者,后者表示句子的主语为动作的承受者。) 主语为动作的发出者 主语为动作的承受者
Tom broke the window. (主动语态) window. ① ② ③ The window was broken by Tom. (被动语态) Tom. ③ ② ① 从以上对比可以看出,主动句中的主语Tom在被动句中 变成了短语by Tom,主动句中的宾语the window变成了被 动句中的主语。由于被动句中的主语即主动句中的宾语, 因此,只有及物动词才有被动语态 只有及物动词才有被动语态。 主动句转换为被动句,主动句的宾语变为被动句的主语, 而主动句的主语则变为由“by + 动作的发出者”在被动句 中做状语。
被动语态的构成
被动语态基本构成:be+动词的过去分词
  1.一般现在时
  1.一般现在时 am/is/are +动词的过去分词 The TV set is mended by Tom.
  2.一般过去时
  2.一般过去时 was/were +动词的过去分词 The TV set was mended by Tom.
  3. 一般将来时 shall/will be +动词的过去分词 The TV set will/shall be mended by Tom.
  4. 一般过去将来时 should/would be +动词的过去分词 He said the TV set should/would be mended by Tom.

  5. 现在进行时 am/is/are being +动词的过去分词 The TV set is being mended by Tom.
  6. 过去进行时 was/were being +动词的过去分词 +动词的过去分词 The TV set was being mended by Tom.
  7. 现在完成时 have/has been +动词的过去分词 +动词的过去分词 The TV set has been mended by Tom.
  8. 过去完成时 had been +动词的过去分词 +动词的过去分词 The TV set had been mended by Tom.
  9. 情态动词:情态动词 + be + 动词的过去分词 The TV set can be mended by Tom.
总结
时间 一 般 进 行 完 成 have/has been mended 已经被修过 had been mended (过去)已被修过
现 在
is/are mended 被修
is/are being mended 正在被修 was/were being mended (过去)正被修
过 去
was/were mended (过去)被修 shall/will be mended 将要被修 should/would be mended (过去)将要被修
将 来
过去将来

  1.被动语态的各种时态均由助动词be的 .被动语态的各种时态均由助动词be的 变化构成。
  2.人称和时态的变化体现在be动词上, .人称和时态的变化体现在be动词上, 而过去分词在任何时态中都不改变。
  3.被动语态的否定式和疑问式均由助动词
  3.被动语态的否定式和疑问式均由助动词 或第一个助动词构成。
Describe the pictures, using passive voice.
build new flyovers every year
New flyovers are built every year.
build
castle
18th century
The castle was built in the 18th century.
The World Expo will be held in Shanghai in the year 20
  10.
He, antiseptic mask, these days
He said that the antiseptic masks should have been worn during these days.
paint
picture
The picture is being painted by the little girl.
chase
I come in
yesterday The mouse was being chased by the cat when I came in yesterday.
The picture has been drawn by the little girl.
Sally, say, buy, wedding ring, wedding
Sally said the wedding ring had been bought before the wedding.
何时用被动语态?
a) 不知道或没必要知道动作的执行者。 The book was first published in the late 1990s. b)不便说出动作的执行者。 The plan was generally considered impractical. c)突出动作的承受者。 She is respected by all the workers of the factory. d)汉语中的无主句,在英语中用被动语态 。 Smoking is not allowed in public places. e)为了保持主语的一贯性。 The old professor wheeled himself into the classroom and was warmly applauded by the students.
不用被动语态的情况

  1)不及物动词不用被动语态;注意:happen, break out ,take place The story was happened in 19
  34. ( × )
  2)表状态的动词不用被动语态;have, lack, fit… I have a new bike.
  3)连系动词不用被动语态; The story is sounded true. ( × )
  4)有些短语不用被动语态 do one’s best, make a face, make room(腾位子), make up one’s mind, belong to
特殊情况

  1)感官动词 ( taste ; feel ; smell ; sound ; look ) 用主动形式表 示被动。 How sweet the music sounds ! Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth .
  2) write、read、sell、keep、prove、weigh、number、drink、 wear、pay、wash、open常用主动形式表被动意义。尤其是 有副词 well, easily时。 The book sells well . ( 这本书销路很好。 ) The door will not open . ( 这扇门就是打不开。 ) This dress washes better . ( 这衣服较好洗。 ) The sign reads as follows . ( 这牌子告示如下。 )

  3)need, demand, want(需要), require, be worth等后用动 名词表被动。 The desk needs repairing. The novel is worth reading. 注意:need后可接动名词表被动,又可接动词不定式的被动形 式。 The desk needs repairing. The desk needs to be repaired.
  4) 注意动名词的被动形式,(being done) Nobody likes being laughed of. 没人喜欢被嘲笑。
Practices in Our Textbook in Unit 7

  1. the city officials, make, a plan, to turn Beijing into a green city
  2. millions of people from all over the world, visit, the Great Wall
  3. China, send up, another space capsule
  4. tourists, damage, some cultural sites
  5. the villagers, set up, a website, to help people learn more about the cultural relics
  6. the Russian government, turned into museums, these palaces
These cultural capsule turnbeen villagers tourists. Thewebsite has has beenhas by thesent museums A Great been been set up Beijing up a A Another space have been turned intointo bygreen city plan has Wall madehave been damaged byChina. Some palaces sites to visited byto millions of people more about the cultural relics. by help Russianlearn from all over the world. the city officials. by the people government.
Unit
7 Cultural relics
47
Guilin: A group of villagers in Guilin are planning to protect their cultural relics. Guilin (visit) by has been visited so many tourists that some of its cultural sites (not well protect). Some ancient are not well protected sites (already damage) by tourists have already been damaged and villagers are worried that part of their history will be lost. A website (start) by the villagers to tell people has been started about the problem and how to solve it. Also, a museum (build) so that visitors can look the cultural has been built relics without causing any damage.
Unit
7 Cultural relics
47
Beijing: Beijing plans to repair its old city wall. It is said (say) to be the city’s largest ever cultural relics repair project. The wall that will be 1,600 metres long from Dongbianmen to Chongwemmen will keep the same look as the old one. The Beijing people have also been asked (also ask) by the city government to return old wall bricks, which (be) once used to were build houses in the 1960s. So far, more than 20,000 old bricks (return), but two million such bricks are needed have been returned (need) for the repairs. was built The old city wall (build) in the Ming Dynasty. The wall has been badly damaged (badly damage) over the past years. “The repair project has brought more visitors to Beijing,” a city official said, “We hope that it will make Beijing even moreCultural relics 122 Unit 7 beautiful.
Homework

  1. Prepare for the integrating skills. (P.
  48)
  2. Finish grammar practices of Unit 7 in workbook. (P.123-1
  24) (P.123-
Have a Good Weekend and Good Bye!!
 

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