高一上知识归纳(U
  14) 高一上知识归纳(U
  14) 知识归纳
a. compare vt. , vi. [搭配] compare A to B . 把 A 比作 B compare A with B .把 A 和 B 比较起来 (l)Try on both these coats and compare them.把这两什外套都试穿看看,比较?下. (2 )I compared the translation with the original. 我把译文拿来和原文对照一番. (
  3)Be rudely compared my homemade bread to a lump of rock. 他把我家里做的面包比喻成硬石块,真是无礼. (
  4)My works doesn't compare with yours. 我的作品不能和你的相比. (
  5)Compared with /to her mother, she is tall. 和她的妈妈相比,她算是很高了. 听说过.知道有(某人或某事) b. know of 听说过.知道有(某人或某事) (l)I know of the man, but I haven't met him. 我听说过那个人,但没见过面. (
  2)I don't know the man, but I know of him. 我不认识那个人.但我听说过他. 庆祝(节日等) ,过节 c. celebrate vt. 庆祝(节日等) 过节 , (
  1)How do you celebrate Christmas? 你们如何庆祝圣诞节? (
  2)Today is her birthday, so we're going to celebrate it. 今天是她的生日,所以我们要庆贺一番. celebrate 的名词形式为 celebration,例如: We gathered together for the celebration of her birthday. 我们聚在一起庆祝她的生日. 盛装, d. dress up 盛装,使打扮 (l)We dressed up for the wedding. 我们为参加婚礼而盛装打扮. (
  2)The mother dressed her baby up. 那位母亲将自己的宝宝打扮?番. ……期间 期间, ……之间 e. during prep. 在……期间,在……之间 (
  1)It rained during the day. 白天下了一整天的雨. (
  2)She kept on talking during the meal. 整个用餐时间中她讲个不停. (
  3)I went swimming in the sea twice during the vacation. 休假期问,找到海水浴场游过两次泳. (
  4)Mr. Scott phoned you during your absence. 你不在时,斯考特先牛给你们过电话. [比较] during 与 for during 与表示"何时" ,的用语连用,for 则与表示"时间的长度"的词连用. (
  1)I was in hospital during June. 我六月间?直住院 (
  2)1 was in hospital for a month. 我住院一个月. (
  3)He stayed with mc for five days during the summer. 那年夏天他与我一起呆了五天. During 与 in 表示在某时间中所发生的事,during 与 in 都可使用,但有时要注意比较用法. (l)We're going on vacation during/in August. 我们八月份要去度假. (
  2)He was injured in the match. 他在比赛中受伤了. (
  3)He was on the bench during the match. 他在比赛时间内做替补选手. 普通的, f. common adj. 普通的,常见的 * common = shared by two or more people, 意为"共有的""公共的" , . work for the common good(为公益工作), work for the common cause (为共同的事业而工作)
* common = usual and ordinary, 意为"普通的"'"一般的"'"平常的" . the common reader (普通读者),the common people (老百姓), a common saying (俗话),a common mistake (常见错误), the business of common life(日常事务) in common 表示"共同的", We have many things in common. (我们有许多共同之处.) (
  1) The husband is French, the wife is German and the servant is Italian, but they have English as a common language. 丈夫是法国人,妻子是德国人.仆人是意大利人,但他们都说英语. (
  2) Tom's trouble is very common to boys these days. 汤姆的毛病是目前男孩子们所儿同的. (
  3) They have nothing in common (with each other). 他们(互相之间)没有共同之处. [区别] common, general ,ordinary 和 usual 在意思上有所差异. (
  1) Colds are common in winter. 冬天感冒是很普通的. (
  2) I use ordinary gasoline. 我用普通汽油. common .表示"时时发生,人所共有" ,井含有"并不高贵.地位低下"之 common 侧重"普通" 意味.其反义词为 rare. common saying(俗话).a common wish(一个共同的愿望). general 侧重"普遍"之意.表示在大多数人或事物中流行并受到关注,不含有"地位低 下"之意,其反义词为 specific. .不是特别的.Common 指因许多事物或人 ordinary 与 common 基本同义.均指"普通的" 所共同具而常见的性质;ordinary 指由于与一般事物之标准或品质相同而普 通的性质,侧重"平凡的普通的" .表示"随时可以碰到.不值得惊奇" ,其反 义词是 superior. an ordinary(or a common)event(一件极平常的事), an ordinary(or a common)person(一个普通人). usual 用来指事物,意为"通常的,惯常的" ,含有"随集体风俗或个人习惯而常常发生" 之意,其反义词为 unusual. 如:It's a usual thing with him.(这对他来说是平常事). 相信; g. believe vt. 相信;认为 (
  1)I believe him (to be) right. 我认为他是对的. (
  2)1 believe his report. 我相信他的报告. (
  3)Long ago, people believed (that) the earth was flat. 很久以前,人们相信地球是平的. [注意]believe 接从句, 如果所接宾语从句有否定含义时, 通常不否定从句而否定 believe, 与之相似的还有 think,suppose,imagine,expect 等. (
  1)I don't believe that he is at home. 我相信他不在家. (
  2)He doesn't believe that she knows the truth, does she? 他认为她不知道事实,是吗? [比较] believe 与 believe in believe 表示"相信事物的真实性或人的诚实"后接名词,代词或从句作宾语,也可接 复合宾语(名词+不定式);believe in 中的 in 是介词,后接名词或代词,表示对某人的信 任,对真理, 主张,宗教的信仰. (
  1)I believe him. = I believe what he says. 我相信他的话. (
  2)I believe in him. = I believe that he is a good man. 我信任他(为人可靠). 创造,创作,塑造,制造(事端) h. create vt. 创造,创作,塑造,制造(事端)
(l)God created the world. 上帝创造了世界. (
  2)All men are created equal. 人人生而平等. (
  3)Shakespeare created many famous characters. 莎士比亚创作了许多有名的人物. (
  4)His words created an awkward situation. 他的话引起了尬尴的场面. 捉弄, i. play tricks on 捉弄,戏弄 (
  1)The children used to play tricks on each other.那些小孩以前常常互相捉弄. (
  2)Don't play tricks on old mere .别捉弄老年人. 根据语境,有很多不同的含义) j. take in 根据语境,有很多不同的含义) (
  1)Please take the washing in, if it rains. 如果下雨,请把洗好了的衣物收进来. (
  2) He took in a deep breath. 他深深地吸了一口气. (
  3)He was homeless, so we took him in. 他无家可归,所以我们收留了他. (
  4)My mother takes in sewing. 我母亲在家承接缝纫工作. (
  5)The tour takes in some famous old castles. 这趟观光旅行包括参观若干著名的古堡. (
  6)I couldn't take in why you are angry. 我无法理解你为什么生气. (
  7)The salesmen have taken in the old people and made them buy their poor quality goods. 那些推销员欺骗老人,让他们购买低品质的货物. k. prepare
prepare vt. 直接带宾语 (表示在准备什么)
  1. Mother is preparing a meal while we were doing our homework.
我们在做作业的时候.妈妈在做饭.

  2. He is preparing his speech for tomorrow's meeting. Don't interrupt him.
他正在准备明天大会的演讲稿,别去打扰他.

  3. The teacher is preparing the students for the coming examination.
老师让学生为即将到来的考试作准备.
prepare vi. 与介词 for 搭配 表示在 "为......作准备 搭配, 作准备". 为 作准备
  4. Will you help me prepare for the evening party?
你能帮我为晚会作准备吗?

  5. The farmer are busy preparing for the autumn harvest.
农民正忙于准备秋收.
be prepared to do, be prepared for...表示结果 表示 "已作了充分的准备做某事 表示结果,表示 已作了充分的准备做某事". 表示结果 已作了充分的准备做某事

  6. I'm not prepared (=ready) to listen to your excuse.我不想听你的辩解.
  7. He is not prepared (=ready) to accept others' ideas. 他不大愿意接受别人的观点.

  8. The students are well prepared for the sports meeting. 学生们为运动会作了充分的准备. (for = to take part in)
  9. They were not at all prepared for the bad news.
他们万万没有料到这个坏消息.
其它:
  10.He is getting prepared (= is preparing) for the exam.
他正在为考试作准备.
  11.He's trying to prepare himself as a basketball player. 他正在为成为一个篮球运动员而努力锻炼. should, l.情态动词 must, should,ought to, have to ▲ must 表示必须" "肯定" ,在表示推测意义的 "肯定"时,只能用于肯定句.如:
  1. You mustn't move someone if they are badly hurt. 如果有人受了重伤,你不可以搬动他们.

  2. We must get help. 我们必须取得帮助.
  3.She must be injured.她肯定受伤了. ▲ should 意为应该",'应当" ,语气比 must 稍弱.如:
  4. Everyone should know some first aid. 每个人都应当懂得急救知识.
  5.You shouldn't.move if you are badly hurt.如果你受了重伤.就不应该移动. ▲ "ought to"意为"应该" ,更强调责任,义务.如:
  6. Elder brothers should take care Of their younger brothers and sisters. 兄长应该照顾弟妹.
  7. Students ought to attend class on time. 学生应该准时去上课. ▲ have to 强调客观上的"必须" .
  8.Do you often have to go to the dentist's? 你必须常常去看牙吗?
  9.The children don't have to go to school on Saturday. 孩子们周六不必上学. 为动词短语,常用来指为讨论或社交活动而进行的某种"聚会" m. get together 为动词短语,常用来指为讨论或社交活动而进行的某种"聚会" 如:
  1. Let's get together one evening and talk about old times. 让我们找个晚上聚一聚.谈谈往事.
  2. The students of Grade Three got together for an English evening. 三年级的学生们聚集在一起开了个英语晚会.
  3. It's a long time since I got together with Robert. 我已经好久没有和罗伯特相聚了.
  4.We'd better get together to discuss the students' suggestions. "said the headmaster. 校长说: "我们最好聚会一下讨论学生们提出的建议" .
  5.Teachers in our school often get together to have discussions on how to improve their teaching methods. 我们学校的老师经常聚会讨论怎样改进教学方法.
  6."How often do you get together?" asked Mr Smith. 史密斯先生问: "你们多久聚会一次?"
  7.He has a large family and all the members get together once a year. 他有一个大家庭,全家人每年团聚一次.
  8.On New Year's Eve, when all the members get together, my parents are very happy. 除夕之夜,当全家人团聚在一起的时候,我的父母亲总是非常高兴.
  9.It was a very cold evening, but the room was warm and bright with all the members getting together, singing and laughing over the dinner. 这是一个寒冷的夜晚,但屋子里却明亮而暖和,全家人聚集在一起,边吃晚饭,边 唱着,笑着.
  10.We often miss each other after we part, but when we get together, it seems that we have nothing to say. 我们分别的时候经常互相思念,相聚时却又好象无从说起. ▲get together 还可作"收集"解释.如:
  11.In the past ten years, Mr Smith got together over two thousand stamps, including Chinese and foreign stamps. 十年以来,史密斯先生收集了二千多张中外邮票.
  12. Quick, Tom, get your things together. We'll start off. 汤姆,快把你的东西收拾好,我们就要出发了.
  13. In a few years, he got together a good record collection. 几年之间他收集了相当数量的唱片.
  14.The little boy got together all kinds of seashells.
这小男孩收集了各种各样的贝壳.
  15. The rebel leader auld not get an army together. 叛军领导人拉不起一支队伍.
  16.In the darkness, the soldiers can get their things together in less than one minute. 黑暗中.战士们健在不到一分钟的时间内把一切收拾好. ▲ get together 也可引伸为"取得一致意见" .如:
  17. We finally got together on his suggestion. 我们最后就他的建议取得了一致意见.
  18. At last the committee got together on its proposals. 委员会终于就其议题取得了一致意见.
  19. Can you get together on raking the plan? 你们能在制订计划上取得一致意见吗?
  20. Having got together on the plan, they started their work separately. 在计划上取得一致意见后,他们分头开始工作.
  21. They couldn't get together on the plan and quarreled all night. 他们不能在制订计划上取得一致.争吵了一夜.
 

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