高一上知识归纳( 高一上知识归纳(U
  15) 知识归纳 )
a. recognize 作"认出"解,强调从外表上辨认出,指一时性的动作.(瞬间动词) 不同 know = to know and remember sb. or sth. one has seen before know 是状态性动词,表示知道有这个人并认识他,在一定程度上还对他有所了解, 指长久性的一种情况.如:
  1. I know him, but when I saw him last night, I could hardly recognize him. 我认识他,但当我昨晚看到他时,我几乎认不出他了.
  2. I recognized her voice over the phone. 我在电话里听出她的声音来了.
  3. He had changed so much that one could hardly recognize him. 他改变得太多了,几乎使人不认识他. [注]不能说 I recognized him ten years ago. I knew him ten years ago.或 I knew him ten years ago. 应该说:I got to know him ten years ago. 表示"我是十年前(开始)认识他的.,注意中英文表达上的差异. " recognize 承认, 认可 = to accept as being lawful, real, or having value
  4. They recognized the new government. 他们承认了那个新政府.
  5. That's recognized method of teaching English. 那是一种得到认可的英语教学法.
  6. He refused to recognize her as his lawful heir. 他拒绝承认她作为他的合法继承人. 意识到, 自认 = be ready/ prepared to admit, + that 从句
  7. After the accident, he recognized that he was not fit for the work. 事故发生后.他认识到不能胜任这项工作.
  8. I clearly recognized from that matter he was far more clever than I was. 从那件事情上我清楚地认识到他要比我聪明得多. b. hope 与 wish hope (vt.) + that 从句, 可以达到的希望 + 不定式 但不能接 "宾语十不定式" .
  1. We hope to see you again. = We hope we can see you. 我希望能再次见到你.
  2. I hope you can help me with my maths. 希望你能帮助我学数学.(不能说 I hope you to help me with my maths. ) wish 想要, 希望 = would like, want + that 从句, 强烈而难以实现的愿望 + 不定式/ 宾语 + 不定式 wish 后面接不定式或宾语+不定式"都可以,其意义相当广"想要'"希望"(=would . like 或 want).wish 接 that 从句时一般表示某种强烈而又难以实现的愿望" ,而 hope 表示的是可以实现或能达到的希望' .例如:
  3. I wish to place an order right now. 我想马上订购.
  4. I wish him to make progress. 我希望他取得进步.
  5. I wish I could fly like a bird. (用 can *) 但愿我能象乌一样飞.(从句中的 could 裹示其动作不可能实现.不能用 can.)
  6. I hope he can do that. 我希望他会干哪件事. (本句表示有可能实现的一种希望,can 不能用 could 代替.) wish 可表示良好的"祝愿" ,后面接"宾语+宾补(形容词或名词).而 hope 不能这样用.
  7. I wish you happy. 祝你幸福.(不用 hope)
  8. I wish you a pleasant journey. 祝你旅途愉快.(不用 hope)
在简略句中,如要表示希望某事不会发生时,应说 I hope not,而不说 I don't hope so. hope 用作动词时.后面可接不定式或 that 从句. c. accept 与 receive accept 和 receive 均表示收取所给予,提供或送到的东西,但 receive 仅指客观上"收到""接到" accept 是主观上"接受""领受" , , .试比较:
  1. I received a present from Jack, but as I wouldn't accept it, I returned it to the sender. 我收到了杰克送来的一份礼物,但由于我不愿接受,所以我退给了送来的那个人.
  2. She did receive your invitation but she refused to accept it. 她确实收到了你的邀请,但她不愿接受.
  3. Dr Barker replied to the invitation, accepting it. Baker 先生对这一邀请回了封信,表示接受邀请. accept 还可用来表示主观上"吸收"某人, "承认"或"赞同"某一看法或理论.如:
  4. I can't accept (=take) you as my secretary. 我不能聘任你为我的秘书(不能用 receive)
  5. I can't accept(=recognize) my defeat. 我不能承认我失败了.(不能用 receive)
  6. He had to accept our explanation. 他只好接受了我们的解释.
  7. His new theory was widely accepted/received (= recognized). 他的新理论被广泛地承认和肯定.
  8. The young man was accepted/received (=admitted) into the organization. 这位男青年被吸收加入这个组织. [注]如果不强调主观.而把某事作为一种客观情况来叙述.则 receive 也可用来表示"吸 收"或"承认" . receive 自然获得 (= get), 接待 (= welcome), 遭受 (= suffer) 瞬间动词, accept 不能这样用. It's five days since I received your letter. = I received your letter five days ago (不能用: I have received your letter for five days. )
  9. He received (=got) a good education. 他受到过良好的教育.
  10.She received (=got) a doctor's degree at the age of twenty-eight. 她在二十八岁时获得博士学位.
  11.You will receive (=get) a warm welcome when you get here. 你到时会受到热烈欢迎.
  12.He received (= welcomed) his guests with a smile. 他向来宾微笑表示欢迎.
  13.She went to the door to receive (=welcome) her visitors. 她走到门前迎接客人.
  14.The soldier received (=suffered) a bad wound in the head. 那士兵头部受伤严重. 表示"邀请某人去某处" d. invite sb. to a place 表示"邀请某人去某处" to 是介词,后面可接表示活动或聚 , 是介词, 会地点的名词. 会地点的名词. invite, 表示邀请某人做某事" invite,b.to do sth 表示邀请某人做某事" to 为不定式符号. . 为不定式符号.
  1. We shall invite one of our friends to dinner tonight. 今晚我们将邀请一位朋友吃饭.
  2. I was invited to give a talk at the meeting. 昨天我应邀在会上发言. e. cost, take, pay, spend cost v. 花费金钱,时间,劳力, 事物作主语 n. (u. c.)作名词时表示'成本''价钱""费用' , , ,用作可数或不可数名词. living costs 生活费用 the cost of a book 一本书的成本 What's the cost of the car? 那辆汽车得花多少钱? take 花费时间, 事物作主语

  1.The composition cost (took) me three hours. 我用了三小时才写成这篇作文.
  2. How much did the radio cost you? 这台无线电花了你多少钱?(不用 take).
  3. The work cost them much labour. 这件工作花费了他们很大的劳动.(不用 take)
  4. It took them over two years to build the bridge. (少用 cost) 修建这座桥花了他们二年多时间. spend 一般用来表示花费钱或时间,主语是表示有生命的名词或代词(一般为人) . 常用"spend…onsth."或"spend…(in)doing sth.结构.
  5. I spent 50 dollars on the camera. 买这只照相机,我花了 50 美元.
  6. He often spent his spare time (in) helping the poor. 他经常利用他的业余时间帮助穷人. 如要说"这件上衣我花了 20 美元 .可用下面几种表达方法.
  7. I spent 20 dollars on the coat. = The coat cost me 20 dollars. = I paid 20 dollars for the coat. = I bought the coat for 20 dollars. = I bought the coat at the price of 20 dollars. pay vt. 付...报酬, 付款
  8. Have you paid the doctor yet? 医生的酬金付了吗?
  9. You have to pay me first before I do it. 你得在我于以前先付钱.
  10.When will you pay back the money? 你什么时候还这笔钱?
  11.I paid 200 yuan for the radio. 买这台收音机我花了 200 元.
  12. How much did you pay for all these things? 买所有这些东西你一共花了事少钱? pay vi. 付款, 赔
  13.If you have lost it, I'm afraid you will have to pay for it. 如果你丢了,恐怕你得赔了.
  14.It was time to pay for the things on the list. 该付款买清单上的东西了. f. after all 说话人在使用 after all 这一短语时要强调的是尽管有前面某种情况,但后面这种情况 不能不考虑.用来引出对方似乎忘了的某个重要论点或理由.这时 after all 大多位于 句首,意思是"不管怎么说""毕竟" , .带有'We mustn't forget.. ."之意.例如;
  1. Mary didn't pass the exam, but after all she had done her best. 玛丽考试没有及格.但他毕竟尽了努力.
  2. I think we should let her go with her boy friend. After all, she's a big girl now. 我觉得我们应该让她和她的男朋友一块去.她现在毕竟是个大姑娘了.
  3. It's not surprising you're tired. After all, you were up until last night. 你感到疲劳不奇怪.你昨晚毕竟到三点才睡. after all 含有"虽然有前面说过的话" 或 "与预料相反"之义 (用在句尾)
  4. I did promise I would lend you money, but I'm sorry I can't manage after all. 我确实答应过借给你钱,但实在对不起.我现在实在无能为力.
  5. I thought I was going to fail the exam, but I passed it after all. 我原以为我考试会不及格,然而(没想到)我还是及格了. g. instead 与 instead of instead (adv.) instead of (prep.) + n. / pron. / -ing
  1.If Harry isn't well enough to go with you, take me instead. 如果哈利身体不好不能跟你去,就带我去吧.

  2. Come another day instead. 改日来吧.
  3. If you have no jewellery, can't you wear a flower instead. 如果没有首饰的话,就不能戴朵花吗?
  4. Last year I went to Japan. This year I am going to Hongkong instead. 去年我去了日本.今年我准备去香港.
  5. I will go instead of you. 我代你去.
  6. If I hadn't got a headache, I'd be working instead of lying here in bed. 要不是因为我头痛,否则的话我就不会躺在床上而不上班. 不能说:instead to lie h. marry marry vt. + sb. 在大多数情况下,marry 用作及物动词,表示与……结婚"嫁"娶" , , .后面直接带宾 语,从来不与 with 连用.有时可用 get married to 代替.(get married to sb.)
  1. Jack is going to marry Mary. 杰克将和玛丽结婚.
  2. His sister married (= got married to) a rich man. 他的姐姐嫁给了一个有钱人. 当 marry 不带宾语时.更为常见的说法是 be/get married
  3. They are going to get married. 他们将要结婚.
  4. He got married last week. 他上周结婚的.
  5. Is she married? ( = Has she got married? ) 她结婚了吗? marry vi.
  6. He married young. 他早婚.
  7. She didn't marry until forty. 她一直到四十岁才结婚. i. try on, put on, pull on try on 试穿 put on 穿上 pull on 匆匆穿上
  1. You tried the necklace on ( tried on the necklace) and it looked wonderful on you. (on) 你当时把项链试戴了一下.真是好看极了.
  2. She put on the skirt and looked more beautiful in it. (in) 她穿上裙于,显得更漂亮.
  3. He pulled on his overcoat and it seemed just to cover him like a blanket. 他匆匆穿上大衣,就好象一条毯子只是把他的身体遮住. [注]动词 dress 也可表示穿的动作.但 dress 的宾语是人的名词或代词.如 She dressed herself/her baby.(她穿上衣服/她替婴儿穿上衣服.)不能说 She dressed her clothes. Wear 不能表示穿的动作, 只能表示 "穿着" 这一状态. She wears a red skirt today 如 these days.(她今天/这几天穿着一条红裙子.) wear 表示佩带饰物等 wear glasses, (戴着眼镜), wear a sword,.(佩着剑) wear a necklace / flower / watch / gold ring... (戴着项链/花/手表/金戒指) have on 状态,也表示'穿着"不能用于进行时. He had on a red hat. 弹(他戴着一顶红帽子.) The boy has nothing on. (那孩子一丝不挂.) (注)有时 marry 也可用作不及物动词.如: j. call on 和 call at call on 后面接表示人的名词或代词,call at 后面接表示地方或 场所的词语.试比较:
  1. I called on (=went to see) Mr Smith yesterday. 我昨天拜访了 Smith 先生.
  2. I called at (= went to ) Mr Smith's yesterday. 我昨天去了 Smith 先生的家.
I called on the Smiths yesterday. 我昨天拜访了 Smith 一家人. I called on the doctor's yesterday. 我昨天到了 Smith 家. I called on the doctor/my sister yesterday.我昨天去拜访了医生. I called at the doctor's/my sister's yesterday. 我昨天去了医务所/我姐姐家. [注] 注意中英文表达"叫"时的差异.我们可以说 I called John to come.I called to John to come 或 I called out to John to come.意思是"我大声叫 John 来. " You may ask him to help 意思是"你可以叫他帮忙" ,而 You may call him to help 则表示"你可以高声喊他来帮忙" .You can tell him to come tomorrow 一句中 的 tell 不能用 call.另外, "他的名字叫 Jack"一句应说 His name is Jack 或 He's named/called Jack,不能说 His name is called Jack. [注] What do you call this in English? 和 How do you say this in English? 两句 都正确, 注意两句的疑问词 What 和 How 不能换用. 前一句中的 call 可带复合宾语, What 为宾语补足语,不能用 How.第二句中的 say 没有这种功能,How 为状语. What do you call this in English? (call + 复合宾语) How do you say this in English? ( how 为状语) k. well well 并不总是表示"好"的意思.有时可用来表示"很""相当" , ,指程度,常与一 些特定的介词, 形容词, 动词连用. 这时不能用 very, quite 或 very much 等词代替. 下 面句子中一般都使用 well,而不用 very 或 very much.
  1. Mr Smith is well past forty. 史密靳先生有四十好几岁了.
  2. I can't reach it. It is well above my head. 那东西我够不着.它高出我头很多.
  3. This book is well worth reading. 这本书很值得一读.
  4. I don't know him well enough. 我对他了解得还很不够.
  5. He is well known in this city. 他在这个城里很出名.
  6. It fits you well. 你穿这很合身.
  7. I didn't understand his lesson well. 他的课我听不大懂. l. true 与 real true 可用定语或
 

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