Useful phrases
继续存在;继续生存 live on 借助… by means of 在史前时期 in prehistoric times 此外,另外 in addition 死于疾病 die from a disease fight against 对抗... gain one’s independence 获得独立 向…宣战 declare war on achieve one’s dream 实现梦想 习惯于新的生活方式、工作等 make a life keep up 坚持;维持;沿袭

  1. illustrate ['il?streit] v.举例说明, (为书)作插图, 图解 例句: He pointed at the diagram to illustrate his point. Our textbook is very well illustrated. 继承用法: illustration作插图; 图解; 图示; 示例; 举例说明

  2. California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. population (
  1) 对人口提问用 对人口提问用what, 不用 不用how many, how much。 。 What’s the population of the city? 这个城市有多少人口? 这个城市有多少人口?
(
  2) population作主语时用单数,但前有 作主语时用单数, 作主语时用单数 分数,小数,百分数时, 分数,小数,百分数时,谓语动词用复 数。 The population of China is larger than that of America. 中国人口比美国人口多。 中国人口比美国人口多。 80% of the population are farmers. 百分之80的人口是农民 的人口是农民。 百分之 的人口是农民。
(
  3) 人口的增加或减少用 人口的增加或减少用grow (increase) 人口的多少用large 和 fall (decrease); 人口的多少用 和small。 。 The population of China large. And is 70% of the population of China are peasants.

  3. It also has the distinction of being the most multicultural state in the USA, … 加州与众不同之处在于它也是美国最具多 元文化的一个州,… It also has the distinction of being …意思是 … What it is known for is … 前缀multi-是“多、多方面”的意思。如: multi-coloured (多色的), multi-racial (多种族 的), multi-media (多媒体), multiparty (多党制 ), multi-purpose (多种用途)
distinction [di? ??n] stisk n.差别;区分;优秀;荣誉,优待 the chief distinction of Chinese food
中国食品的主要特征
a writer of distinction 一位卓越的作家 academic distinctions 学术上的荣誉 There is no appreciable distinction between the twins.
在这对孪生子之间看不出有什么明显的差别。
His style lacks distinction. 他的文体缺乏个性。
draw a distinction between 对...加以区别 make a distinction between 对...加以区别 gain distinction 出名 attain distinction 出名 win distinction 出名 rise to distinction 出名 with distinction 以优异的成绩; 以杰出的表现 without distinction 无差别地, 一视同仁地
distinct [di? stiskt] a.不同的;清楚的;明确的,显著的 a man of very distinct character一个个性很强 的人 distinct statement 确切的声明 a distinct opportunity 难得的机会 The earth's shadow on the moon was quite distinct.月球上的地球阴影很清晰。
习惯用语: (as) distinct from 与...不同(的) be distinct in...from... 在某方面与...不同

  4. live on live up to live through live with
继续活着,继续存在 达到高标准,不辜负 经历过,经历…而未死 接受,容忍

  5. However, it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.
  1) sb./sth. is likely to do sth.
某人/某物有可能做某事
It is likely/probable/possible that ...
有可能 …
It is likely/possibl/probable for sb. to do sth. .... 有可能做...

  2) 辨析:likely, possible与probable possible指客观上有可能性,但往往含
有希望很小的意味;probable比possible可 能性稍大,有“较为可能、大概”,指有 实际依据;likely是从外表迹象判断有可能 发生的事。 likely 的主语可以是人,而possible与
probable的主语不能是人。
Is he likely to win?
他有可能获胜吗? 他有可能获胜吗?
It’s possible, though not probable, that he will come tomorrow.
他明天可能来, 但也不一定准来。 他明天可能来 但也不一定准来。

  6. … these settlers crossed the Bering Strait in the Arctic to American by means of a land bridge. means n. 方式 手段 单复数相同 。 方式, 手段(单复数相同 单复数相同)。 The quickest means of travel is by plane. Every possible means has been tried, but none has worked. Are there any possible means of getting there? Some means are practical while others are not.
◆联想记忆 联想记忆: 联想记忆
  1) by no means 决不,一点也不 决不, She is by no means poor; in fact, she is very rich.
  2) by this means (in this way); 用这方式 by means of 用……方式 方式 He succeeded by means of hard work.
  3) by all means 当然可以 没问题 当然可以, Can I see it? By all means.
  4) by some means or other 想尽办法

  7. Prehistoric 史前的 prehistoric man, monuments, cave paintings Pre- :表示“预先”“…以前的”“在…前部的” 之意 post-: after, 在…..之后 ante-: (指时间或位置)在...之前; 在...的前面

  8. In addition, many died from the diseases brought by Europeans.

  1) in addition to: 除此之外 另外 (+n./doing) 除此之外,另外 e.g. I met my past teacher and some former classmates in the supermarket. in addition In addition to cakes and candies, guests were also provided with fruits. 除了有蛋糕和糖果, 还给客人们准备了水果。 除了有蛋糕和糖果 还给客人们准备了水果。

  9. Spanish soldiers first arrived in South America in the early 16th century, when they fought against the native people and took their land.
16世纪早期 西班牙士兵到达南美洲 这 世纪早期, 西班牙士兵到达南美洲, 世纪早期 时同土著人作斗争并占领这片土地。 时同土著人作斗争并占领这片土地。
辨析: fight against, fight for与fight with fight for
“为事业, 自由, 真理, 权利等而斗争(战斗)”
fight against (可用with) the enemy
“为反对……而斗争”;接人和国家名词, 意思是“与……战斗”
fight with sb. 也可表示与某人并肩作战

  10. Of the first Spanish to go to California, the majority were religious men, whose ministry was to teach the Catholic religion to the natives.

  1)句中Spanish前面有序数词限定成分,故其后 用不定式定语形式。 She was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize.
the majority of后可用单数名词, 也可用复数名词, 谓语动词的数与of 后面的名词相一致。
The majority of people prefer peace to war. The majority of the damage is easy to repair.
拓展: in the majority 占大多数 in the minority 属于少数
was / were The majority for the budget. are The majority of students hardworking. is The majority of the damage easy to repair.

  11. ministry [? ministri] n.
  1. (政府的)部; 部长; 部长的职务
  2. [Ministry ][英]内阁
  4. 牧师的职务; [the ministry](全体)牧 习惯用语: enter the ministry
  1. 入内阁当内阁成员
  2. 当牧师
Ministry of Finance 财政部 Ministry of Food 粮食部 Ministry of Foreign Trade 外 贸部 Ministry of Fuel and Power [英]燃料动力部

  12. hardship [? h?:d?ip] n.艰难,困苦 economic hardship 经济困难 bear hardship without complaint 任劳任怨 undergo [go through] all kinds of hardships 备尝辛酸
-ship suf.
  1. 表示“情况”, “状态”, “性质”, 如:hardship, friendship
  2. 表示“身分”, “职业”,如:kingship
  3. 表示“技巧”, “技能”, 如:marksmanship

  13. elect [i? ] lekt vt.选举,推举;选择 vi.进行选举,作出选择 Adj. (在名词後)当选而尚未就职的: the president elect 候任总统. We elected James (to be) chairman. They elected a new president. She elected to become a lawyer. 她决定当律师.

  14. federal [? fed?r?l] adj.
  1. 同盟的; 联合的
  2. 联邦的; 联邦制的
  3. [Federal ]美国联邦政府的, 中央政府的
Federal agent [美]联邦调查局人员 Federal Bureau of Investigation[美]联邦调查局(略 作FBI) Federal city 联邦城(美国首都华盛顿的别名) Federal Constitution 美国宪法 Federal Government (of the U.S.) 美国(中央)政府

  15. percentage [p?? sentid?] n.
  1. 百分数[率, 比]
  2. 比例, 部分
  3. 利益, 获利, 好处, 用处 What ~ of the students are [is] admitted to college(s)?. A small ~ of the farm produce was ruined. There is no ~ in it. 没有赚头 [好处]

  16. keep up
  1.remain at a high level居高不下;不低落
  2. not fall behind继续;保持某一速度和某一水平; 不落后
  3. maintain in good condition or repair 保存:继续 保持良好状况
  4. (精神、勇气、情绪、体力、决心等)保持愉 快、活泼、开朗
Prices have kept up all the year. If we can keep up this speed,we should arrive there in about two days. The cottage was so old that it was very difficult to keep up. Their spirits kept up well in spite of hardships.

  17. boom [bu?m] n(c) 1 (蜂等的) 营营声; (炮、雷等的) 隆隆声; 轰轰声; (波涛的) 澎湃声 2 a. 突然的好景气; 声望之突然提高; 繁荣 (时期) adj. (口语)突然上涨的,忽然兴旺起来的 ( ) , vi. 1 作隆隆 [轰轰] 声; 作营营声; 发出低沉之声音 2 突然繁荣起来; 忽然大得人心 Vt.
  1. a. 以隆隆 [低沉] 声报知 b. 高声朗读2 (以广告等) 大力捧红…,大肆宣传
waves booming on the seashore `Get out of my sight!' he boomed. The oil market is enjoying a boom. Business is booming. He boomed out the poem. That record boomed the singer's popularity.
Homework:
  1. Recite para.3;
  2. dabiao: P4~8;
  3. Weekly(
  38): P2(checking corner)
 

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