1 work as a volunteer 当志愿者 work as 从事某种职业 He used to work as a bus driver. 2 make a difference (
  1) 有所作为 It is not necessary to be a great scientist to make a d ifference, but there are things we can learn from the best minds in this world. (
  2) mak e a/no/some /little/much difference 有/没有/一些/很小/很大影响 The rain didn’t make much difference to the game. It makes no difference to me wheth er he goes or not. Even small things can make a big difference. Exercise can make a big difference. 短语: be different from 与。。。不同 tell the difference between 说出。。。的差别/不同 make a difference between 区分 be different in 在。。。方面不同 differ from 与。。。不同 They are now in great need of help. So your support will certainly make a__. A deal B d ecision C point D difference 3 stick (
  1) 伸出,突出(常与 out, out of 或 up 连用) Don’t stick your head out of the window . He saw a branch sticking up in the water. … 水面上伸出一根树枝。 (
  2) 粘,粘 Let’s stick this notice on the wall . These stamps have stuck together. 这几张 邮票粘在一起了。 (
  3) 固定(不同情况下有不同的议法)be/get stuck in 被困在…相当于 be caught in (
  4) v 容忍,忍受 tolerate/ bear / put up with I won’t sick your rudeness any longer. (
  5) n 棍,棒,柴 a walking stick 拐杖/手杖 The old man can’t walk without a stick. He is collecting dry sticks to make a fire. 他正在拾干柴生火。 The door has stuck ,and I can’t get out. 门塞住了…He stuck a stick into the ground. 他 在地上插了一根棍子 Where have you been? ?I __in the heavy traffic , or I would have been here earlier. A stuck B had stuck C have been stuck D got stuck Once a decision has been made, all of us should __ it. A direct to B stick to C lead to D refer to The theory he stuck to __ to be true. A proving B is proved C proves D being proved 短语: stick to 坚持,忠于(后接 n & pron ) insist on 坚持(后接 v-ing 形式) stick to a post 坚守岗位 stick at sth 不懈地做… stick to one’s word 遵守诺言 He promised to help us and h e stuck to his word. stick to principles 坚守原则 stick around 不走开,呆在原地 Stick around ; we’ll need you to help us later. stick up for …支持,捍卫 Stick up for what you believe. She taught her children to sti ck up for themselves at school. get the wrong end of the stick 误解 give sb stick 严惩某人 stick with sb 继续支持某人 4 get through (
  1) 通过(考试,测验等) Tom failed but his sister got through. All of them ; that is to say, they all passed the exam. (
  2) 通过(议案,建议等), 使通过 Do you think the bill will get through? 你认为议案能通过 吗? They succeeded in the bill . (
  3) 到达,抵达 Thousands of refugees will die if these supplies don’t get through. (难民) I started as soon as your message to me. (
  4) 接通电话 I rang you several times yesterday , but couldn’t get through (to you ) . (
  5) (设法)做或完成 Let’s start ; there is a lot of work to get through / to be got thr ough. He the book on one evening. (
  6) 经过。。。后仍然活着
The old got through two wars . 相当于 live through “经历。。。(通常指不好的事情) ” (
  7) 用完,花光 He said he all his money. (
  8) 通过,穿过 We managed to get through the forest with his help. I got _ to him and he said that he had got __the examination. A off, out B through, thro ugh C along, back D away, to 相关短语: get along 过活, 生活, 相处, 进展 get away with …(做了某事) 而不受惩罚, 携带。 。 。 跑掉 get down 写下,记下,下来,情绪低落 get down to。。。开始认真(做某事)其中 to 是介词 get in tou ch with…与。。。取得联系 get over 克服(困难等);淡忘; 从(病,损失等)中恢复过来,痊 愈 get rid of …摆脱,除掉,处理掉 get across (使。。。) 被理解,使通过 get together 聚集, 相聚在一起 get round 传开,绕开,说服 get off 下车 get in 插话 get about 病愈后能走动,旅行 How are you managing to do your work without an assistant? Well, I __ somehow. A get along B come on C watch out D set off Hardly could he __ this amount of work in such a short time . A get through B get off C get into D get down The woman biologist stayed in Africa studying wild animals for 13 years before she retur ned. Oh, dear ! She __ a lot of difficulties ! A may go through B might go through C ought to have gone through D must have gone throu gh There were a lot of people standing at the door and the small girl couldn’t get_. A betwe en B through C across D beyond 5 whether 与 if : if 用在条件状语从句中意为“如果” If it rains tomorrow, we will not go to the park. if 用在宾语从句中时可与 whether 互换 We don’t know if/whether he can come. 但在下列情况下必须用 whether : (
  1) 正式文体中,句中有 or not 时。 I wonder whether it is big enough or not. (
  2) 引导主语、表语、同位语从句时。 Whether it is true remains a question. The question is whether he can come on time. The question whether it is right or wro ng depends on situation (
  3) 作介词宾语时。 I haven’t settled the question of whether I’ll go back home. (
  4) 与不定式连用时。 She hasn’t decided whether to go or not (
  5) 作 discuss 等词的宾语时 We discussed whether we should close the shop. We haven’t settled the problem __ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A if B wher e C whether D that 6 call 组成的词组: call sb up 打电话,征召(服役), call sth up 使回忆起,使想起 call on sb 拜访某人 call at 停泊, (某地) call on 号召 call for 需要, 停靠 要求 call for sb 去接… call sb in 召来,叫来(服务) to call in a doctor/the police 请医生/叫警察 call sth in 下令收回,要求退回 call back 回电话,召唤某人回来 7 hear from “收到…的来信” 后接的宾语是(发信)人。 I heard from my sister in New York ye sterday. hear of/ hear about… 听说 … hear sb do sth 听见某人做过某事 hear sb doing sth 听见 某人正在做某事 类似用法: write to sb 或 write sb a letter 或 write a letter to sb 给某人写信(收信人)D on’t forget to write to me. How often do you hear__ your mother? ?Once a month. I’m expecting her letter every day. A of B about C from D/
8 be dying to do = be eager to do 极想/渴望 /迫切想要做 be dying for sth = be eager for sth 迫切想要某物 look forward to sth 或 look forward to doing sth 盼望/期待(做) 某事 die wish 遗言/ 瞩 I’m dying for something to eat. She is dying to know where you’ve been. 相关短语: die for 为…而死 die away(声音等)逐渐消失 The sound of their laughter died away. die down(火焰等) 逐渐减弱 The flames finally died down. 火焰越来越小,最后熄灭了。 die off 相继死去 die out 灭绝,绝种 This species has nearly died out because its habit at is being destroyed. die of 因…而死(原因多来自内部,如情感、饥饿、寒冷、疾病等) The old man died of cancer. die from 由于…而死 (原因常来自外部) He died from a wound . 他受伤而死。 death (n) 死,死亡 dead (adj) 死的,无生命的 adj 致命的,致死的, a deadly weapon/disease deadly poison 剧毒 adj 极度的,彻底的 We sat in deadly silence. deadly adj 枯燥的,令人厌烦的 The lecture was absolutely deadly. 这演讲简直无聊透了。 adv 极其,非常 deadly serious/dull 极其严肃认真/乏味 deadly pale/cold 死一般地 苍白,冷得要死 9 It take(s) /took/will take sb some time to do sth (
  1) 干某事花费某人多长时间 It will take you much time to achieve your aim of going to school. It usually takes me 20 minutes to go home. (
  2) 该结构也可表示花费劳动力干某事 It took the Old Egyptians much labor force to finish the Pyramid. (
  3) 表示花费的结构还有: ① sb spend time / money on sth /(in) doing sth 某人花钱/时间干某 事 ② (doing) sth cost (sb) some money //代价 “ (干) 某事花费某人钱/代价” 事/物 做主语 His careless driving cost him his life. The repairs cost a lot , but it’s money well spent. ③ charge sb some money for (doing) sth 因…而向某人要价 He charged me 5 yuan for rep airing my bike. ④ pay (money) for sb /sth 为…而付钱 I paid 3 dollars for the book. 10 up to : be up to sth = be busy doing sth 忙于某事/从事某事 It’s up to sb to do sth 由 某人负责做某事 be up to = be fit for 胜任(常用于否定句和疑问句中) What’s up? 怎么了/发生什么事了? I t’ (all )up to you. 由你决定 up to = up till/until 直到…up to now=so far 到目前为止 up s to date 最新的,现代的 up to the minute 最新/近的 (
  1) 多达,高达 He can earn up to $ 50,000 a year. (as much as ) (
  2) 一直到 She lived at home right up to she got married. (
  3) 胜任(be fit for ) I’m not sure if she is really up to that job. (
  4) 由…负责 It’s up to her to decide whether or not to go on the course. (
  5) 忙于,从事于 Father wants to know what I have been up. What do you want to do next? We have half an hour until the basketball game .__. What ever you want to do is fine with me. A. It just depends B. It’s up to you C. All rig ht C. Glad to hear that. __ , Jack ? You look pale. I fell off my bike and hurt my legs.
A.
What’s going on B What’s up C What did you do D What have you done
11 come across 该词不用与被动语态 (
  1) “偶然遇见或发现” 近义词有 run across , run into , meet with, meet… by chance, happe n to meet , chance to meet I’ve just come across an old friend I haven’t seen for years. She came across a forme r teacher on her way home . (
  2) 穿过,走过 He came across the hall into a room. 他穿过大厅进入一个房间。 (
  3) 被理解,被传达 He spoke for a long time but his meaning did not really come across. 短语:① come about “发生” 一般与 how 连用 ② come out 出版,开花,出来 When is her new novel coming out? ③come to an end 结束④come to sb 被想出 The idea came to me in the bath.⑤come up with 提 出,想出⑥come up 被提出,长出地面,走进⑦come to a conclusion/decision 得出结论/做出决定 ⑧come into effect/force/ use 生效/开始使用 ⑨ come to sth 总计,谈到 ⑩come back to sb 恢复记忆,回想起 It’s all coming back to m e . come over 过来 Have you __ some new ideas? Yeah. I’ll tell you later. A come about B cone into C com e up with D come up What makes her so frightened? ?Oh , it is the mouse that she __ on her bed while look ing for her watch. A came about B came across C came through D came up I forget to bring my umbrella. --__. Mine is big enough for two. A. Go ahead B. Go bac k C. Come over D Come in The dictionary is being printed and it will soon __. A turn out B come out C start ou t D go out It’s already 10 o’clock . I wonder how it __ that she was two hours late on such a s hort trip. A came over B came out C came about D came up 12 adapt (oneself ) to 适应于 She adapted (herself) quickly to the new climate. adapt adapt sth to sth 使…适应 He could not adapt his way of life to the company.
adapt sth ( for sth/ sb ) 修改… It’s hard to adapt his story for children’s film. adapt sth for sth from sth 根据…改编成…This novel has been adapted for radio from the Russian original. 13 privilege 特权,优惠 ① enjoy privileges 享受特权 ② have the privilege of…有…特权 ③ as a special privilege 作为特别许可 ④ by special privilege 根据特权 14 wonder (
  1) v 想知道,想弄明白,琢磨 I wonder who she is. I was just beginning to wonde r where you were. 正琢磨 (
  2) 礼貌地提问或请人做事时说 I wonder if you can help me. I was wondering whether you’d like to come to a party. (
  3) wonder at sth 感到诧异,非常惊讶 She wondered at her own stupidity. 她没想到自己竟会 这样愚蠢。 (
  4) n 惊奇,惊叹,惊讶 She gazed down in wonder at the city spread below her. 她俯视展现在 眼前的城市,惊叹不已。
(
  5) n 奇观,奇迹,奇事,奇妙之处 The Grand Canyon is one of the natural wonders of the wor ld. 科罗拉多大峡谷… (
  6) 能人,奇才,有特效的东西 Jim, you’re a wonder! I would never have thought of doing th at.我从来想不到该那样做。 It’s a wonder (that) …令人惊奇的是…,莫名其妙的是… It’s a wonder that more people w eren’t hurt. (It’s) little/small/ no wonder (that)… 难怪…, 不足为奇,并不奇怪 It is little wond er (that) she was upset. No wonder you’re tired, you have been walking for hours. 难怪你累了,你一直走了好几个 小时。 15 possession “有,所有,拥有,占有”其复数形式 possessions “财产,财富” take possession of 拥有,占有,占领 have possession of sth 占有/拥有某物 get possession of 拿到,占有,占领 in possession of 占有某物 in one’s possession = in t
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