非 谓 语 动 词
非谓语动词有三种,即:不定式、动名词和分词。非谓语动词既有动词的性 质,又有非动词的性质,也就是说:①有时态和语态的变化;②有名词、形容词和 副词的性质,能在句中作主语、宾语、补语、定语和状语等;③非谓语动词可以 有自己的逻辑主语;④非谓语动词的否定式形式是在其前面加 not。 一、 动 词 不 定 式 重点掌握:
  1.不定式的时态和语态 .
  1).不定式的一般式即: to + V.所表示的动作与谓语动词的动作是同时发生的或 是在其后发生的; 如: Thousands of young people are learning to ski. He hesitated in order to choose the right word.
  2).不定式的进行式即: to + be + V.ing 所表示的动作与谓语动词的动作是 同时的,而且是正在进行着。 如: They seem to be getting along quite well.
  3)不定式的完成式即: to have + V.ed 用来表示先于谓语动词发生的动作或状 态,to have + V.ed 表示动作,to have been 表示状态。一般用在 intended, expected,meant,hoped,promised,wanted,planned,wished,thought,was, were 等之后表示过去没有实现的愿望、计划或期待等。 如: I intended to have come to see you.(我本来打算去看你的)。 不定式的完成进行式即: to have been + V.ing 表示动作在谓语动词之前发生,
  4) 而且一直进行着。 如: She was happy to have been staying with his aunt. 每个不定式短语都有其逻辑主语,如果逻辑主语是动作的发出者,不定式用主 动式; 如果其逻辑主语是动作的承受者,不定式用被动式。 如: The doctor recommended him to air the room.(主动) The doctor recommended the room to be aired.(被动) 练习: 练习
  1. It was careless of you your bike unlocked outside all night A. to leave B. left C. to have left D. had left (答案:C)
  2. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what in my new job . A. expected B. to expect C. to expect D. expects (答案:B)
  3. The committee planned to the problem , but failed to do so . A. solving B. to solve C. have solved D. have be solved (答案:C)
  4. He was very glad chairman of the students ’union . A. having been elected B. being elected C. to be elected D. to have been elected (答案:D)
  5. Charles Babbage is generally considered the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented (答案:A)
  2. 不定式的符号 to 在一些特殊情况下经常被省略
1 ) 在 had better , would rather , rather than , would sooner , cannot but , cannot help but, nothing but, do might just) well, nothing than ( as do (save, except) 等结构后不用 to。 如: They would rather ( would sooner , had rather , had sooner ) die than surrender. 他们宁死也不投降。 She can't do anything but ask silly questions.她一个劲地问一些傻问题。 但是,如果 but 和 except 等前的谓语动词不是 do 或 help,to 不能省略。 如: She had no choice but to fight to the end. 她没有别的选择,只有斗争到底。
  2)在 hear,listen to,feel,see,look at,watch,notice,let,make,have,leave, help 等动词后,动词不定式作宾语补足语时不用 to。 如: I heard her sing in the next classroom last night. 我昨天听见她在隔壁的教室里唱歌。 注意: 注意:
  1)视、听、感后接宾补如动词是 be, to 不能省。 如: I saw him to be the man who walked up the every morning We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。
  2)不带 to 的不定式,变被动时要加 to. 如: John was made the truck for a week as a punishment. A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing(答案:A)
  3)如果主语是 all 或 what 引导的从句,主语由 only,first,one,least 或形容词 作表语的不定式前不用 to。 最高级修饰,且后面的从句或短语中有实义动词 do 时, 例如: What she did to the matter was keep silent. The least thing you can do is help up a little.
  3.有些及物动词之后只能跟动词不定式
  1) 后接不定式做宾语的动词 hope, agree, dare, decide, determine|begin, start, refuse, prepare, offer|manage, try, aim, forget, remember ,choose|seem, pretend, learn, love, hate 等。? (可记: 希望同意敢决定, 开始拒绝备提供, 设法瞄准忘记选, 似乎假装学爱憎。 )?
  2) 后接不定式作宾补的动词? permit, request, allow, command, tell, invite, cause, encourage|warn, advise, persuade|force, order, remind, teach 等。? (可记首字母:practice wap fort 实践攻克堡垒。) 例句:Father will not allow us to play on the street. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。
  3) 后接不定式既作宾语又可作宾补的动词? ask, beg, like, prefer, help, promise, wish, want, expect 等。? (可记:请求、愿、助、诺、希望。 ? )
  4. 区分不定式符号 to 和介词符号 to
  1) 下列 to 为不定的小品词,后接动词原形:? be able to, be about to, have to, ought to, too…to, in order to, so as to, used to 等。? You ought to follow your father's advice. 后接名词、 代词或 V-ing 形式: pay attention to, look forward ?
  2) 下列 to 为介词,
to, be/get used to(习惯于), lead to, stick to, belong to, devote oneself to 等。 如:I'm looking forward to seeing you again. 注意比较下列几组句子: 注意比较下列几组句子 (
  1) I am looking forward to seeing you again.(盼望) (
  2) Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness.(导致) (
  3) At last he admitted to stealing the money.(承认) (
  4) They went out of their way to make the guests feel at home.(想方设法) (
  5). You are supposed to be responsible for them.(应该)
  5. 不定式作宾补,主补、定语、状语、主语 (
  1) The missing boy was last seen by the river . A. playing B. play C. played D. to be playing (答案:A) (
  2) This kind of songs were often heard in the countryside . A. to be sung B. sung C. to be singing D. have sung (答案:B) (
  3) I’m going back to our college tomorrow ,Do you have anything to your son . A. take. B. To take C. to be taken C. taken (答案:C) (
  4) The captain was the last one the sinking ship . A. to leave B. leaving C. left D. to have left (答案:A) 当句中有 the first, the last, the second 用不定式作定语 (
  5) This is one of problems at the meeting next week A. discussed B. discussing C. being discussing D. to be discussed (答案:D) 不定式做定语表示将来 (
  6) In the country everyone had the right to school . A. go B .to go C. going D. gone (答案:B) sb. have the right/chance/opportunity/courage/ability to do 后接不定式做定语。 (
  7) I went to the railway station hurriedly the train had left . A. so as to find B. to have found C. only to find D. Having found (答案:C) (
  8) The thief stole into the house by the owner . A. only to be caught B. only being caught C. having been caught D. caught (答案:A) (
  9)--Why did he make marks on some trees. --his way back easily. A. Find B .Finding C. To find D. To have find (答案:C) 注意: 注意:
  1). in order to, so as to, too… to, enough… to do, only to do 可作状语
  2).不定式作状语放在句首表原因更强。
  6. Find 的特殊用法: Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带 to 的动 词不定式。find 后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有 get,have。 I found him lying on the ground. I found it important to learn. I found that to learn English is important.
例题: The next morning she found the man in bed,dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying (答案:A)
  7. too…to…
  1)too…to 太…以至于… He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了,说不出话来。 -- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗? -- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。
  2) 如在 too 前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一 种委婉含义,意 为“不太” 。 It's never too late to mend. (谚语) 改过不嫌晚。
  3) 当 too 前面有 only, all, but 时,意思是:非常… 等于 very。 I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。 He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。
  8. 不定式的特殊句型 so as to
  1)表示目的;它的否定式是 so as not to do。 Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。 Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。
  2) so kind as to 劳驾 Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? (劳驾,现在几点了。)
  9. 不定式复合结构的用法 ?句中不定式需要有逻辑主语时, 常用 for+名词(或代词宾语)+不定式, 构成不 定式的复合结构。如:It is very important for us to learn English well. 但某些形容 词如 kind, clever, foolish, wise, nice, generous, silly, stupid 等,是表示不定式的逻 辑主语的性质或特征的,常用 of 引导不定式的逻辑主语。如: It was wise of him to do that. That is really kind . A. of you to say so B. for you to say so C. of you saying so D. for you saying so (答案:A) 二、动 名 词 动名词兼有动词和名词的特征和功能,在句中可以作主语、动词宾语、介词 宾语、主语补语、宾语补语、定语、表语和同位语。 有些动词之后只能跟动名词而不能跟不定式,常见的这类动词有: admit, avoid,consider,enjoy,escape,finish,imagine,include,keep,mind,miss, postpone,recall,risk,suggest,practise 等。
  1.动名词的时态和语态 与动词不定式一样,动名词也没有独立的、绝对的时态意义,它的时态意义 从属于句中谓语动词的时态。 动名词的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词的动作同 时或在其后发生;动名词的完成式所表示的动作在谓语动词动作之前发生。
例如: Martin insisted on going to work in spite of his illness. (之后发生)马丁坚持要带病工作。 She is proud of being beautiful.(同时)她为自己长得漂亮而自豪。 I approved of his taking part in the project. (同时或以后)我同意他参加这项工程。 John didn't admit having been there.(之前发生)约翰不承认到过那里。 动名词的主动语态表示主动行为,被动语态则表示被动行为,其逻辑主语一 般都可在句中找到。 如: He doesn't like flattering.(主动)他不喜欢奉承(别人)。 He doesn't like being flattered.(被动)他不喜欢受人奉承。
  2. 带逻辑主语的动名词结构 其形式为:名词所有格/代词所有格+动名词。在非正式文体中,上述结构中名 词常用通格,当动名词作宾语时,其逻辑主语的代词常用宾格形式。 如: His coming here will be a great help.(主语)他到这儿来将大有帮助。 Tom's going there won't do any harm.(主语)汤姆到那儿去没什么坏处。 It's no use your trying to deceive me.(主语)你想骗我是没用的。 I hate people(people's)being unhappy.(宾语)我不愿人们不快乐。 There is no danger of his/him being dismissed. (介词宾语)他并没有被解雇的危险。 The main trouble is his working without a plan. (表语)主要的问题是他工作无计划。
  3. worth 的用法 worth,worthy,worth-while 都为 adj. 意为“值得” 。
  1)worth:be worth + n. 当名词为金钱时,表示“…… 值得……” be worth doing sth. “……某事值得被做” The question is not worth discussing again and again.
  2)worthy:be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示“……值得……” be worthy to be done “某事值得被做” The question is not worthy to be discussed again and again. “值得做某事”
  3)worth-while: be worth-while to do sth worth while: It is worth while doing sth It is worth while sb to do sth. 例题: It is not to discuss the question again and again. A. worth B. worthy C. worth-while D. worth while(答案:C)
  4. 动名词与不定式的区别:
  1) 动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的 不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的 如: (
  1) I like swimming.(喜欢游泳这项运动) I like to swim this Friday.(喜欢在星期五去游泳这一具体动作)?
(
  2) Playing with fire is dangerous.玩火危险。(泛指危险) To play with fire will be dangerous.玩火会发生危险的。指一次具体性 动作) ( (
  3) A postman's duty is delivering mails. 邮递员的职责是投递邮件。(泛指) What you should do now is to deliver the letter to Mary. 你现在应做的事是把这封信交给玛莉。
  2) 动名词的逻辑主语可能泛指人们,而不定式的逻辑主语一般常常是句子中的 名词或代词。 如: She hates smoking.她讨厌吸烟。 (smoking 的逻辑主语可能是 she,也可能是泛指的人们) She hates to smoke.她不喜欢吸烟。 (smoke 的逻辑主语只能是 she) 而不定
 

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