6Te Unit 6Text A The British Educational System 英国的教育体系 world, suggests All over the world,the mention of English education suggests a of“ schools” picture of“public schools” 一提起英国教育呈现在人们面前的往往是一幅 , “公学”的画面,and it suggests in particular the names of certain very suggests names and instructions Eton Cambridge; famous instructions ? Eton , Oxford and Cambridge; 特别是一些著名的教育 机构??伊顿、 牛津、 剑桥等; but People do not always realize what place institutions system. these institutions occupy in the who1e educational system.但是人们往 往不了解这些机构在英国整个教育体系中所占的位置。Oxford and Cambridge Oxford universities
  12, students are universities each haying about
  12,000 students out of a total of universities ies. 2
  50, students over 250 ,000 students at all British universities . 牛津和剑桥两所大 学分别拥有大约 12 000 在校生, 而全英在校大学生的总数超过 250 0
  00。Eton is Eton school, schools a public school ,and the best known of the public schools. 伊顿是所公 name, reall lly 学,也是最著名的公学。which, spite of their name,are not really public which, which in all, 尽管名字叫公学, 其实并不是真正意义上的公立学校, but independent at all, schools boys and private secondary schools taking boys from the age thirteen to years 而是所独立的私立中学。 它只招收 13-18 岁的男孩。 public eighteen years. The schools very schools in reality form a very small part of the whole system of secondary education; education ; 实际上,公学仅仅是英国整个中学教育体系中的一小部分;only only boys goes school, about one out of forty English boys goes to a public school,and one out
  1, Eton. of
  1,500 goes to Eton.在英国仅有
  1/40 的男孩能进入公学读书,而 1 500 个中只有 1 个能上伊顿公学。 soschools sy Apart from the so-called public schools there is a complete system education of state primary and secondary education. 除了所谓的公学之外,英国还 有一套完整的国立小学、中学教育体系,which resembles in general the state which countries. education in most other countries.这同大部分国家的国立教育大体相似。 must, ages A11 children must, by law , receive fulltime education between the ages sixteen. of five and sixteen.法律规定所有
  5~16 岁的孩子必须接受全日制教育,Any Any attend fees child may attend,without paying fees, a school provided by the public authorities schools. authorities, and the great majority attend such schools.任何孩子都可 免费到由政府当局开办的学校读书。大部分孩子都上这类学校, They may continue, fees, eighteen. continue , still without paying fees , until they are eighteen . 并且可 以一直读到 18 岁。In presenting an overall picture of English education picture In it would be reasonable to concentrate on the state system alone and refer schools briefly to the public schools.要全面介绍英国的教育,应单独集中介绍其 国立教育体系,同时简要介绍其公学教育。However , a1though the public However, However schools numerically, schools are not important numerically,然而,尽管从数量上讲公学所占的 地位不算重要,they have been England’s most peculiar and characteristic they England’ the contribution to educational methods and they have an immense influence structure. on the whole educational practice and on the English social structure.但 它对英国的教育方法做出了最特殊、最具特色的贡献,对整个英国的教育实践和 社 会 结 构 产 生 了重 大的 影 响 。 For a hundred years most men in leading hundred years me positions finance, industries army, positions in banking ,insurance ,high finance,some industries ,the army,
1
politics educat the church and conservative politics have been educated at public schools schools.近百年来在银行、保险、高级金融、工业、军队、宗教、保守政见等 领域的顶尖人才大都曾在公学接受过教育。 Things but Things are beginning to change but time. it will take time.尽管近来情况开始有所变化,但短时间内变化还不明显。 universities position. Among the universities Oxford and Cambridge hold a dominant position.牛 津大学和剑桥大学在大学教育领域处于领先地位。Of cabinet ministers who ministers Of universities, two, went to universities,nearly all went to one or the other of these two, particular ular. and to Oxford in particular.读过大学的内阁大臣中几乎都上过这两所大学 中的某一所,特别是牛津大学。 receives full? A student who receives further full?time education after the age teacher’ of eighteen, either at a university or at a teacher’s training college type, or at some other college giving training of a special type,can usually authorities expenses receive a grant from the public authorities to cover his expenses,or income. them, parents most of them,unless his parents have a large income.学生满 18 岁后, 若要进一步接受全日制教育,可以选择读综合性大学、教师训练学院或者其他提 供专门培训的学院。 政府当局通常可以提供给学生助学金以支付其全部或大部分 学费,除非学生的父母收人很高不需要资助。But the number of young people But universit niversities universities ies, who can enter universities is limited by the capacity of universities, which is less than enough to take all the young people who have the basic qualifications admission. qualifications for university admission.但是由于受到大学容量的限制, 上大学的青年人的数量是有限的, 这些大学的数量不能容纳下所有具备基本入学 资 格 的 学 生 。 In practice , therefore , entry to universities is universities competitive . 因此实事上,上大学是有竞争性的。But university degree But courses polytechnics courses are also available at polytechnics , and entry to the Open restricted. University is less restricted.但是学生还可能选择上工科学院的学位课程, 而且上函授大学所受限制则小得多。 begins holidays The academic year begins after the summer holidays and is divided three“terms” , into three“terms” 每学年的开始从暑假后的学期算,并且分为三个“学期” . intervals with the intervals between them formed by the Christmas and Easter holidays dates holidays . 由圣诞节、复活节两个假期间隔开来。The exact dates of the The holidays area. holidays vary from area to area.各学校的具体放假时间因地区差异而不同, week Easter, being in general about two weeks at Christmas and Easter , 大致上圣诞 节、复活节各两周的假,plus often a week or more at Whitsun,and six weeks Whitsun, weeks plus summer,beginning late. in the summer,beginning rather late. 加上通常一周或更长一点的圣灵降 临节假期和六周的暑假, 暑假开始得相当晚。 Schools Schools outside the state system dates decide on their own holiday dates,不受国家教育体制限制的学校自行决定 放假时间,generally taking a month off at Christmas and Easter and eight generally taking gen weeks sum 通常是圣诞节、 复活节各放一个月, 暑假放八周。 three weeks in the summer . The names; terms are not everywhere called by the same names;这三个学期在不同的 地区叫法不完全一样。indeed some schools call the January?March period schools January? indeed Term” ,other others “the Spring Term” 实际上一些学校称一至三月学期为“春季学期” others , use“ Term” April?July. use“Spring Term”for the period April?July.另外一个称呼是称四至七 月学期为“春季期” Some call the January term“Winter term”(which is 。Some term“ term”
2
logica
  1). it“ Term” 另外一个称呼是称四至七月学期 logica
  1).others call it“Easter Term” . 为“春季期” 。一些地方称一月学期为“冬季学期”(这是逻辑上的叫法),而有 另外一个称呼则是“复活节学期” 。 Day-schools only. Day-schools mostly work Monday to Friday only.from about 9 a.m.to p. between 3 and 4 p.m.大部分日校周一至周五上课,大约从早晨九点上到下午 三点或四点。Lunch is provided and parents pay for it unless they prove parents Lunch authorities to. to the authorities that they cannot well afford to.学校通常提供午饭, 但学生父母要付钱,除非他们向官方证明自己负担不起。All primary school All primary children, inde schools, children,including those in independent schools,were given milk free benefit. of charge until 1970 when the Government abolished this benefit.所有 的小学包括私立学校都向学生提供免费的牛奶,直到 1970 年政府取消了这一福 利。 CLOZE are 1g . Cioze . Please pay attention that there are more words than are necessary? necessary? afford attain backbring fetch good in mention offer on private report return well under levels. There are many ways of attaining education at all levels.Many high schools, colieges, business schools, colieges, community or district adult schools as well as business noncredit(无学分的 无学分的)daytime and industrial institutions offer noncredit(无学分的)daytime or evening skills. classes in dozens of fields and skills. It is reported that about 1 3 million Americans participate in different forms of adult education schools, training, through schools,job training,or correspondence courses.About one in four American adults participate in an organized learning group each vear。 years, vear。In recent years,there has been a trend to bring in older students post. degree. mentioned, for post. secondary education degree. has been mentioned, communitv As the college has made it possible for all sections of the population to have higher education . Other colleges and universities , both public and private. called“ education” private.also offer what is now called“continuing education”programs or“ education” degrees? or“lifelong education”programs of associate degrees?graduate studies system, development. or professional development.Under such a system,a worker may contmue part? basis, his study even on a part?time basis,and a retired person may return age. college at an advanced age. 有许多接受不同层次教育的方式。许多高中、大学、社区或区域成人学校以 及工商业学术机构都提供许多领域和技能的无学分日班或夜班。据报道,美国大 约有 1300 万人通过学校、职业培训或函授课程来参与不同形式的成人教育。大 约四分之一的美国成人每年都要参加有组织的学习团体。近几年来,有一种趋势 是让年龄大一点的学生获得中等教育学位。正如前面所提到的,社区大学可以使 任何年龄段的人拥有接受高等教育的机会。 其他学院和大学, 包括公立和私立的, 都提供“继续教育”或“终身教育” ,用来获得副学位、毕业教育或职业进修。 在这样的教育体系下,工人可以进行业余教育,上了年纪的退休的人也可以进入 大学学习。
3
Text B 美国的高等教育 Higher Education in the United States 美国的高等教育 States, In the United States,a student who has finished high school may want education. to continue in higher education.在美国,一名中学生高中毕业后,如果想 继续接受高等教育,There are several ways to continue in higher education There States. universities ies, in the United States.他可以有以下几种选择方式:There are universities, There colleges schools colleges colleges,community colleges,and technical or vocational schools.综 合大学、 四年制学院、 社区学院、 职业或技术学院。 Each of these kinds of higher below. education will be described below.对这几种高等教育方式,下文将分别加 以介绍。 universi nivers college. A university is much larger than a college. It is larger for two reason. reason.综合大学比四年制学院规模大,表现在两个方面。First,a university F rst, in the United States usually has several different colleges in it. 首 先,美国综合大学通常设有若干个学院。 Each college within a university area. has a special subject area.每个学院都有专门的学科领域。 There may be humanities ies, arts a college of liberal arts where humanities , social science ,natural science, taught. science, and mathematics are taught.一般设有文学院,开设的课程有人文 学科、社会科学、自然科学和数学等。There may be a college of education There students teachers where students learn to be teachers.也可能设有教育学院,学生可以在这 里通过学习成为教师。There may be a college of busi
 

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