Unit 3
Books 书
Text A
Knowledge may be acquired through conversation, watching television or traveling, the deepest and most consistent way but is through reading. 知识可以通过交谈、看电视或旅游来获得,但最深入、最经常的途径是读书。 If we consider the literate population of the world, we may conclude that a few spend their whole lives on academic reading;如果我们考察一下世界上有阅读能力的人,便可得出这样一个结论:把整个一生用来阅读学术书籍是少数; many read something light for pleasure, a few dip into something more serious now and then; 多数人只是看些闲书消遣;时常浏览一些比较严肃读物的人也是少数; while very many men,women and children never advance beyond the sports page of a newspaper,a fashion article or a comic. 而更多的男人、妇女和儿童只看报纸上的体育新闻、时装介绍或连环漫画。 If you have learnt to love books as a child, the reading habit will never desert you. 如果从小就学会爱读书,那么你会永远保持读书的习惯, But if this has not been your good fortune, you tend to think of reading as a bore. 但如果你没有这种好运气养成爱读书的习惯,你就会认为读书是件讨厌的事。 A few,but very few,come to the habit late in life. 有一些人,为数不多,直到晚年才养成爱读书的习惯。 The circumstances which help to set a child on the path to the literary adventure are: 有助于使儿童走上读书道路的环境是: a life even barely above real poverty, so that there is scope in the family for thoughts and activities not wholly devoted to the struggle for making a living; 有一个略高于赤贫生活水平的家庭,这样的家庭才有机会想些别的而不至于全盘心思为谋生而奋斗; the availability of free books either at home or in a public library; the possession (n.拥有) a character and of (n.性格) both curious(好奇的 )and independent. 或者家中有书,或者可在公共图书馆借书,做到看书不花钱;本人具有求知欲和独立性。 In order to desire to read one must be curious. 一个人想读书,必须有求知欲。 A few children are able to keep this curiosity and their mental independence alive despite the educational system of their country. 少数儿童不论他们国家的教育制度如何,始终能够保持这种求知欲和思想上独立性。 But many fail to do so either because of an overstrict system where what is most important is memory work; or because of a careless and lazy one where even the basic disciplines of literacy are ignored in the sacred name of free expression. 但多数儿童却做不到这一点, 这要么是由于教育制度过于严格,把死记硬背看作天下第一号大事;要么是由于教育 制度松散、使人怠惰,在“自由表达”的神圣旗帜下,甚至连读书写字这样的基本要求也被忽视。 It is a wonder that at least a few children survive their schooling and emerge as people who can think,people who are open-minded and knowledgeable. 堪称奇迹的是,至少有少数儿童竟然没有被这种学校教育所糟蹋,而是脱颖而出,成为善于思考、思路开阔、博学 多闻的人。 Thus,various circumstances are not favorable for the reading habit. 因此,不利于培养阅读习惯的环境是各种各样的, And we may add to this the worldwide atmosphere of violence(n.暴力) and anarchy(n.无政府状态) ,the New Dark Age in which we live today. 我们对此还可加一条,那就是遍及全世界的暴力行为和无政府状态??我们现在就生活在其中的新黑暗时代。 Many of us no longer have the peace of mind necessary to a quiet hour with a book.
我们很多人再也没有静下来读上一小时书所必需的那种心情了。 But it is precisely(adv.精确地) because of our present(现在的 ) troubles that we should read. 然而正是由于当前存在的各种问题,我们更应该读书。 How, otherwise,are we to understand the nature of hatred,of cruelty,of power polities ? 否则,我们怎能理解什么是仇恨、什么是残酷、什么是强权政治呢? How,otherwise,are we to take a stand on the serious question of individual freedom and authority ? 我们怎能在个人自由和权威这类严肃的问题上表明我们的立场呢? How,otherwise,are we to comprehend and perhaps solve these urgent(紧急的 )problems that face us? 我们怎能理解而且可能解决我们所面临的迫在眉睫的许多问题呢? Ideally then, a school system should be one in which the love of learning, rather than the acquisition of facts, cultivated; is one in which the spirit (精神)of enquiry (n.询问) is encouraged. 因此,理想的教育制度应该培养学生酷爱学习,而不是只是为了获取事实应该鼓励探索精神。 Ideally(a.完美的) ,family and governmental policy should be to see that we have a great number of books?any books. 而理想的家庭和政府方针应该保证我们有大量的书籍??什么书籍都有。 A person with a book is a real person alive on the earth; without a book he is a foo
  1. 手不释卷是活在世上真正的人;不然,就是一个傻瓜。
第三课
  1、Never desert(放弃) him when your friend is in the trouble. 不要在朋友困难的时候抛弃他。 对比:desert 放弃?? dessert 甜食;甜糕点
  2、To improve national economy(经济 )is the government’s consistent(一贯地) policy. 发展国民经济是政府的一贯政策。
  3、China took a stand on these issues. 中国在这问题上标明了立场。
  4、It is wrong to ignore(不理睬) their suggestions. 不理睬他们的建议是不对的。
  5、I always prefer(更喜欢) starting early, rather than leaving everything to the last minute. 我总是先开始工作,而不愿把事情留到最后才做。
  6、Please see (to it) that my children are taken good care of when I am away. 请务必在我外出的时候照顾好我的孩子。
  7、The precise(准确的) meaning of one word can only be defined(定义) from the context(上下文). 一个词准确的意思只能在上下文中来确定。
  8、The instruction(教育) of the policeman set the convict(罪犯) on the right path(小路). 警察的教育使这个罪犯走上了正路。
  9、Nowadays, many people commit(干坏事) illegal(违法的) acts in the name of science. 当前,有许多人打着科学的旗号干一些违法的事情。
  10、These tickets are available(有用的) on (the) day of issue only. 这种车票(仅在发售当天)有效。
对比:电影票价为五美元。The admission(允许进入) to the movie was five dollars.
  11、You don’t have any authority(权力) for entering this house, It’s private(私有的). 你们没有任何权力进入这所房子,这是私宅。
  12、I hope you will give favorable(赞成的) consideration(考虑) to my suggestion. 我希望你对我的建议作出肯定的表示。
  13、Many of us no longer have the peace of mind necessary to a quiet hour with a book. 我们很多人再也没有静下来读上一小时书所必需的那种心情了。
  14、A person with a book is a real person alive on the earth; 手不释卷是(活在世上)真正的人。
1V. Great books deal ( v t.对付;应付,常与 with 连用)with the persistently unsolved problems of human life. 重要的书籍是用来解决人类生活中难以解决的问题的。 There are genuine [ a.真的;真正的]mysteries [n.神秘小说,侦探小说]in the world that mark the limits( n.极限) of human knowing and thinking. 世界上确实有一些限制人类知识和思维的真正神秘的东西。 Inquiry not only begins with wonder, but usually ends with it also. 询问不仅开始于疑惑,也结束于疑惑。 Great minds acknowledge [v t .承认;表示感谢]mysteries honestly. 伟人都承认神秘的存在。 Wisdom( n.智慧, 聪明, 才智)is fortified(加强的)not destroyed (v t .破坏, 毁灭; 消灭) , by understanding its limitations (n.限制;限度,局限 ) . 智慧是可以通过了解它的限制来得到加强而不是被摧毁。 It is our privilege( n.特权,优惠) ,as readers ,to belong to( 属于)the larger brotherhood(n. [哲学]博爱; 手足情谊) of man that recognizes(vt.识别) no national(国家的 )boundaries [n.分界线.] It is our privilege, as readers ,to belong to the larger brotherhood of man that recognizes no national boundaries. 作为读者,我们是属于广范围的集体,没有任何国界,这是我们的特权。 I do not know how to escape [vt.逃脱]from the strait-jacket(约束物)of political nationalism. 我不知道如何摆脱政治国家主义的束缚。 I do know how we become friends of the human spirit(n.精神) in all its manifestations[ n.表明; 现象(显示),] regardless ( a. 不管……的;不顾……的。与 of 连用)of time and place.It is by reading the great books. 但是我确实知道我们如何在大范围内成为人类精神的朋友, 不受时间地点的局限。 我们可以通过读好书达到这一点。
Text B
The History of Books 书籍的历史 The first known inventor of printing in Europe was Johannes Gutenberg of Germany. 欧洲第一个著名的印刷术发明家,是德国的约翰.内斯.古腾堡。 The first book printed in his workshop was a Latin Bible. 他在车间里印的第一本书,是拉丁文圣经。 A few copies of this first book still exist.
第一本书的一些复本现在还保存着, They are now over five hundred years old. 已有 500 多年的历史了。 The Gutenberg Bible was printed on a hand press with type made of lead. 古腾堡圣经是用手控印刷机在铅字版上印成的。 Most of the copies were printed on paper, but a few were printed on vellum [ n. 羊皮纸.] The books are about 12 inches wide and
  16.5 inches long. 这些书大多数印在纸上,但有几本印在羊皮上, 这种书宽约 12 英寸,长约
  16.5 英寸。 Men who had been trained in Gutenberg’s workshop soon established (vt.成立,建立) themselves as independent printers. 在古腾堡印刷所受过训练的人们,很快就独立开业。 By 1 5
  00, about fifty years after the first Bible was printed, more than
  30,000 books had been printed. 到了 1500 年,大约在第一本圣经印成后 50 年,已经印成书 30 000 册以上. The Bible was still the most popular book. 圣经依旧是最流行的书。 Other church books were also printed,as were Greek and Latin classics,history books,and astronomy books. 此外,还印刷了一些教堂用书、希腊和拉丁的古典名著、历史书及天文学书。 The tools(工具 )of the first printers were simple and could be moved about easily. 最初的印刷工人所使用的工具很简单,搬动起来也很容易。 At the end of the fifteenth century there were more than a thousand printers in Europe. 15 世纪末,欧洲印刷工人有一千多人。 Since many people could not read Latin and Greek, books were soon printed in various languages. 由于很多人不懂希腊文和拉丁文,不久印刷书籍就包括了各种语言。 The printers also began to make the books smaller, So that they could be handled more easily. 印书者开始把书印得小些,以便携带起来更容易。 Furthermore the printers began to make their books more elaborate( 精致的, 精巧的), adding pictures and ornamental [ a. 装饰的 n.装饰品]letters at the beginning of chapters. 此外,而且他们开始把书印得更精致了,在每一章之前增添插图和装饰性字母, Gradually the letters of the type were made smaller,finer and more delicate. 印刷字母逐渐做得更小、更细、更精致。 The letters began to look less like manuscript letters, and eventually[ adv.最终],the form of the letters was simplified to the point where they were well?adapted to the metal of the type. 印刷字母开始看起来和手写字母不同了。字母的形式终于大为简化,完全适合铅字的要求。 Sometimes books were illustrated with[用...说明 ]woodcuts. 书籍的插图有时是木刻的。 Blocks of wood were carved so that the white parts of the picture were below the surface of the wood. 在雕刻标志木头时,图画的白色部分是凹陷的, When the surface was inked and stamped onto paper, the dark part of the picture was reproduced. 在木头的凸出表面涂上墨水,并印在纸上,图画的黑色部分就复印出来, The first attempts,of course, were rather crude, but eventually the block printers were making meticulous [ a. extremely careful 细致的,过细的]and artistic[艺术的 ]illustrations[插图]. 当然,起初的试作是相当粗糙的,但渐渐地木刻印刷工人刻的插图,就变得既细腻又有艺术性了。 Florence,in Italy and Lyons,in France, became famous for their illustrated books. 意大利的佛罗伦斯,德国的里昂,都以出版插图书籍而驰
 

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