优盟名师课程内部讲义 优盟名师课程内部讲义 语法讲座: 语法讲座:动名词 一,动名词的形式
  1.动名词的时态与语态形式 动名词的时态与语态形式与现在分词完全一样,以 do 为例,共有四种形式: doing being done having done having been done 注:正因为动名词和现在分词的形式一样,所以在我们的教科书与一些英语语法书中,把动 名词和现在分词统一称为-ing 分词.现在为了方便学习与记忆,所以我们还是把动名词专门列 出进行分析讲解. A)动名词的一般式 doing doing 一般并不强调动作发生的时间, 所以与谓语动词作比较的话, 这个动作可以在谓语动 词之前发生,也可以在谓语动词的同时发生,还可以在谓语动词之后发生,甚至根本就不涉及 到时间这个问题. eg. He decided to give up smoking. Reading a lot can help me to understand better. The boy practises playing the piano every evening. Smoking is harmful. B)动名词的完成形式 having done having done 所表示的动作都发生在谓语动词之前. eg. He didn't mention having met you before. I have no idea of their having done such a thing. The old teacher was given a medal for having completed sixty years of teaching. Mrs. Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize for having discovered the element radium. C)动名词的被动形式 being done being done 所表示的是一个被动的动作. eg. Mike came into the office without being asked. The problem is far from being settled. 注:在一些特定的动词或词组后面,动名词用的是主动形式,但表示的是被动的意义,如在 want, need, require, be worth 等词之后. eg. The flower wants watering. (= to be watered) The old clock needs oiling. (= to be oiled) The problem requires considering again. (= to be considered again) The book is worth reading. (= is worthy to be read) D)动名词的完成被动形式 having been done having been done 所表示的是一个发生在谓语动词之前的被动的动作. eg. Tom was ashamed of having been scolded by the principal. I still remembered having been taken to Suzhou by my mother when I was
  5.
  2.动名词的否定形式 动名词的否定形式就是在动名词之前加 not. eg. He insisted on Lisa's not going there alone. He was criticized for not having finished his homework.
  3.动名词的复合结构 动名词的复合结构就是在动名词前用名词或代词的所有格:sb's doing.这个所有格通常就 是这个动名词的逻辑主语. eg. Do you mind my opening the window? Tom's getting up early surprised his parents. 注 1:如果这个动名词是作宾语,那么我们还可以用宾格加动名词,而当动名词是作主语时, 就只能用所有格.如上面的第一个例子就能改成:Do you mind me opening the window? 但第二 个例子的 Tom's(或 His)不能换成 Tim(或 Him).
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优盟名师课程内部讲义 优盟名师课程内部讲义 另外,如果这个动名词的逻辑主语是无生命的"物"时,我们通常也不用所有格. eg. You can hear the noise of desks being opened and closed outside the school. 注 2:并不是所有的动名词前都要加所有格的,所以只有在需要时才用动名词的复合结构.有 时用与不用,意义是不同的. 试比较:Do you mind turning on the light? Do you mind my turning on the light? 二,动名词的功能
  1.作主语 eg. Getting up early is a good habit. Teaching English is my work. Breathing became difficult when they reached the top of the mountain. There is no joking about such matters. 动名词作主语时,也可以用 it 作形式主语,如: It is no use crying over spilt milk. It is a waste of time quarrelling with each other. 动名词与不定式都能作主语,但动名词一般表示的是比较抽象的行为,或者目前的动作,而 不定式则往往用来表示具体的动作,特别是将来的动作. 试比较:A) Smoking is not allowed in the library. It's not very good for you to smoke so much. B) Building houses is their job. They are builders. I am on duty today. To keep the classroom clean is my duty. 有的时候,选择动名词还是不定式作主语,要根据习惯搭配或者句子的平衡来定. eg. A) It's important to study English well. It is no good reading without thorough comprehension. B) Seeing is believing. To see is to believe.
  2.作表语 eg. His hobby is collecting stamps. The real problem is getting to know the needs of the market. 动名词和不定式都能作表语,它们之间的区别与作主语时的区别相同. 试比较:His job is cleaning the toilets, but his dream is to be the manager of the company.
  3.作定语 动名词作定语,一般放在被修饰词之前,主要用于讲清被修饰词的用途或目的. eg. a sleeping bag = a bag for sleeping drinking water = water for drinking a smoking room = a room for smoking 动名词与现在分词都能作定语,但现在分词作定语时,往往用来表示所修饰名词的动作或状 态,与被修饰词是主谓关系. eg. a sleeping lion = a lion that is/was sleeping boiling water = water that is/was boiling a smoking chimney = a chimney that is/was smoking 试比较:a dancing hall, a dancing girl a swimming pool, the swimming dog the waiting room, the waiting patients Practice: Read the following short passage and try to find out the answer to the questions. Some boys put up a notice outside their garden gate, which read: NOTICE If you are interested in water-sports, swimming, diving, floating, etc., come and see the floating match here this afternoon.
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优盟名师课程内部讲义 优盟名师课程内部讲义
Some people paid their three pence and went inside. What did they expect to see? And what do you think t they will see? Key: They expected to see a match for floating. But all they saw was a match-stick floating in a basin of water. (They expected to see a gerund and all they saw was a participle!)
  4.作宾语 在英语中,动名词与不定式都能作宾语.根据词汇的惯用法,动名词作宾语可以分成以下几 种类型: A)只用动名词,不能用不定式 在高考词汇为范围中,常见的只用动名词,不能用不定式作宾语的动词有 admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape. excuse, fancy, finish, forbid, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, practise, risk, suggest,等. eg. I have just finished writing the letter. You should avoid catching cold. 注:在以上动词中,我们不可以用不定式作宾语,并不意味着我们不可以用不定式作它们的宾 补,如 allow sb to do sth, advise sb to do sth 等,都是用不定式作宾补的例子. B)只用不定式,不能用动名词 常用的这类动词有:agree, decide, desire, expect, hope, offer, pretend, promise, refuse 等等. eg. Karl Marx decided to study Russian when he was over fifty. I hope to meet you soon. C)既可用动名词,又可用不定式,而且意思也差不多 这类动词有:like, love, hate, prefer eg. The boy likes playing/ to play video games. 注:如果讲到的是一贯的爱好等,用动名词更多;而讲到某一次具体的活动,特别是有将来意 义时,用不定式多.也有一些特定的词组,一定要用不定式. eg. He likes playing football. But he would like to swim with his friends this afternoon. She prefers riding a bicycle to taking a bus. She prefers to take a bus rather than ride a bicycle. 除了以上动词之外,还有 begin, start, continue, cease 也具有同样的性质. eg. The baby began crying/ to cry. 注:有的语法书上说,有三种情况下,begin 等动词后不能用动名词(主语不是"人";动词 本身是进行时态;后接的是表示思维活动,精神状态等的动词如 realize, understand). D) 既可用动名词,又可用不定式,但意思不同 这类动词有:remember, forget, regret, stop, go on, try, mean. 试比较. a) Please remember to wake me up at six tomorrow morning. I remember seeing him somewhere before. b) The child has forgotten to bring the book home. The child will never forget visiting the museum at night. c) I regret to tell you that he failed to pass the exam. I regret telling you that he failed to pass the exam. d) Please stop talking. They stopped to take a rest. e) He thought for a while and went on telling the story. After doing Exercise 1, they went on to do Exercise
  2. f) If you can't solve the problem, why not try solving it in my way? Try to get there on time no matter what happens. g) Sorry, I didn't mean to hurt your feeling. Missing the train means waiting for another two hours.
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优盟名师课程内部讲义 优盟名师课程内部讲义 注:既可用动名词,又可用不定式,但意思不同的词还有 want, need, require.如果它们后面 跟动名词的话,用的是主动形式,但事实是被动的含义,而用不定式,则主动形式表主动意义, 被动形式表被动意义. 还有 help 一词,在词组 can't help 解释"忍不住"时,后用动名词,在 help 解释"帮助" 时,后用不定式,而且 to 可以省略. eg. She can't help crying at the news. Mary can't help (to) do anything for us?she is only 5! E)介词宾语 动名词经常作为介词的宾语,在复习的时候,特别要当心介词 to 后的宾语. eg. He looks forward to seeing you again. 常用的以介词 to 结尾的词组有:be/get used to, devote...to, lead to, look forward to, pay attention to, object to, oppose to, stick to 等. 高考真题试析: 高考真题试析: 01 年 31 题 I really appreciate to relax with you on this nice island. A. to have had time B. having time C. to have time D. to having time 选 B.本题考的是动名词做宾语.因为 appreciate 后面只跟名词,动名词或宾语从句,不能跟不 定式. 01 年 39 题 Fishing is his favorite hobby, and . A. he'd like to collect coins as well B. he feels like collecting coins, too C. to collect coins is also his hobby D. collecting coins also gives him great pleasure 选 D.本句考查的是句子的对称.用 and 连接的两个部分应该是对称的.因为前半句用动名词 做主语,那么后半句也对应地用动名词作主语,这样的结构比较好. 02 年 38 题 to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed 选 C.本题考非谓语动词作主语.在非谓语动词中,只有动名词和不定式能做主语,分词不能 做主语.另外,根据意思"被长时间地暴露在阳光下会对人的皮肤有害",所以要选动名词的 被动形式. 03 年 37 题 The discovery of new evidence led to . A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 选 C.本题考动名词的复合结构.因为词组 lead to(句中是 led to)的 to 是介词,后面要跟动名 词,同时还考虑到 the thief 与动词 catch 的关系是动宾关系,所以要用动名词的被动形式. 03 年(春)36 题 the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president's attending 选 D.通读全题,发现本句缺少主语,而所给的选项中,只有 D 合适,即动名词作主语.A, D 两项是从句,但没有连词,所以不行. 04 年(春)40 题
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优盟名师课程内部讲义 优盟名师课程内部讲义 Victor apologized for to inform me of the change in the plan. A. his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being able D. him to be not able 选 C.本题考动名词的复合结构及否定形式.在介词 for 后跟的是用动名词复合结构的宾语,所 以 B, D 两项排除.动名词的否定,not 要放在 doing 之前,所以 A 项错误. 05 年 32 题 He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn't risk the good opportunity. A. to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost 选 B.本题考非谓语动词作宾语.在动词 risk 之后,习惯用-ing 分词作宾语,所以 A,C 两项 不考虑.而空格后面有 the good opportunity 是 lose 的宾语,所以此-ing 分词不可能是被动,所 以选 B. 05 年(春)33 题 Accustomed to the steep mountains, he had no difficulty reaching the top. A. climbing B. climb C. having climbed D. have climed 选 A.词组 accustomed to 的 to 是介词,所以后面必须跟动名词.accustomed to 的意思是"习惯 于......". 06 年 31 题 . Eugene's never willing to alter any of his opinions. It's no use with him. A. to argue B. arguing C. argued D. having argued 选 B.在句型 It's no use 后习惯用 doing,而非其他. 06 年(春)29 题 The parents suggested in the hotel room but their kids were anxious to camp out during the trip. A. sleep B. to sleep C. sleeping D. having slept 选 C.suggest 后只能跟动名词作宾语. 07 年(春)33 题 All the staff in our company are considering to the city centre for the fashion show. A. to go B. going C. to have gone D. having gone 选 B.在动词 consider 之后,应该用动名词作宾语,不能用不定式,而且"考虑去做某事"一
 

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