Lesson Two 商务英语翻译的技巧与方法
一、 英汉翻译中的词语翻译 二、 形容词和副词的翻译 三、 代词的翻译
Charpeter1 英汉翻译中的词语翻译
注意事项: 注意事项:
多留意常用词语, ⒈ 多留意常用词语,小心掉进常用意义的陷阱中 ⒉ 勤查词典,注意一词多义 勤查词典, ⒊ 注意词语意义的感情色彩 ⒋ 仔细区分词语使用的语体 注意表达方式的调整, ⒌ 注意表达方式的调整,使译文符合逻辑合适和 实际情况 注意表达的简洁性, ⒍ 注意表达的简洁性,使句子既简洁又达意
e.g:
  1. The School of the Air
the school of the air

  2. Last evening I went to a do held by our China Study Group. =social function
  3. the See of Sydney = the official seat or centre of a bishop
  4. He’s unhappy now, because he had a blue with his friend just now. an argument
  5. She told me that her 18-year-old son was the baby.
  6. Her mother is a sister in a Melbourne hospital. =a senior nurse in a hospital
  7. Agreement
Charpeter2 形容词和副词翻译
RULES:一、增词法(Amplification)
增词法,又叫增译法, 增词法,又叫增译法,它是为了使译文忠实地表达 原文的意思与风格并使译文合乎表达习惯, 原文的意思与风格并使译文合乎表达习惯,必须 增加一些词语。 增加一些词语。 ⒈ 形容词和副词适用于增词法的情况 a. I recognized the absurdity of dealing with them through intermediaries. b. The journey which has brought me to Peking has been a very long one. Long when measured in miles. Long when measured in time.
Exercises: a. We place the highest value on our friendly relations with developing countries. b. a soft above ground launching site c. Their goods are cheap and fine. d. Premier Zhou was a quiet and thoughtful man. e. He thought directly internal confidence in the regime declined, her financial structure would be in danger. f. Until you told me, I have heard nothing of what happened.
⒉ 为了语法上的需要而增词 a. I am looking forward to the holiday. b. As a Oriental, I cannot but be proud of your historic achievement. c. Our coasts were preyed upon by pirates. d. We won’t retreat, we never have and never will.
⒊ 为了表达的清晰和自然而增词 a. Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; writing an exact man.
b. Their host carved, poured, served, cut bread, talked, laughed, proposed healths. c. Modesty helps ones to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind. d. Theory is something but practice is everything.
⒋ 为增加背景知识或文化而增词 a. Henry Kissinger had slept here before, in July and again in October. b. The blond boy quickly crossed himself.
⒌ 英语名词复数翻译的增词法 a. Cargo insurance is to protect the trader from losses that many dangers may cause. b. In production and construction, we should try not only to turn out more and better material products, but also train successive generations of socialist-minded people of a new type.
二、词类转换法(Conversion)
词类转换法,又称转译法, 词类转换法,又称转译法,是指由于两种语言在 语法和习惯上的差异, 语法和习惯上的差异,在保证原文意思不变的情况 译文必须改变词类。 下,译文必须改变词类。
形容词和副词适用于转译法的情况 a. In those years the Republicans were in. (adj. to v.) b. There is a big increase in demand for all kinds of consumer goods in every part of our country. (adj.+ n. to adv.+v.) c. We also realize the growing need and necessity to industrialize certain sectors of the economy. (adj.+n. to adv.+v.) d. For 20 years we were passive witnesses to the deterioration of prices of our raw materials and an excessive increase of the prices of manufactured goods. (adj.+n. to adv.+v.)
e. What kind of sailor are you? (adj.+n. to v.) f. It is impossible to live in society and be independent of society. (be +adj.+of to v.) g. The volume of trade has increased tremendously to the advantage of both counties. (v.+adv. to adj.+n.) h. Independent observers have commented favourably on achievements you have made in this direction. (v.+adv. to v.+ adj.+n.) i. Traditionally, there had always been good relations between them. (adv. to adj.) j. Here the question arises: Is your desire to develop heavy industry genuine or feigned, strong or weak?
Chapter 3
代词的翻译
RULES: 一、减词法(Omission) 减词法(
减词法,又称减译法, 减词法,又称减译法,它是指原文中有些词在译文 中不译出来, 中不译出来,删去一些可有可无的或者有了反嫌累 赘或违背译文习惯表达法的词, 赘或违背译文习惯表达法的词,但减译并不是把原 文的某些思想内容删去。 文的某些思想内容删去。
  1. 作主语的人称代词 (
  1) It’s the way I am, and try as I might, I haven’t been able to change it. (
  2) We live and learn.
(
  3) Even as the doctor was recommending rest, he know that this is itself was not enough, that one could never get real rest without a peaceful mind. (
  4) Anyone who does not recognize this fact is not a materialist.
  2. 作宾语的代词 (
  1) She laid her hand lightly on his arm as if to thank him for it. (
  2) A wise man will not marry a woman who has attainments but no virtue. (
  3) The more he tried to hide his warts, the more he revealed them.

  3. 物主代词 (
  1) He put his hands into his pockets and then shrugged his shoulders. (
  2) She went with her neat figure, and her sober step, down the dark street. 4 . 非人称的或强势句中的it 非人称的或强势句中的 (
  1) Outside it was pitch dark and it was raining cats and dogs. (
  2) It was with some difficulty that he found that way to his own house. (
  3) It is not entirely right to say that if there is food, let everyone share it.

  5.
指物的人称代词
The great ship tense and anxious, groped her way toward the shore.
二、 重复法 (Repetition)
一般来说,重复法主要有三个作用: 一般来说,重复法主要有三个作用: 一是为了明确: 一是为了明确 e.g: (
  1) We have to analyze and solve problems. (
  2) Let us revise our safety and sanitary regulations. 二是为了强调: 二是为了强调 e.g: (
  1) Before liberation many people could read and write.
(
  2) I have fulfilled my assigned work ahead of schedule, so has he. (
  3) But we still have defects, and very big ones. 三是为了生动: 三是为了生动 e.g: (
  1) What are they after? They are after name, after position, and they want to cut smart figures. (
  2) Live and die,we shall be loyal to our motherland. (
  3) Who knows that every grain in the bowl Is the fruit of so much pain and toil?

  1. 代词重复 (
  1) Jessy opened his eyes, and there were filled with tears. (
  2) Big powers have their strategies while small countries also have their own lines. (
  3) A large family has its difficulties.
  2. 名词重复
(
  1) The prisoners often got into argument with each other or with the guard. (
  2) Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as of admiration.
(
  3) Aristocratic and democratic tendencies in a nation often show themselves in its speech.
  3. 动词重复
(
  1) They forget the democratic centralism which subordinates the minority to the majority, the lower level to the higher level, the part to the whole, and the whole Party to the Central Committee. (
  2) They talked of things they longed forof meat and of hot soup and of the richness of butter. (
  3) If you didn’t succeed at first, try, try, try again.
Lesson Three 翻译常用的其他四种技巧
一、正说反译,反说正译法 正说反译, 二、词序调整法 三、分译法 四、语态变换法
Chapter 1
Negation
正说反译,反说正译法( 正说反译,反说正译法(Negation), 主要是 指在翻译实践中, 指在翻译实践中,为了使译文忠实而合乎语言习 惯地表达原文的意思, 惯地表达原文的意思,有时必须把原文中的肯定 说法变成译文中的否定说法, 说法变成译文中的否定说法,或把原文中的否定 说法变成疑问中的肯定说法。 说法变成疑问中的肯定说法。 它主要指下面四种语言现象: 它主要指下面四种语言现象: ⒈ 完全否定 ( full negative) ⒉ 绝对否定 ( absolute negative) ⒊ 部分否定 ( semi negative) ⒋ 含部分否定意义的词或短语 ( words, or phrases, with negative implication)

  1. I don’t think Tom is correct.
  2. A: Are you not going tomorrow? B: No, I’m not going.
  3. The world today is far from peaceful.
  4. In technology, I think first we have to follow others in most cases, and it is better for us to do so, since that is what we are lacking at present and know little about.
  5. That city and the areas around it are an icefree port and a nuclear-weapon-free zone.
  6. But for the workers’ help, we should not have succeeded in this experiment.

  7. All that glitters is not gold.
  8. All is not lost.
  9. Both children are not clever.
  10. We never thought of anything wrong. Exercises :
  1. She is no fool.
  2. He is not incapable.
  3. She never comes without bringing some candy for the children.
  4. His pronunciation is not better than mine. His pronunciation is no better than mine.

  5. His success is out of the question. His success is out of question.
  6. We cannot exaggerate its importance.
  7. I can’t help thinking that he is still alive.
Summarize:

  1.Verb: refuse,failed, exclude, lake, avoid, miss, ignore, e.g: a. The window refuses to open. b. Yesterday he failed to get to school on time. c. They excluded children from getting in.

  2. Prep.: above, beyond, instead of e.g: a. To do this is beyond my ability. b. Lei Feng’s noble deeds are above all praise.
  3. Conj.: rather…than, before, dismiss e.g: a. I, rather than you, should do the work. b. The guerrillas would fight to death before they surrendered.
  4. N. : failure, absence, neglect e.g: The building is in a state of neglect.
  5. Phrase: far from, worthy of, more than, rather than, but for, anything but, too…to
e.g: a. The process is too risky not to be checked in time. b. More than any other poet, Byron has been identified with his own heroes.
  6. 部分否定:all, both 部分否定: e.g: Every man is not polite and all are not born gentleman.
  7. 双重否定 双重否定: 否定词/半否定词 ⑴ 否定词 半否定词 + without, but e.g:There is no rule but exception. 不定惯词+修饰词 中心词+that… 修饰词+中心词 ⑵ It’s + 不定惯词 修饰词 中心词 e.g: a. It’s a good horse that never stumbles.
b. It’s an ill bird that fouls its own nest. c. It’s a wise man never make mistakes. ⑶ any more than e.g: He can not effect the impossible any more than we can.
  8. 否定词 untill /till 否定词+ e.g: Man in general doesn't appreciate what he has until he lose it.
Chapter 2 词序调整法 (Inversion)
Inversion作为一种翻译技巧,其意思为,翻译时 作为一种翻译技巧,其意思为, 作为一种翻译技巧 对词序作必要或必不可少的改变, 对词序作必要或必不可少的改变,并不只是纯粹的 颠倒词序或倒装。 颠倒词序或倒装。 倒装是语法概念,是指同一种语言内的倒装情况, 倒装是语法概念,是指同一种语言内的倒装情况, 有其各自独特的语言构成方式。 有其各自独特的语言构成方式。 倒装例句: 倒装例句:a. What did you do yesterday? b. How dreadful is this place! c. Not a word did he say. 语法倒装一般是指主语与谓语或者与谓语的一部分 颠倒位置,而翻译中的Inversion是指译文与原文相 颠倒位置,而翻译中的 是指译文与原文相 比词序发生了变化,故名“词序调整法”。 比词序发生了变化,故名“词序调整法”
Ⅰ. 短语翻译 作定语时放在名词之后的词: ⒈ 作定语时放在名词之后的词:elect, designate, general, incarnate, galore e.g: the present elect the minister designate secretary general liberty incarnate edibles galore 形容词放置前后, ⒉ 形容词放置前后,意义发生变化 e.g: mother concerned; concerned mother
involved style; the present members; the responsible man; Ⅱ. 句子翻译
  1.He came yesterday.
the issues involved the members present the man responsible

  2.There are many wonderful stories to tell about the places I visit and the people I met.
  3.Never have we seen so bright a future before us!
  4.Here at last seemed credible history of the difficult advance of man.

  5. We ate to our hearts’ content at her home last Sunday.
  6. It would have been difficult to find a happier child than I was as I lay in my crib at the close of that eventful day and lived over the joys it had brought me.
  7. Only by following the instruction of the Party Central Committee, and mobilizing all positive factors, can we successfully realize the four modernizations.
Chapter 3 分译法 (Division)
分译法主要用于长句的翻译。 分译法主要用于长句的翻译。为了使译文忠 易懂, 实,易懂,有时不得不把一个长句译成两句或更 多的句子。 作为一种翻译技巧, 多的句子。Division作为一种翻译技巧,它除了 作为一种翻译技巧 指句子分译外,还包括某种词语意义的分译。 指句子分译
 

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