中国和经济全球化 共同发展 中国的经济发展大大得益于经济全球化。 中国国内生产总值从 1979 年的 1400 亿美元跃升至 2004 年的 16000 1 亿美元,人均国内生产总值从 1979 年的 181 美元跃升至 2004 年的 1200 美元 。在此期间,对外贸易总额也从 200 亿美元增长至 11000 亿美元。中国的经济总量目前居世界第六位。2004 年中国的对外贸易、外汇储备和利用 2 外资均取得了历史性突破,其总量分别列世界第三、第二和第一位 。2004 年的 GDP 增长速度超过了
  9%。 20 世纪 90 年代中国经济的显著特点之一就是愈发重视吸引外资。截至 2005 年 4 月底,中国批准的外国在 3 华投资企业已超过 53 万家, 协议和实际到位资金总额分别达到 11500 亿美元和 5795 亿美元 。 据有关数据统计, 世界前 500 强的企业已有四百多家在华投资, 世界的顶级汽车制造业巨头和世界前 100 名信息技术公司也纷纷在 4 中国这个世界人口大国落户 。中国已经成为跨国公司产业链条中至关重要的一环。 引进外资推动了中国的现代化进程,对于中国的劳动就业市场、资本构成、财政收入和收支平衡所产生的积 极影响不容低估。外资在华企业的工业产值目前已占全国总量的三分之一,税收占全国总量的五分之一。另外, 在华外资企业出口占全国总量的近
  60%,安排就业总人数达全国就业总人口的
  10%。 中国的对外开放对于建立市场经济起到了至关重要的作用。 一来中国借鉴了市场经济发达国家的经验; 二来 全球化进程推动了许多重大机构改革。中国自加人世贸组织后,共审查、修订了约 3000 条法律、法令和部门法 规,与在华外资利益相关的经济法也不断得以完善。截至 2005 年 1 月 1 日,中国取消了大部分非关税形式的保 护性措施,中国普通关税实现了加入世贸组织的承诺,降至
  9.
  9%。银行、保险、证券和物流等服务贸易也加快 了开放步伐。 5 同样值得注意的是越来越多的中国公司已经跻身国际竞争市场 。中国企业期盼踏上国际舞台,利用国际自 然资源、 市场资源和技术资源。 联想集团并购 IBM 公司的业务就是这一机制的明证??有效利用中国国内的市场 资源换取国外的高尖技术和国际高知名度的品牌。 在欧洲和北美的一些城市, 见到海尔和其他一些中国商品的广 告牌不足为奇。截至 2004 年底,中国在境外的直接投资总额已接近 370 亿美元。 6 2001 年 11 月中国加入世贸组织,引导中国更为积极地参与国际经贸活动 。加人世贸组织不仅有利于全球 的经济发展,也为中国企业发展海外业务提供了前所未有的机遇。民营公司可以扩大出口,更多地利用外资。根 据互惠原则,中国企业可以投资境外的服务行业,境外已经知名的中国企业可享受与所在国企业同等的待遇。 中国加入世贸组织对国有企业也有裨益,它们纷纷奋起迎接挑战,改变管理机制,与世界接轨。许多国有企 业正在进行内部重组,争取扩大在国际市场上的竞争力。 中国的经济发展给世界经济发展带来的实质性利益也有目共睹。中国的 GDP 占世界经济总量的
  4%,但世界 经济增长的
  10%得益于中国。中国的对外贸易占世界总量的
  6%,但全球贸易增长的
  12%得益于中国。中国作 为世贸组织的成员国,2001 年到 2004 年间进口货物金额达 12000 亿美元。自 2004 年起,中国的进口额估计每 年为 6000 亿美元。近年来中国进口年增长速度超过
  20%,多数时候年增长速度高达
  30%。巨大的国内需求带动 了其他国家的生产和就业。同时,进口商进口中国的产品,不仅节约成本,物美价廉的中国产品也大大改善了各 国消费者的经济状况。在国际分工背景下,中国占据低端市场,可以促使其他国家提升产业结构,致力发展技术 含量要求高并能获得高附加值的经济领域。 中国热切希望与外国投资方共享经济繁荣。家喻户晓的手机品牌诺基亚 20 年前进军中国,目前在华投资已 6 达
  21.8 亿美元,为在华最大的手机出口商,过去 5 年的出口额达一百四十多亿美元 。 结论 经济全球化给每个国家带来的不仅有机遇,还有挑战。一个国家或地区能否在经济全球化进程中趋利避害, 关键要有一个既充分发挥其比较优势,又能防范和控制风险的开放战略。过去 20 年里,在邓小平理论的指引下, 我国实施了正确的对外开放战略,国际贸易的规模在此期间扩大了 16 倍。中国积极参与国际分工和合作有力促 进了国内产业结构升级,创造了大量新的就业机会,提高了国民经济运行效率,增强了综合国力,中国在国际经 济和政治舞台上得以发挥更大的作用。 当然, 随着开放程度的提高, 国际市场波动也日益波及国内经济的运行。 例如, 全球石油价格的大幅度涨跌、 国际主要货币汇率的急剧变动以及 1997 年的亚洲金融危机都对中国经济产生了负面影响。 此外,由于中国长期被排斥在世界多边贸易体系之外,不得不依靠双边磋商和协议来协调对外经济关系,使 得中国企业和产品进入国际市场后受到许多歧视性或不公正的待遇。 中国只有积极参与全球贸易规则的制定才能 维护我国在参与经济全球化进程中的合法权益。 因此,进入新世纪,我们应该加快改革步伐,加大开放力度,准备迎接经济全球化带来的新机遇和新挑战。
1
China in Economic Globalization Shared Growth China has reaped significant benefits from globalization. The country' s gross domestic product (GDP) jumped from about $140 billion in 1979 to $ I. 6 trillion in 2004, with per-capita GDP soaring from $181 to $1,2
  00. During this period, foreign trade volume also grew from $ 20 billion to $
  1.1 trillion. China ranks sixth worldwide in terms of economic aggregate. The year of 2004 witnessed a historic breakthrough in the country' s foreign trade, foreign exchange reserves and foreign investment utilized, with worldwide rankings standing at third, second and first respectively. The GDP growth last year was more than 9 percent. The increasing role of foreign investment was one of the most remarkable features of the Chinese economy in the 1990s. By the end of April 2005, more than 530,000 foreign-invested companies had been approved, with the contractual and paid-in foreign investment having totaled $
  1.15 trillion and $ 5
  79.5 billion respectively. Statistics show that more than 400 out of the world' s top 500 companies have invested in China, whereas almost all of the world' s leading automobile giants and top 100 information technology finns have started operations in the world' s most populous country. China is now regarded as crucial link in multinationals' industrial chain. Foreign investment has spurred China' s modernization drive. Its positive influence on China's employment, capital formation, fiscal revenue and balance of payments is not to be underestimated. The industrial output of foreign-invested enterprises currently accounts for one-third of the country' s total. The taxes levied on them account for one-fifth of the total. They are also responsible for nearly 60 percent of the country' s exports and 10 percent of total employment. China' s opening up has played a vital role in shaping a market economy in the country. On the one hand, China has been drawing on the experiences of developed market economies. On the other hand, many major institutional reforms have gained momentum from the ongoing globalization. Ever since its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) three years ago, China has screened and amended about 3,000 laws, regulations and department rules. Its economic laws involving foreign interests have also been continuously improved. As from January 1,2005 China abolished most non-tariff measures and lowered the general tariff level to
  9.9 percent in compliance with its WTO commitments. Besides, opening up has been accelerated in trade in services such as banking, insurance, securities and the distribution of goods. It is equally important to note that more China companies are competing in the international market. Chinese enterprises are anxious to step onto the global stage and gain access to international natural, market and technological resources. Lenovo' s purchase of IBM' s business exemplifies this mechanism -effectively trading Chinese market resources for top technology and an internationally respected brand name. In some cities in Europe and the United States, it is not uncommon to come across billboards of Haier and other Chinese brands. By the end of 2004, China' s direct investment in other countries had reached nearly $ 37 billion. China' s access to the WTO in November 2001 ushered the country into deeper involvement in world trade activities. It has had positive impact on global economic growth, and also given Chinese enterprises unprecedented opportunities to develop overseas business. Private companies can now promote their exports and have more access to foreign investment. According to the reciprocal principal, Chinese enterprises may invest in service industries abroad, and those that are well established enjoy national treatment in their host country. State-owned enterprises have also benefited. They have risen to the challenge of reforming their management systems, bringing them more in line with international standards. Many of the country' s SOEs are reinventing themselves from within in order to increase their competitiveness in the international market. China' s development has also brought about tangible benefits to the world. China' s GDP represents less than 4 percent of the world' s total, but it contributes to more than 10 percent of global economic growth. Likewise, China' s foreign trade takes up less than 6 percent of the world total, but it contributes to about 12 percent of the trade growth worldwide. As a full WTO member, China imported commodities worth $
  1.2 trillion from 2001 to 20
  04. From 2004, China' s imports are estimated at $ 600 billion every year. The average growth rate of China' s imports stood at more than 20 percent over the years. In most years, the rate reached 30 percent. This huge demand has stimulated production in other countries and helped create more jobs. Meanwhile, the Chinese exports have proven cost-effective to the importers. Products of high quality and low price have greatly enhanced the well-being of consumers in various countries. In the
2
international division of labor, China' s seizure of the low-end market could turn out to be motivation for other countries to upgrade their industrial structure to focus on more technologically demanding sectors with higher added value. China is eager to share its economic boom with all foreign investors. The household cell-phone brand name Nokia launched operations in China 20 years ago. Its investment in China now stands at $
  2. 18 billion. The company remains the largest mobile handset exporter in China, with export value in the past five years amounting to more than $14 billion. Conclusion Economic globalization brings opportunities to and imposes challenges on each country. Whether or not a country or region can pursue benefit and avoid harm in the process of economic globalization lies in an open strategy which can both give full play to comparative superiority and prevent and control risk. Over the past 20 years, under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, China has implemented a correct strategy of opening up to the outside world. As a result, the scale of China' s international trade has expanded for about 16 times during that period. Active participation in international division of labor and co-operation has forcefully boosted the upgrading of the domestic industrial structure, created numerous new employment opportunities, raised the operational efficiency of the national economy, and enhanced overall national strength, thus enabling China to play a still greater role in international economic and political affairs. Of course, along with a higher degree of opening, the fluctuation of the international market has exerted increasing impact on the operation of the domestic economy. For example, the major ups and downs of international oil prices, the radical change in the exchange rates of principal currencies and the Asian financial crisis that erupted in 1997 have all exerted negative effects on China' s economy. Furthermore, due to the fact that China had long been excluded from joining the world multilateral trade system, it has had to rely on bilateral consultations and agreements to coordinate its foreign economic ties, which had subjected Chinese enterprises and products to many discriminatory and unfair treatments when they entered the international market. China can safeguard its legal rights and interests in the process of its participation in economic globalization only when it actively takes part in the formulation of global tr
 

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