商务英语阅读 名词解释
其余名词解释请参考商务英语真题答案 Chapter1

  1. global company : a company that integrates its international biz activities.
  2. Stable : the entire range of products a company has or produces
  3. Joint venture : a partnership that is formed by two or more parties cooperating in some special biz activities.
  4. Merger & acquisition : combining of two or more entities through the direct acquisition by the net assets of the other.
  5. Consumer market: an organized group of buyers and sellers of a particular product that are affected by its demand and supply.
  6. Distribution channel: all the organizations and people involved in the physical movement of goods and services from producer to consumer.
  7. Listed company : a company whose shares have been quoted by the Stock Exchange.
  8. Marketing savvy : understanding and knowledge of how goods and services are marketed.
  9. Industrial complex(工业生产基地) : a manufacturing area that consists of many different factories turning out different products.
  10. brand recognition : a product or products that has or have been recognized and appreciated by local consumers.
  11. specialty shop : an outlet that deals in or sells a particular line of products.
  12. household name : a brand, person, company, etc. that is known to all or very popular in a place.
  13. loss-maker : a biz that continually makes no profit.
  14. home country : the country on which a multinational corporation’s HQs is based.
  15. quota : a restriction on the quantity of imports of a particular product that a country impose.
  16. organizational culture : the common values, behavior patterns, institutions, and so on among employees of a corporation.
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  17. market economy : an economy in which the market is used to determine resource allocation, prices, and investments.
Chapter 2
  1. new economy : a different form of economy that is mainly supported by IT sector and characterized by knowledge-based economy instead of manufacturing.
  2. labor force : all of the people in a country or in a region that are employed or are likely to be employed in the future.
  3. bubble economy : an economy that primarily depends on banking, financial market and other transient operation.
  4. venture capital : funds that are invested in new plants or hi-tech startups open to large risk of loss.
  5. biz cycle : A period of time that a biz goes through consists of four stagesboom 繁荣, recession 衰退, depression 萧条, recover 复苏.
  6. stock market : a stock exchange that deals in stocks and shares.
  7. deregulation : the ending of the existing system of regulations, especially by the government.
  8. public offering : a nonexclusive issue to the general public either bonds or stock by a firm in order to raise funds.
  9. bottleneck : difficulties or things that are more likely hinder normal production or prevent smooth economic development.
  10. information tech 信息技术 : all devices and knowledge that are required to manage any kind of data.
  11. Treasury bill 短期国债 :A short-term obligation of the U.S. Treasury, having a maturity period of one year or less and sold at a discount from face value.短期国库券:美国财政部发 行的一种短期债券,一年或少于一年到期,以票面价值打折的形式出售. Treasury bond : 长期国债 T-bonds have maturity’s greater than 10 years. T-note : 中期国债 has maturity ranging from 2 to 5 years.
  12. biz plan : future actions to be taken by a company, concerning products, production, market, investment, etc.
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  13. capital stock : The total amount of stock authorized for issued by a corporation, including common and preferred stock. 股本(总额):由一个公司授权发行的股票的总数额,包括普 通股和优先股.
  14. product life cycle : a theory stating that certain kinds of products go through a cycle consisting of four stages, namely, introduction, growth, maturity and decline.
  15. junk bonds : an interest-bearing certificate of debt that promises to give a high yield but is issued by a company with low credit rating 低信用等级.
  16. Seed money=seed capital 启动资金: the initial equity capital used to start a new venture or biz. Chapter 3
  1. liquidity : available cash or the capacity to obtain it on demand.
  2. exchange rate : the amount of one currency that can be bought with another.
  3. multinational company : a very large organization that owns companies in more than one country in order to obtain low-cost raw materials and make efficient use of a local workforce.
  4. benchmark : a standard by which something can be measured or judged.
  5. pricing policy : a plan or statement of prices set by an organization for its products and services.
  6. money market : the institutions and practices through with short-term funds are channeled to borrowers and entrepreneurs.
  7. capital market : a place where deals are made relating to long term investment needed by businesses and public authorities.
  8. collateral : property or an item of value acceptable as security for a loan or other obligation. 担保物:被接受作为抵押或其他义务担保的财产
  9. counterparty : a term used to identify the “other” party in a two-party transaction.
  10. stock exchange: a market where stocks and shares are bought and sold under fixed rules, but at prices determined by supply & demand.
  11. retail : the sale of goods or commodities in small quantities directly to consumers.
  12. cheque : a printed form, used instead of money, to make payment from one’s bank account.
  13. economic integration : the integration of commercial & financial activities among countries
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through the abolishment/cancellation of economic discrimination. Chapter 4
  1. Dow-Jones Industrial Average : an index of the share prices quoted on the New York Stock Exchange for a group of 30 leading industrial companies.
  2. Blue chip : a stock that sells at high price because of public confidence in its long record of steady earnings.
  3. Nasdaq : national association of securities dealers automated quotations
  4. social security 社会保障 : a government program that provides economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability, or agedness, financed by assessment (税额) of employers and employees.
  5. tax deduction : an expense 费用 that a taxpayer is allowed to deduct from taxable income.
  6. reinsurance :the purchase of insurance by an insurance company from another insurance (reinsurer) to provide it protection against large losses on cases it has already insured.
  7. policy :保单 the printed legal document stating the terms of insurance contract that is issued to the policyholder 投保人 by company.
  8. public relations : PR, the activity of keeping good relationships between an organization and the people outside it.
  9. depression : a period of drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing biz activity, falling prices, and unemployment. 萧条,不景气:国家(或国际) 经济不景气的一段时期,其特征是商业活动减少、价格下降、失业
  10. media : means of mass communication, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, or television. a
  11. recession: An extended decline in general business activity, typically three consecutive quarters of falling real gross national product.衰退: 经济活动普遍而持续地衰败, 尤指三个 连续季度的社会总产品净值的下降 Chapter 5
  1. Sanction : the penalty for noncompliance specified in a law or decree.
  2. Trade deficit : imports minus exports of goods and services.
  3. Balance of trade 贸易支付差额 the value of country’s exports minus the value of its imports.
4

  4. Downturn : a tendency downward, especially in biz or economic activity.
  5. Speculation 投机 : engagements in risky biz transactions on the chances of quick or considerable profit.
  6. Value added tax : an indirect tax imposed on consumption that is reflective of the incremental increases on the value of goods through the chain of production, from the raw material phase to final consumption.增值税是向消费征收的间接税,它反映了商品从原材料到最终消费 的整个生产过程中的增加值。
  7. Fair trade :trade that conforms to a fair-trade agreement.
  8. Subsidy 补贴: a payment or contribution paid for the manufacture, production, or export of a good or product.
  9. Rebate 减税,折扣 a deduction from an amount to be paid or a return of part of an amount given in payment.
  10. tax exemption 免税 the freedom for having to pay tax.
  11. FDI 外国直接投资 the funds committed to a foreign enterprise. An investor who buys 10 percent or more of the controlling shares of a foreign enterprise makes a direct investment. The investor may gain partial or total control of the enterprise.
  12. Fast Track, also known as “Trade Promotion Authority ” 快车道贸易促进权。 It is a bill that gives the President authority to negotiate trade pacts with other countries without the amendment of pacts from Congress who can only vote it for yes or no. Chapter 6
  1. the fringe : those members of a group or political party holding extreme views.
  2. free trade : trade between nations without protective customs tariff.
  3. mercantilist : on who believes in the practice , methods, or spirit of commercialism.
  4. the anti-trade left : the leftists who are against free trade.
  5. quota : a govt-imposed restriction on quantity or sometime on total value of imports of goods and services.
  6. tariff : duties or a duty imposed by a govt on imported or exported goods.
  7. ideological gulf 思想鸿沟 : a lack of understanding between people who have different views on different doctrines or beliefs.
5

  8. globalization : the increasing worldwide integration of markets for goods, services and capital that attracted special attention in the late 1990s.
  9. anti-dumping duty : tariff levied on dumped imports.
  10. trade liberalization : reduction of tariffs and removal or relaxation of national trade barrier.
  11. trade barrier : any barrier that may impede the import of goods, such as quota, testing or certification 执照授予.
  12. import substitution :进口替代 a strategy which emphasizes the replacement of imports with domestically made goods, rather than the production of goods for export, to encourage the development of domestic industry.
  13. Diversion & appeasement 转移与姑息 a policy diverting attention away from opening the domestic market by focusing on exports and foreign policy goals, and appeasing protectionists at home with fair trade policy in the hope of/ with a view to preventing even worse import barriers. Chapter 7
  1. arbitration :the process by which the parties to a dispute submit their differences to the judgment of an impartial person or a group appointed by mutual consent or statutory provision (指定条款)
  2. international law :a set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and nations. binding arbitration 具有约束力的仲裁; a binding agreement.需要遵守的合约
  3. appeal : the transfer of case from a lower to a higher court for a new hearing.
  4. DSU : Dispute Settlement Understanding
  5. Dispute Settlement Mechanism DSM : a mechanism to which WTO members may appeal when they believe that another country’s laws infringe on free trade.
  6. copyright : the legal right granted to an author, a composer, a playwright, a publisher, or a distributor entitled to exclusive publication, production, sale of a literacy, musical, dramatic work.
  7. subsidy : financial benefit direct or indirect from govt to producers or exporters.
  8. trade sanction : use of a trade policy as a sanction, most commonly an embargo 禁运 imposed
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against a country for violating human rights.

  9. trade reciprocity 贸易互惠 : the practice by which governments extend similar concessions 让步 to each other, as when one gov’t lowers its tariffs or other barriers impeding its imports in exchange for equivalent concession from a trading partner on barriers affecting its exports.
  10. trade retaliation 贸易报复:
  11. Appellate Body 上诉受理机构 :an independent seven-person body that , upon request by on or more parties to the review the dispute, reviews findings in panel reports.
  12. TPRM 贸易审议机制 : a WTO agreement that requires regular reviews of a member’s trade policy and makes them transparent or public for other members.
  13. Waiver 免除:permission granted by WTO members allowing a WTO member not to comply with normal commitments. Waiver has time limits and extension has to be justified. Chapter 8
  1. Parliament : a national representative body having supreme legislative powers within the state.
  2. tariff : a list of duties imposed by govt on imported or exported goods.
  3. benchmark : a standard of comparison used for judging performance.
  4. budget : An itemized summary of estimated or intended expenditures for a given period along with proposals for financing them:预算报告:在给定时间内对预估或预计的花费逐条列出 的摘要,并为这些花费提供财政支持的建议
  5. production quota : a production assignment
  6. PPS : an artificial currency known as Purchasing Power Standard.
  7. EU’s acquis communautaire, also known as Community acquis 欧盟法典 : the entire body of EU law
 

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