商务英语(最简单的操作流程) 商务英语(最简单的操作流程)
Generally speaking, international trade consists of four different processes: preparatory work, business negotiation, signing of business contract and implementation of the business contract. In international business, it is mostly through negotiations that exporters and importers bridge the difference and reach a fair and mutually satisfactory deal, so negotiation is of course the most important procedure in the whole process of trading. Generally speaking, business negotiation contains four steps: inquiry, offer, counter-offer and acceptance and order. And the preparations for business negotiation are also very important. Ⅰ. The Preparation for Business Negotiation:
  1). Defining the three aims for negotiation: the best aim (which will benefit you best), the satisfactory aim (which is fair for both parties, although it provides you with lower interests than the best one), the acceptable aim;
  2). Getting necessary information: information about the market that you want to enter, the potential clients, the competitors you will deal with. Making a market research should be necessary in this situation;
  3). Making a practical negotiation plan which is convenient for you. Ⅱ. Inquires Most inquiries, especially from longtime or regular customers may be very simple in content, in which only the name and the specifications of commodity will be mentioned. But there are some other inquires which are in great details including the name, quantity, quality, specifications, terms of payment, price terms, time of shipment, package, discount, etc. required by the buyer so as to enable the seller to make proper offers. Ⅲ. Offers An offer is the seller’s promise to supply goods on stipulated terms. It is often a reply to an inquiry. Generally speaking, an offer has four basic elements:
  1). It is sent to one or more than one offeree;
  2). It expresses the wish to sign a contract;
  3). Its contents must be definite, complete, clear and final;
  4). It must reach the offeree and shall go into effect from the time received. Ⅳ. Counter-Offer, Bid and Counter-Counter-Offer A counter-offer is the refusal of an offer, is a new offer to the former offerer. That is to say, the former offerer now become an offeree, and so the former offeree now
an offerer. And if the new offeree does not agree to some of the terms, he will give the now offerer a counter-counter-offer. And the offer that is made by the buyer is called bid, so bid is also a kind of offer. Ⅴ. Acceptance and Order Either the buyer or the seller according to the specific conditions agreed upon after mutual negotiations can give acceptance to the counterpart. It comes after inquires, offers and counter-offers. Then an order may fellow. Order refers to an oral or written request to supply a specified quantity of goods. An order letter/form must include all the necessary details to make it complete, namely:
  1). Name of commodity, model number, size, color, or any other relevant information;
  2). Quantity;
  3). Date and method of shipment;
  4). Price per item;
  5). Packing;
  6). Payment When the buyer sends the seller an order for some goods, he also sends him a confirmation of purchase in duplicate to be countersigned, with one copy to be returned for file, When the seller receives an order, he must send a confirmation of sales in duplicate to the buyer to be countersigned with one copy to be return for file. And, after receiving the seller’s confirmation, the buyer opens a letter of credit, whereas the seller gets the goods ready for shipment after he receives the letter of credit. And in my opinion, another procedure is also very important, especially in a real foreign trade. That is credit inquiry in Business Preparatory Work which should be done through bank reference or trade reference at the beginning of establishing business relations. It can avoid being cheated and protect the business interests of the traders. An example about how to establish and finish a deal with a foreign company: Company A (Bender Shipbuilding & Repair Co., Inc.) want to buy 100,000 long tons of angular steel grit GL from Company B (Shanghai Murga Steel Abrasive Co., Ltd.) Ⅰ.Preparatory Work The business relations are established through a face-to-face talk at the exhibition held in Guangzhou, China. The credit inquiry of both Company A and Company B has been done through the professional credit agency.
Ⅱ.Business Negotiation
  1. Inquires Company A (Bender Shipbuilding & Repair Co., Inc.) sent E-mail to Company B (Shanghai Murga Steel Abrasive Co., Ltd.) to make an inquiry. They wanted Company B to provide them the catalogs and price-lists of the goods in reply.
  2. Offer Company B (Shanghai Murga Steel Abrasive Co., Ltd.) gave an offer to CompanyA (Bender Shipbuilding & Repair Co., Inc.). The name, quantity, quality, specifications, terms of payment, price terms, time of shipment, package, discount are all mentioned in this E-mail.
  3. Counter-Offer, Bid and Counter-Counter-Offer Company A (Bender Shipbuilding & Repair Co., Inc.) gave an E-mail to Company B (Shanghai Murga Steel Abrasive Co., Ltd.) as a count-offer. They thought thatthe price was so high that their margin of profit would be either very little or nil, and they hoped that the price will be reduced 3%. Company B sent Company A bid to say that they'd like to cut
  2.8%. And Company A sent an E-mail as a counter-counter-offer to
  0.3% more reduction. Ⅲ.Signing of Business Contract Company B (Shanghai Murga Steel Abrasive Co., Ltd.) accepted the requirement of Company A, and sent an order to it. And, after receiving the seller’s confirmation, the buyer opens a letter of credit, whereas the seller gets the goods ready for shipment after he receives the letter of credit. In the contract, payment was to be made by L/C, and FOB was requested. Ⅳ.Implementation of the Business Contract As soon as Company B got the L/C from Bank2, the goods should be packed and transported to the ship which was sent by the buyer. And Company B could get money from Bank2 by the L/C and marine bill of lading. Then The whole process of Company A and Company B was over. Bank2 could give L/C and marine bill of lading to issuing bank, and Company A should pay to issuing bank as soon as they get L/C and marine bill.
对外贸易术语大汇总 2008 版
2008 版对外贸易术语大汇总 (一)工厂交货( EXW)
此术语英文为“EX Works(… named place)”,即“工厂交货(……指定地点)”。它指卖 方负有在其所在地即车间、工厂、仓库等把备妥的货物交付给买方的责任, 但通 常不负责将货物装上买方准备的车辆上或办理货物结关。 买方承担自卖方的所在 地将货物运至预期的目的地的全部费用和风险。 (二)货交承运人(FCA) 此术语英文为“Free Carrier(… named place)”,即“货物交承运人(……指定地点)”。 它指卖方应负责将其移交的货物,办理出关后,在指定的地点交付给买方指定的承 运入照管。 根据商业惯例,当卖方被要求与承运人通过签订合同进行协作时, 在 买方承担风险和费用的情况下,卖方可以照此办理。本术语适用于任何运输方式。 (三)船边交货(FAS) 此术语英文为“Free Alongside Ship(… named port of shipment)”即"船边交货(……指 定装运港)"。 它指卖方在指定的装运港码头或驳船上把货物交至船边, 从这时起 买方须承担货物灭失或损坏的全部费用和风险, 另外买方须办理出口结关手续。 本术语适用于海运或内河运输。 (四)船上交货(FOB) 此术语英文为"“Free on Board(… named port of shipment)”,即“船上交货(……指定 装运港)”。它指卖方在指定的装运港把货物送过船舷后交付, 货过船舷后买方须 承担货物的全部费用、风险、灭失或损坏,另外要求卖方办理货物的出口结关手 续。 本术语适用于海运或内河运输。 (五)成本加运费(CFR 或 C&F) 此术语英文为“Cost and Freight (named port of shipment)”,即“成本加运费(……指定 目的港)”。它指卖方必须支付把货物运至指定目的港所需的开支和运费, 但从货 物交至船上甲板后,货物的风险、灭失或损坏以及发生事故后造成的额外开支, 在货物越过指定港的船舷后,就由卖方转向买方负担.另外要求卖方办理货物的出 口结关手续。 本术语适用于海运或内河运输。 (六)成本、保险费加运费(CIF) 此术语英文为“Cost,Insurance and Freight(…named port of shipment)”,即“成本、保 险费加运费(……指定目的港)”。它指卖方除负有与“成本加运费”术语相同的义务 外, 卖方还须办理货物在运输途中应由买方承担购货物灭失或损坏的海运保险并 支付保险费。 本术语适用于海运或内河运输。 (七)运费付至(CPT)
此术语英文为“Carriage Paid to(… named place of destination)”,即“运费付至(……指 定目的地)”。本术语系指卖方支付货物运至指定目的地的运费。 关于货物灭失或 损坏的风险以及货物交至承运人后发生事件所产生的任何额外费用, 自货物已交 付给承运人照管之时起,从卖方转由买方承担。另外, 卖方须办理货物出口的结 关手续。本术语适用于各种运输方式,包括多式联运。 (八)运费及保险费付至(CIP) 此术语英文为“Carriage and Insurance Paid to(… named place of destination)”,即“运 费及保险费付至(……指定目的地)。”它指卖方除负有与“运费付至(……指定目的 地)”术语相同的义务外, 卖方还须办理货物在运输途中应由买方承担的货物灭失 或损坏风险的海运保险并支付保险费。 本术语适用于任何运输方式。 (九)边境交货(DAF) 本术语的英文为“Delivered at Frontier(…named place)”,即“边境交货(……指定地 点)”。它指卖方承担如下义务, 将备妥的货物运至边境上的指定地点,办理货物 出口结关手续,在毗邻国家海关关境前交货, 本术语主要适用于通过铁路或公路 运输的货物,也可用于其他运输方式。 (十)目的港船上交货(DES) 本术语的英文为“Delivered Ex Ship(… named port of destination)”,即“目的港船上交 货(……指定目的港)”。它系指卖方履行如下义务,把备妥的货物, 在指定目的港 的船甲板上不办理货物进口结关手续的情况下,交给买方, 故卖方须承担包括货 物运至指定目的港的所有费用与风险。本术语只适用于海运或内河运输。 (十一)目的港码头交货(DEQ) 本术语的英文为 :“Delivered Ex Quay (Duty Paid)(…named port of destination)”,即 “目的港码头交货(关税已付)(……指定目的港)”。本术语指卖方履行如下义务, 将 其备好的货物,在指定目的港的码头,办理进口结关后,交付给买方, 而且卖方 须承担所有风险和费用,包括关锐、捐税和其他交货中出现的费用。 本术语适用 于海运或内河运输。 (十二)未完税交货(DDU) 本术语的英文为“Delivered Duty Unpaid(… named place of destination)”,即“未完税 交货(……指定目的地)”。它指卖方将备好的货物,在进口国指定的地点交付, 而 且须承担货物运至指定地点的一切费用和风险(不包括关税、捐税及进口时应支付 的其他官方费用), 另外须承担办理海关手续的费用和风险。买方须承担因未能及 时办理货物进口结关而引起的额外费用和风险。 本术语适用于各种运输方式。
(十三)完税后交货(DDP) 本术语的英文为“Delivered Duty Paid(… named place of destination)”,即“完税后交 货(……指定目的地)”。它是指卖方将备好的货物在进口国指定地点交付, 而且承 担将货物运至指定地点的一切费用和风险,并办理进口结关。 本术语可适用于各 种运输方式。 (十四)信用证(L/C) 本术语的英文为“Letter of Credit”,即信用证。进口商开出信用证给出口商,在出 口商交单给进口商银行后,进口商会先将货款结算给出口商,对双方都比较公平, 但对少数流氓国家也不保险。信用证所需手续费较其它成交方式要高。 (十五)电汇(T/T) 本术语的英文为“Telegraphic Transfer”,即电汇。分货前(in advance)和货后(after shipment)两种,货前电汇当然对出口商划算了,反之亦然。 (十六)交款赎单(D/A) 本术语的英文为“Documents against payment”,即交款赎单。出口商将货发走后, 从货运代理那儿取得提单,然后将全套单据提交给银行,出口商委托的银行审单后 将全套单据寄给进口商委托银行,进口商委托银行会通知进口商付款,只有进口商 付给进口商委托银行全额货款后才能拿到单据用以提货清关。这种付款方式比较常 见,只是怕进口商和它的银行太熟,先拿单子后付款或不付款。 (十七)提单(B/L) 本术语的英文为“Bill of Lading”,即提单,是进口商用以提货的主要凭证。
 

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