Unit 8 Motivating Employees 员工激励
3 Learning objectives
  1. Students will learn motivational process and understand reward as a motivator.
  2. Students will be able to argue for or against "money as number one motivator" and discuss motivational techniques and the difficulties to put them into practice. Background reading Notes:
  1. predisposition 倾向,意向,禀性 an ideological predisposition in favor of a disposition to look on reform 一种支持改革的思想倾向 the dark side of things 只看事物阴暗面的禀性
  2. exert 运用,行使,发挥,施加 to exert control over sb. 对某人 加以控制 to exert one's leadership abilities 发挥自己的领导 才干 He's been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind.
  3. measure 对。。。 (比较, 。。 的 评估, 判断) 标准, 尺度 By any measure, it was one out of the most drastic moves ever taken by an American corporation.
  4. channel 输送, 传送 More funds will be channeled into research to find cleaner ways to burn coal. He channeled information to us. 缓解,减轻 to relieve a headache 缓解头痛 to relieve
  5. relieve pressure 减少压力 He smoked frequently to relieve anxiety.
  6. inherent 内在的,固有的,生来就有的 an inherent defect (货品)固 有的缺陷 an inherent right 天赋的权力 Parents should be awakened to the inherent nature of their children.
  7. compatible 适合的,协调的,一致的 All these actions were compatible with his character. He wants a running mate with a philosophy compatible to his own.
  8. consistent 意志的, 符合的 a consistent behavior(style) 一贯的行为 (风 格) a consistent supporter 坚持不懈的支持者 His deeds are not consistent with his words. Answers to the comprehension questions:
  1. Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal-directed manner. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs.
  2. The three key elements are effort, organizational goals, and needs.

  3. Motivation is a need-satisfying process. When a need is intensified to a certain sufficient level, it will generate goal-directed behavior, which will lead to tension reduction and need satisfaction.
  4. Needs offer business opportunities. Marketers should find out customers’ needs or generate customers’ needs, intensify their needs and then design, manufacture and supply the market with needs-satisfying goods or services. Translation of background reading 激励进程 激励是促成以特定目标为导向的行 为方式的一种意向; 或者说它是一种朝着 组织目标付出高度努力的意愿,前提是这些努力能够满足一些个人需要。广义上 的激励涉及朝着任何目标所进行的努力,而我们将范围缩小至组织目标,因为我 们这里只讨论与工作有关的行为。我们所定义的激励有三个要素:努力、组织目 标和需求。 努力要素衡量的是强度。当某人受到激励时,他/她努力工作。但是只有当 与组织利益一致时,高度努力才能产生有益的工作业绩成果。因此,我们必须要 考虑努力的性质和强度。 我们应当追求的是朝着组织目标进行的并与组织目标一 致的努力。最终,我们认为激励是满足需求的进程。 需求意味着一种内在状态,这种状态使某些成果具有吸引力。需求得不到满 足就会引起紧张并激发个体的内趋动力, 这种动力又促使人们采取行动寻找特定 目标??这些目标的达成能够满足需求从而缓解紧张感。 因此,可以说被激励的员工处于紧张状态中。为了缓解紧张,他们会付出努 力。紧张感越强,努力度就越高。如果努力能够成功地满足需求,则紧张趋于缓 和。但是,既然我们侧重工作行为,这种缓解紧张的努力必须与组织目标一致。 由此,我们对激励的定义中自然地包含了一项要求,那就是个体需求应与组织目 标相协调、相一致。 Part A First listening: listen for the gist What is the main idea of the news? Four years after the Sept.11 terror attacks, the U.S. continues to heal. The healing process includes the activities such as funerals, memorials, remembrance ceremonies, and various approaches to getting over the loss of loved ones. Second listening: listen for specific information In this part the teacher has great freedom and flexibility to ask students questions, to clarify any difficult language points, to add in supplementary materials as background knowledge or in-depth understanding of the listening materials. ? Notice how these expressions are related to the healing activities of a disaster. An ever-present global threat, funerals for victims, the search-and-rescue
mission, recovery effort, the healing process, to confront a subject of …., to refine one’s approach Ask students to do the blanks filling exercise. Check answers. Ask students to do True (T) or False (F) questions. Check answers. Explain why it is true or false. Third listening: sentences imitation Ask students to use the following active vocabularies to form sentences as what they have heard from listening (Dictate then remember). Please first write down the following words on the blackboard or computer. Then ask students to listen for sentences with these words in them. You may ask them to listen for two times and check to see who has caught more sentences.
  1.
  2.
  3.
  4. to confront-- to confront the possibility of failure We must confront the future with optimism. The explorers were confronted with gorges almost impassable. to refine ? My summer job certainly refined my ideas on how an off-price store is run. Reporters tried to refine their questions to draw direct responses. to sort through ? Intelligence officers took five days to sort through the files they had seized. a sign of ? Swollen ankles can be a sign of heart disease. A nod is a sign of approval. People take black as a sign of mourning.

  5. to get over ? I don’t think she ever got over from her husband’s death. You’ll soon get over your shyness if you keep trying to speak loud in the public.
  6.
  7.
  8. to stamp ? The thinking of feudal society over several thousand years is stamped in people’s mind. to tape ? He taped up the reproduction of a famous painting. Please tape a note to the door if I am not home. To be poised to (for) ? The troops were poised to fight in the final battle. The troops were poised for the final battle.
?
Supplementary Vocabularies 步兵 空军 防空部队 装甲部队 地面部队 骑兵师 field marshal militia regular army Regiment U.K. troops U.S. Army 陆军元帅 民兵/国民自卫队 正规军 团 英军部队 美国陆军
Infantry Air Force air-defense unit armored forces ground forces/troops Cavalry Division
commando contingent death squads
突击队 分遣队 敢死队
wing U.S. Army Rangers U.S. Army’s Corps
空军联队 美国陆军游骑兵 团 V 美国陆军第五军 团(突击队)
Part B First listening: listen for the gist What is the main idea of this lecture? The lecture mainly discusses the importance of money as a motivator. It argues that money is the crucial incentive to work motivation. Money functions as a medium of exchange, a vehicle of purchasing and a scorecard. Second listening: listen for specific information In this part the teacher has great freedom and flexibility to ask students questions, to clarify any difficult language points, to add in supplementary materials as background knowledge and/or in-depth understanding of the listening materials. Notice how these expressions are related to motivation. Challenging jobs, decision-making, non-monetary factors, stimulants, non-satisfying things, symbolic value, the primary outcome, goal-setting, job design Ask students to complete the note-taking model. Check answers. Ask students to fill in the blanks with correct figures. Check answers. Third listening: sentence imitation Ask students to use the following active vocabularies to form sentences as what they have heard from listening (Dictate then remember). Please first write down the following words on the blackboard or computer. Then ask students to listen for sentences with these words in them. You may ask them to listen for two times and check to see who has caught more sentences.
  1. privilege-- to get a privileged treatment, sb's privileged status. We are privileged to live on a very precious planet.

  2. to downgrade-- to downgrade an employee. The embassy will be downgraded to a trade office.
  3.
  4.
  5.
  6. unanimously -- The employees asked for more holidays unanimously. to reaffirm -- The government reaffirmed this policy. She reaffirmed that the statement is true. in addition to -- In addition to value-added tax, you have to pay sales tax. to reveal -- The investigation revealed him to be a confirmed criminal(惯犯). It is
cricket(板球)that reveals the British at their most characteristic.
  7. be convinced ? I was convinced that we were doing the right thing.
Supplementary Background information Equity theory: John Stacey Adams, workplace and behavioral psychologist, put forward his Equity Theory on job motivation in 19
  63. There are similarities with Charles Handy's extension and interpretation of previous simpler theories of Maslow, Herzberg and other pioneers of workplace psychology, in that the theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors affect each individual's assessment and perception of their relationship with their work, and thereby their employer. Awareness and cognizance feature more strongly than in earlier models, as does the influence of colleagues and friends, etc, in forming cognizance, and in this particular model, 'a sense of what is fair and reasonable'.
Part C First listening: listen for the gist What is the main idea of this listening? It discusses the management techniques to repair and restore motivation and the challenging nature of motivational management. In addition to the commonly accepted ways, there are training, information availability, commitment to career development and promotion, team spirit, etc. Second listening: listen for specific information In this part the teacher has great freedom and flexibility to ask students questions, to clarify any difficult language points, to add in supplementary materials as background knowledge or in-depth understanding of the listening materials. ? Notice how these expressions are related to motivational management techniques. Motivational challenge, troublesome issues, quit-but-stay employees, psychological contact, job enrichment, job rotation, job sharing, a sense of team spirit, outdoor assault courses, regular and specific feedback. Ask students to do the blanks filling exercise. Check answers. Ask students to complete the table. Check answers. Third listening: sentence imitation Ask students to use the following active vocabularies to form sentences as what they have heard from listening (Dictate then remember). Please first write down the following words on the blackboard or computer. Then ask students to listen for sentences with these words in them. You may ask them to listen for two times and check to see who has caught more sentences.

  1.
  2.
  3.
  4.
  5.
  6.
to be frustrated -- He was frustrated in an attempt to win the project. He was never frustrated by (with) his poverty. to be bewildered -- I was bewildered by the maze of streets in the town. She is bewildered as to which one to buy. to sever -- to sever business connections . The two countries will sever diplomatic relations. Slight misunderstanding may sever lifelong friendship. to fire up -- to fire up the imagination, to fire up the opponents. She fires up at the least thing. to mark down -- The store marked down all the merchandise for sale. to make (take, pursue, undertake) a commitment to -- The bank was reluctant to make a substantial commitment to supporting the currency. The paper now pursues a more sensitive commitment to modern issues. to foster -- Team sports foster a spirit of cooperation. to prevent…..from -- What can we do to prevent the disease from spreading? Nothing you do can prevent us from going. Synonyms:

  7.
  8.
?
Bewildered confused: unable to understand clearly what someone is saying or what is happening bewildered: totally confused puzzled: confused and unable to understand something bemused: looking as if you are confused perplexed: confused and worried by something that you do not understand at a loss: be confused and uncertain about what to do or say lost: to be completely confused by a complicated explanation e.g. Do you understand this instructions? No, I’m totally lost. Dismiss dismiss: to remove someone from their job (discharge somebody for/from) discharge: to officially allow a persona to go or send them away, especially after being ill in hospital or working in the army, navy etc. fire (American English): to force someone to leave their job sack (British English) (informal): to dismiss someone from their job lay off: to stop employing a worker, especially for a period in which there is not much work to do e.g. Mary was laid off for six months during the recession. remove: to force someone out of an important position or dismiss them from a job e.g. be removed from off
 

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