写作指导
书面表达是综合性强、难度大的题目。但是,当我们深入研究后就不难发现,书面表达实质上就是组词成句、连句成篇的一项系统工程。只要我们抓好词、句、段这三个环节,加强缩写、改写、仿写等练习,由简到繁、由易到难,一环扣一环地进行训练,由模仿到活用,由操练到交际,就能使语言知识逐步转化成言语交际能力。
(一)选词
词是语言的最小组成单位,不同词性的词组合在一起构成句子。因此,要充分利用课文中出现的重点单词、词组、句型,培养学生学习和识记单词的能力。

  1. 注意一词多义的应用。如time一词,在Times have changed中指“时代”;在six times the size of mine中指“倍数”;在in slow time中指“拍子”。切忌在写文章下笔时,一词滥用,似是而非。

  2. 结合英语构词法,同义反义比较,名词的可数与不可数词义的区别,加强对英语词形变化的理解,扩充词汇量。

  3. 巧用过渡词,增强文章逻辑性。为了使所写短文通顺,连贯得体,句子与句子之间过渡自然,提高所写短文的质量,适当加上一些表示时间顺序、递进、因果、条件、让步等关系的过渡词是很有必要的。常见的过渡词有:
(
  1)表时间顺序的过渡词:first,second,third,and then,finally,before,after a few days,at last,at that time,later,in the past,immediately,in the meanwhile等等。
(
  2)表空间顺序的过渡词:near(to),far(from),in the front of,beside,behind,beyond,above,below,to the right,to the left,on one side,on the other side of,outside等等。
(
  3)表并列的过渡词:also,and,then,too,as well(as)等等。
(
  4)表转折的过渡词:but,yet,however,in spite of,otherwise等等。
(
  5)表递进的过渡词:what' s more,besides,what' s worse,in addition,furthermore,moreover,again等等。
(
  6)表目的的过渡词:for this reason,for this purpose,so that;in order that,so as to,in order to等等。
(
  7)表因果的过渡词:because,since,so,as a result,therefore,thus,as等等。
(
  8)表解释说明的过渡词:for example,in fact,in this case,for,actually等等。
(
  9)表条件的过渡词:as long as,so long a
  5,on condition that,if,unless等等。
(
  10)表让步的过渡词:though,as,even if/though,who(what,when,where)ever等等。
(
  11)表总结的过渡词:in brief,as has been stated,in a word等等。
(
  12)过渡性插入语:I think,I' m afraid,you know,as we all know等等。
(二)造句
句子是表达一个较完整意思的最小单位,所以遣词造句的能力在英语写作中是非常重要的,是书面表达成败的关键。因此,加强造句训练就显得尤其重要。

  1. 连词成句:这是最基本的一种训练形式。
如:
(
  1)father,for you,new,will buy,says,a bike可连成Father says,“I will buy a new bike for you. ”
(
  2)me,all right,write and tell,this will be,please,whether可连成Please write and tell me whether this will be all right.

  2. 充分利用教材中特有的句型、句式、语法造句。
(
  1)句型、句式可使句子表达简洁、准确,提高文章档次。
It' s+ adj. +for sb. to do sth. “对某人来讲,做某事是……”。如:
It' s difficult for a child to do the job without help.
It' s no good/use…doing sth. 做某事没好处/用处
It' s no use giving him any more money.
It is(has been)+时间+since…自从……好长时间了
It is(has been)5 years since he joined the army.
It' s not long before…不久……
It will not be long before be comes back.
It is/was…who/that…强调句型
It was yesterday that we visited the factory.
It seems that…好像……
It seems that she is happy. /She seems happy.
I don't think/believe/expect(that)…我认为……不
I don't think I know you.
Will you please…?请……好吗?
Will you please help me?
Would you like sth. /to do sth. ?做……好吗?
Would you like to have a cup of tea?
(
  2)用主从复合句、分词作状语、with复合结构等用法,可使语言描绘更加生动,增强文章的情感性和感召力。如:
What is more,it will become necessary to build gates and walls,which will do harm to the appearance of a city. (NMET 2002书面表达参考答案片段)
I don' t know about others,but l used to work even at weekends,doing endless homework and at tending Classes as well. (NMET 2001书面表达参考答案片段)
It' s a small flat of 25 square meters,with a bedroom,a bathroom and a kitchen. (NMET 2003书面表达参考答案片段)
How glad we were to see the crops and vegetables growing well. (NMET 1998书面表达参考答案片段)
(
  3)用句型替换练习增强语言的灵活性,拓宽表达空间。如:
这孩子太小,还不到上学的年龄。
The boy is too young to go to school.
The boy is so young that he can't go to school.
The boy is not old enough to go to school.
我花了5元钱买这本书。
I spent five yuan on the book.
I spent five yuan(in)buying the book.
I paid five yuan for the book.
I bought the book for five yuan.
The book cost me five yuan.
例文赏析
下面是一些常用的精美句子,请注意它们在表达方面的特点。

  1. You go down the street,turn to the right,and then you' ll see the post office on your right.
析:几个动词的并列。
你顺着这条街,向右拐,右边就是邮局。

  2. We arrived at the gate of the school,where we were warmly welcomed.
析:关系副词where引导的定语从句。
我们来到了校门口,受到了热烈欢迎。

  3. Although we were a little tired,we were excited.
析:although引导的让步状语从句。
尽管我们有点累,我们仍然很高兴。

  4. The old lady was crossing the streets when a young man riding a bicycle rushed up and knocked her down.
析:when表“此刻、那时”。
老妇人正穿过马路,这时突然一个年轻人骑着自行车冲过来,把她撞倒了。

  5. She is a friend to her students as well as a teacher.
析:as well as表“不但……而且……”。
她不但是学生的老师,而且是他们的朋友。

  6. The library is quiet and there are a lot of books for us to refer to,which is helpful to our study.
析:which引导的非限制性定语从句。
图书馆里很安静,有很多书供我们参考,这些书对我们的学习很有帮助。

  7. The living conditions have been improved greatly and the town is no longer what it used to be.
析:现在完成时的被动语态。
生活条件大大提高,城镇不再是原来的样子。

  8. Every time I think of what happened to me a year ago,I feel I was to blame.
析:every time引导的时间状语从句。
每次我想到一年前发生的事,我就感到我应受到责备。

  9. They were not only strict in our studies but also strict with us.
析:not only…but also…表“不但……而且……”。
他们不但对我们的学习严格要求,而且对我们也很严格。

  10. Great changes have taken place in Qingdao in the recent years.
析:现在完成时的被动语态。
在最近的几年中,青岛发生了巨大的变化。

  11. Only when we know well both scientific knowledge and practical skills can we live happily and work wonderfully in the society in the coming future.
析:only引导的倒装结构。
只有我们掌握了更多的科学知识和实际技能,我们才能在未来的社会中生活幸福,工作顺利。

  12. The more I earned,the more difficulties I met with.
析:the more…the more…表“越多……越……”。
我学的越多,遇到的困难也越多。

  13. But the burden of work in class is so heavy that we have little time to do sports,which has left many of us in poor health.
析:so…that引导的结果状语从句。
但是,课业负担太重以至于我们几乎没有时间进行体育锻炼,这使我们中很多人身体状况不佳。

  14. The day we were looking forward to came at last?a week's military training began.
析:定语从句的用法。
一周的军训最终到来了,我们一直盼望着这一天。

  15. One day on my way home from school,I saw an old woman standing by the roadside,with a heavy bag on her back.
析:with复合结构的用法。
一天,我在放学回家的路上,看见一位老太太站在路边,背上挂着一个沉重的包裹。

  16. On the blackboard were large Chinese characters and English,saying "Welcome to our school!”
析:倒装结构。
在黑板上,用很大的汉语和英语写着:“欢迎来我们的学校!”

  17. With great curiosity and excitement,we students of Senior 2 began our learning-from-peasant activities in Jiangjia Village,Bin Cheng Township,not far from Beijing.
析:with复合结构的用法。
带着兴奋与好奇,我们高二学生去了离北京不远的滨城镇姜家村开展向农民学习的活动。

  18. She is such an excellent teacher that we got so much from her,not only the knowledge but also kindness,diligence and appreciation for beauty.
析:so…that及not only…but also…的用法。
她是一位优秀的教师,我们从她身上不仅学到了知识还学到了善良、勤奋和对美的鉴赏力。
  19. Our English teacher Mrs. Zhang is an ordinary-looking,grey haired woman wearing a pair of glasses.
析:wearing现在分词作定语。
我们的英语老师张老师相貌平常,灰白头发,戴着一副眼镜。

  20. I am living with my parents at No. 68 Jingqi Road and I am a student of Senior 2 at Jinan No. 1 middle school.
析:家庭住址的表示方法。
我同我的父母住在经七路68号,是济南市一中高二年级的学生。

  21. Dong Hai is a newly-built city with a population of about three million,which covers an area of about 20 000 square kilometers facing the Yellow Sea in the east.
析:which引导的非限制性定语从句。
东海市是一座新建城市,有人口近300万,面积2万余平方公里,东部面向黄海。

  22. After he graduated from Beijing Engineering College in 19
  86,he was sent to Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA to study chemistry.
析:after引导的时间状语从句。
他1986年毕业于北京工学院,后来到美国麻省理工学院深造,攻读化学。

  23. The team members are required to get ready and others are required to watch and cheer for them. All the football lovers are welcome to watch and coach.
析:welcome的用法。
足球队员作好准备,其他同学前往助战,欢迎足球爱好者参观指导。

  24. Those who would like to go are requested to put down their names on this sheet of paper and give eight yuan for the bus fare.
析:who引导的限制性定语从句。
参加者需要登记,并交车费8元。

  25. If you continue along Huangpu Road,you'll find on your right the highest building in Binhai,the Friendship Hotel,which has 12 floors.
析:if 引导的条件状语从句。
如果你继续沿着黄埔路向前,你会发现右边是滨海市最高的12层建筑??友谊大厦。

  26. Pollution if becoming more and more serious all over the world.
析:注意比较级的用法。
全世界污染越来越严重。

  27. As everyone knows,smoking is harmful to our health.
析:as引导的定语从句。
每个人都知道,吸烟有害健康。

  28. It is well-known that a teacher,as an engineer of human soul,plays a very important role in society.
析:注意it作形式主语的用法。
众所周知,教师作为人类灵魂的工程师,在社会中起着非常重要的作用。

  29. Young as he is,he has been honoured as an advanced worker many times,for having got great achievements in his teaching.
析:as引导的让步状语从句。
虽然他年轻,但由于他工作成绩卓著,多次被评为先进工作者。

  30. On hearing that I failed in the contest,I could hardly hold back my tears.
析:on与带有动词性意义的名词或动名词连用,表“一……就……”。
一听到在竞赛中失败了,我就禁不住流下了眼泪。
组段
 

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