Acknowledgements
Here and now, I extend my sincere thanks to all those who have helped me make this thesis possible and better. First, and most importantly, my heartfelt thanks go to my family who give me the chance of concentrating my attention on studying, and who gave me attentive care. Genuine thanks also to my colleagues with whose helps I could have adequate time to prepare the thesis. At last my truly thanks go to my friends who have helped me resolve the problems of studying and prompted me to learn more and more knowledge…
Contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .? 摘要 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .? Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1 The Problems of English Vocabulary Teaching in Junior Middle Schools of Rural Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
  1.1 Teaching Words in Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
  1.2 Without Revealing the Meaning Fully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
  1.3 Teaching English Words in One-to-one Correspondence to Chinese Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
  1.4 Treating All Words Equally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
  1.5 Fail to Follow the Memory Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chapter 2 The Efficient Methods of English Vocabulary Teaching. .9
  2.1 To Enhance Voice Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
  2.2 To Teach Words by Visual Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
  2.
  2.1 Presenting New Words with Real Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
  2.
  2.2 Presenting New Words with Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
  2.
  2.3 Presenting New Words with Body Language . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
  2.3 To Teach Words by Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
  2.
  3.1 Teaching Vocabulary in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
  2.
  3.2 To Teach Words by Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

  2.4 By Introducing the Knowledge of Culture Background . . . . . . . . 17
  2.5 To Teach words by English Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
  2.6 To Emphasize the Relationship between Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
  2.7 To Emphasize the Strategies of Learning Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . .21
  2.
  7.1 Making Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
  2.
  7.2Looking up Something Needed in the Dictionary . . . . . . . . . 22
  2.
  7.3To Memorize Word by Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
  2.
  7.4 Cooperating with partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
  2.8 By Using Word-formation Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
  2.
  8.
  1. By Using the Same Root Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
  2.
  8.
  2. By Analyzing Vocabularies’ Affix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
  2.
  8.
  3. By Analyzing Compound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
  2.9 Indirect Vocabulary Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Abstract English vocabulary teaching is an important task of the whole English teaching in junior middle school. The effect of vocabulary teaching is bound to influence the effect of whole English teaching. In reality, many teachers in the junior middle schools of rural areas do not realize the importance of English vocabulary teaching, they do not find the existing problems in the process of teaching, and they do not adopt some actual and efficient methods to teach vocabulary. Therefore, the effect of word teaching is poor. How to change this situation? Firstly, we should carefully analyze the problems of English vocabulary teaching in reality. In this paper, through observation the author found several main problems: teaching words in isolation, not fully revealing the words’ meaning, few introduction of the cultural background, treating all words equally, not following the memory rules. Then we should actively explore some effective ways to solve the problems. From the teaching practices the author concluded several effective teaching methods: to enhance voice teaching, to teach word by direct approach, to teach words by context, by introducing the knowledge of culture background, to teach words by English interpretation, to emphasize the relationship between words, to emphasize the strategies of learning vocabulary, by using word-formation
-1-
knowledge, indirect vocabulary teaching. At last, we should use these methods flexibly in real teaching and continue to explore the new methods. In doing so, we can improve the effect of English vocabulary teaching.
Key words: improving, English vocabulary teaching, effect
-2-
摘 要
词汇教学是整个初中英语教学的一项重要的任务, 词汇教学的效 果必影响到整个初中英语教学的效果。在现实农村初中英语教学中, 很多教师没有认识到词汇教学的重要性, 没有发现自己词汇教学过程 中存在的问题,也没有运用切实有效方法来进行词汇教学,因此教学 实效很差。 怎样改变这一现状?首先要认真分析现实英语词汇教学中 存在的问题。 本文作者通过观察发现了几个主要问题: 孤立地教单词, 没有全面揭示词义,脱离文化背景,没有区别对待生词,没有遵循记 忆规律。其次要积极探索解决问题的有效方法。针对这些问题作者从 教学的实践中总结了几种有效的教学方法:加强语音教学,直观法, 语境法, 注意讲解词汇的文化背景, 英语解释法, 注意词汇间的关系, 重视词汇的学法指导,利用构词法教单词,注意间接词汇教学。最后 在实际词汇教学中只要我们能灵活运用这些方法和不断探索新的方 法,农村初中英语词汇教学就能够取得良好的教学效果。
关键词: 提高 英语词汇教学 效果
-3-
Introduction
Vocabulary is the most important one of the three elements of language? sound, grammar and vocabulary. Because vocabulary is the carrier of sound and grammar and also is the construction material of linguistic building, just as the great English linguist Wilkins said: “Without grammar, very little can be conveyed. Without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed”. For students, mastering a certain number of vocabularies is the key to learning English. The greater vocabulary one masters, the stronger skill in applying language he or she will have. The amount of English vocabulary stands for the English level of a learner. But to many students in junior middle schools of rural areas, the vocabulary learning is a great difficulty in English learning, because they do not realize that vocabulary memorizing in English study is important and do not spend enough time memorizing words, because the amount of vocabulary which they must grasp is large ,according to “English course standard”, when the students graduate from junior school, students should reach Grade 5, that is to say 1500 to 1600 words and 200 to 300 phrases or idioms. What is more, many of the students do not have efficient
-4-
methods of learning vocabulary. They try their best to recite words mechanically. They do not pay attention to the inner rules in English vocabulary composition and the skills in memorizing English vocabulary. Their vocabulary learning stays in the combination of “pronunciation, spelling and meaning”, few students can memorize the usage of words, the word-formation and the sources of new words. They can not keep the learned words in mind for a long time because they seldom use the words. Gradually they feel that it is more and more difficult to memorize vocabulary and lost their learning interest. This will bring failures to them in learning and communication. Thus, the teacher’s vocabulary teaching becomes especially important. The English teachers should try their best to arouse students’ interest in memorizing words and often teach students some efficient techniques of English vocabulary learning. Vocabulary is through the whole English teaching and vocabulary teaching is a very hard task during the whole process of English teaching, the teachers should pay enough attention to vocabulary teaching and how to do their vocabulary teaching effectively will directly have an influence on their teaching quality. But in fact, in many junior middle schools of rural areas, many teachers do not realize the importance of English vocabulary teaching and there are many problems existing in it.
-5-
Chapter1 The Problems of English Vocabulary Teaching in Junior Middle Schools of Rural Areas

  1.1
Teaching Words in Isolation English vocabulary is not isolated. On the one hand, the word is
combined with voice, grammar, sentence patterns and texts. On the other hand, it is reflected in listening, speaking, reading and writing. Therefore, we should teach vocabulary through combining the words with sentences and context. Through a large number of demonstrations, explanations, drills and repeated use, students can understand and grasp the meaning and usage of the words. However, in actual teaching, many teachers teach the new words one by one by the word list and insist on rigid teaching model: Firstly, they pronounce the word and ask the students to repeat. Secondly, they explain the basic meaning and usage of the words directly and ask students to memorize them mechanically. They do not teach the words through connecting the sentences and context in which the words appear. They do not lead students to understand the meaning of the words by context. This kind of teaching method can not allow students to -6-
accurately grasp the meaning and not let the students know how to apply the learned words in the practice of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Also the method make students feel boring in the process of learning vocabulary, they lost studying interest gradually and in their mind it becomes more and more difficult to memorize word. Thus the effect of vocabulary teaching and learning is bad.

  1.2 Without Revealing the Meaning Fully In addition to the conceptual meaning (the meaning of entries are included in dictionary), the vocabulary has associate meaning (it can be seen as the category of usage), including connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective meaning and collocative meaning. In general, we should teach the conceptual meaning at first, and then add the non-conceptual meaning, and reveal the relationship between words, including synonym, antonym, polysemy, and hyponymy. But in actual teaching, teachers only explain the conceptual meaning, do not explain the other meaning of the word and ignore the intrinsic relationship between words. Thus the students can not fully understand the meaning of words and not use the words exactly.

  1.3 Teach English Words in One-to-one Correspondence to Chinese Words -7-
Many English teachers tend to teach English words in one-to-one correspondence to Chinese words; for example, English “apple” is “苹 果” in Chinese, English “teacher” is “教师” in Chinese, and so on. This traditional translation teaching method which has been adopted in china for a long time is considered to be helpful. But in the long run the overuse of this method is harmful to the development of students’ language competence. Especially in the elementary stage, this method should be avoided as possible as it can be. When students say that they know the meaning of an English word, they usually mean that they have found an equivalent word in Chinese language, but this equivalent word may be misleading. Let us take the word “dragon” for example. Chinese people show supreme respect to "dragon" and regard it as the symbol of the Chinese nation. But the Western people do not like "dragon", they think it is a kind of vicious monsters which can spit fire and smoke, they regard it as the symbol of disaster. In English, if a woman is called the dragon, that is to say she is very cruel and annoying. Therefore, the word “dragon” elicits a quite different meaning because of different culture experiences. This example indicates that language use is heavily tinted with its culture. Learning the vocabulary of a second language is not just to memorize the equivalent words of language one, but to learn the relationship of meaning in English within the context of cultural life.
-8-

  1.4 Treat All Words Equally At the stage of junior middle school, the English vocabulary is usually composed of root words and commonly-used words, and these words only take a small part in the total English vocabulary. Although the number of these words is small, their use is very broad .The teachers should ask students to master the original meaning, transferred meaning, metaphorical meaning, extended meaning and rhetorical meaning of these
 

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