§15 soil mechanics

  1. New words analysis Equilibrium equation 词根:equ-平、等 Rupture=rupt( 词根:断、破)+ure(后缀:性质、状态)相似词根:rupt, frag, fract interrupt(中断)=inter+rupt,fracture(断裂) bankrupt, fragile(易破的) Numerical←number+ical Heterogeneity=early 17th cent.: from Greek heterogenēs, from heteros 'other' + genos 'a kind' compressibility(可压缩性)←compressible+ity(n.后缀:性质、状态) ←compress+ible Visual←video; audible ←audio Topography(地形学)=togo(词根:地形)+graphy(后缀:图) Propagation←propagate(prop+agate)←prop(词根:大众) Misconception(误解)=mis+conception Elastic(expansible soil)=膨胀土 Stabilometer(稳定度测定仪)=stability+o+meter(仪、计) Remnant(残留物)=remain(留下)+ant(名词后缀:人或物)

  2. 长句、难句分析 Exam. 1 soils are extremely variable in composition, and it was this heterogeneity that long discouraged scientific studies of these deposits. [参考翻译] 土的成分非常复杂,正是土的这种不均匀性长期以来一直困扰着对这 些残积物的科学研究。 Exam. 2 Gradually, the investigation of failures of retaining walls,foundations,embankments,pavements, and other structures resulted in a body of knowledge concerning the nature of soils and their behavior sufficient to give rise to soil mechanics as a branch of engineering science. [参考翻译] 逐渐地,对挡土墙、建筑基础、路堤、路面及其它结构物的破坏原因 的调查分析积累了大量系统的有关土的性质与行为特征的知识,这些知识足以使 土力学成为工程科学的一个新的学科分支。 Exam . 3 Twentieth-century advances have been in the direction of taking cohesion into account; understanding the basic properties of soils in general and of the plasticity of clay in particular; and systematically studying the shearing characteristics of soils-that is, their performance under conditions of sliding. [分析] 本句句子结构清晰,难点在于专业词汇多,初次接触把不准取哪个意义。 [参考翻译] 20世纪土力学的研究进展方向如下:把土的粘聚力纳入土力学理论体 系、总体上理解土的基本物理特性,特别是粘性土的朔性性质,以及系统研究土 的抗剪特征,即:土在滑移条件下的性能。
Soil mechanics is concerned with the use of the laws of mechanics and hydraulics in engineering problems related to soils. 土力学是力学和水力学关于土的工程应用的知 识。 Soil is a natural aggregate of mineral grains, with or without organic constituents, formed by the chemical and mechanical weathering of rock. It consists of three phases, solid mineral matter, water, and air or other gas. mineral grain 矿物颗粒 土是一种天然矿物颗粒的聚集物,有的含有 机成分有的不含有机成分,它由岩石的化学和 机械风化作用形成。它包括三相:固体矿物质, 水以及空气和其他气体。
Soils are extremely variable in composition, and it was this heterogeneity that long discouraged scientific studies of these deposits.
long adj.(距离, 长度)长的,长时间的, 长期的 adv.长久地, 长期地 n.长时间, 长时期 vi.渴望; 极想
土质组成变化很大,正是这种不均质性大大地阻碍 了科学家对它的研究。 Gradually, the investigation of failures of retaining walls, foundations, embankments, pavements, and other structures resulted in a body of knowledge concerning the nature of soils and their behavior sufficient to give rise to soil mechanics as a branch of engineering science. 渐渐地,对挡土墙,基础,护堤,人行道和其他结构 的事故的调查,发现其原因涉及到许多土的特性的知 识,这些知识足以使土力学作为工程科学的一个分支。
History. 历史沿革 Little progress was made in dealing with soil problems on a scientific basis until the latter half of the 18th century, when the French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb published his theory of earth pressure (17
  73). 直到18世纪后半期,法国物理学家查尔斯-奥斯丁 库 仑出版他的土压力理论书(1773年)之前,土的科学 问题研究几乎没有任何进展。 In 1857 the Scottish engineer Willliam Rankine developed a theory of equilibrium of earth masses and applied it to some elementary problems of foundation engineering. 1857年,苏格兰工程师威廉姆 朗金发展了一种土体平 衡理论并将其用于一些初步的基础工程问题。
These two classical theories still form the basis of current methods of estimating earth pressure, even though they were based on the misconception that all soils lack cohesion, as does dry sand. 这两大理论仍然构成了当今计算土压力理论的基础,尽 管他们建立在所有土都像干沙一样不考虑内聚力这一错误 概念的基础上。 Twentieth-century advances have been in direction of taking cohesion into account; understanding the basic physical properties of soils in general and of the plasticity of clay in particular; and systematically studying the shearing characteristics of soils--that is, their performance under conditions of sliding.
systematically adv.有系统地;有组织地;有计划地;有条不紊地
二十世纪的进步在于:把内聚力引入计算;了解了通常 情况下土的基本物理特性和特殊情况下粘土的塑性;系统 地研究了土的剪切特性,即??滑动剪切条件下的变形。
Both Coulomb's and Rankine's theories assumed that the surface of rupture of soil subjected to a shearing force is a plane. While this is a reasonable approximation for sand, cohesive soils tend to slip along a curved surface. 库仑和朗金土压力理论都假设土的剪切破坏面在一个 平面内。然而这对于砂土来说这是近似可信的,而有 内聚力土的滑动剪切面接近一个曲面。 In the early 20thcentury, Swedish engineers proposed a circular arc as the surface of slip. During the last half century considerable progress has been made in the scientific study of soils and in the application of theory and experimental data to engineering design. 在二十世纪早期,瑞典工程师证明滑动剪切面是一个 圆弧面。上个世纪后半段,在土的科研,理论的应用 以及用于工程设计的经验数据方面都有了明显进步。
A significant advance was made by the German engineer Karl Terzaghi, who in 1925 published a mathematical investigation of the rate of consolidation of clays under applied pressures. 一个显著的进步是德国工程师卡尔 泰沙基在1925年 出版了一本关于粘土在外压力下固结情况的力学调查。 His analysis, which was confirmed experimentally, explained the time lag of settlements on fully waterlogged clay deposits. Terzaghi coined the term soil mechanics in 1925 when he published the book Erdbaumechanzik (“Earth-Building Mechanics”). 他的被实验验证的分析解释了在充分渗透的粘土沉降 随 时 间 增 长 的 问 题 。 泰 沙 基 在 1925 年 出 版 了 Erdbaumechanik(“土力学”)一书后开辟了土力学时代。
Research on subgrade materials, the natural foundation under pavements, was begun about 1920 by the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads. 关于地基材料和人行道下的天然基础的研究始于 1920年美国公共道路局。 Several simple tests were correlated with the properties of natural soils in relation to pavement design. 他们做了一些关于人行道设计的和天然土有关的简单 实验。 In England, the Road Research Board was set up in 19
  33. In 1936 the first international conference on soils was held at Harvard University. 在英格兰,道路研究司创建于1933年。1936年第一个 岩土方面的世界会议在哈佛举行。
Today, the civil engineer relies heavily on the numerical results of tests to reinforce experience and correlate new problems with established solutions。 今天,土木工程师主要依赖于实验的数据来巩固 经验和建立新问题的解决方案。 Obtaining truly representative samples of soils for such tests, however, is extremely difficult; hence there is a trend toward testing on the site instead of in the laboratory, and many important properties are now evaluated in this way. 获得这样的土的实验的典型例子,无论如何是 很极其困难的;因此有一种用现场实验来代替实 验室实验的趋向,并且许多重要的性质都是由这 种方法得到的。
Engineering properties of soils. 土的工程性质 The properties of soils that determine their suitability for engineering use include internal friction , cohesion , compressibility , elasticity , permeability , and capillarity . permeability透过性, 可透[渗]性, 渗透(性, 度, 率), (气球 气体的)透出量 (=magnetic permeability)【物】磁导 率, 磁导系数 决定土的工程适用性的性质包括:内摩擦力,内聚力, 压缩性,弹性,渗透性以及毛细性。
Internal friction is the resistance to sliding of offered by the soil mass . 内摩擦力是土体抵抗滑动的力。 Sand and gravel have higher internal friction than clays ; in the latter an increase in moisture lowers the internal friction. 砂土和砾石土比粘土有更大的内摩擦力;后期水气的增加 会降低内摩擦力。 The tendency of a soil to slide under the weight of a structure may be translated into shear ; that is, a movement of a mass of soil in a plane , either horizontal , vertical , or other . Such a shearing movement involves a danger of building failure . 土在结构重力作用下,滑动的趋势可以转化成剪力;即是 一部分土体滑动在一个平面内,或水平或竖直的或其他方 向的移动。这样一种剪切移动会给建筑带来危险。
Also resisting the danger of shear is the property of cohesion, which is the mutual attraction of soil particles due to molecular forces and the existence of moisture between them. 内聚力可以减少这种剪切危险,内聚力是由土粒的分 子力和土颗粒之间存在水气而产生的相互作用力。 Cohesive forces are markedly affected by the amount of moisture present. Cohesion is generally very high in clays but almost nonexistent in sands or silts. Cohesion values range from zero for dry sand to 2,000 pounds per square foot for very stiff clays. 内聚力明显受土粒间大量湿气的影响。内聚力在粘土 中通常很大而在砂土和淤泥土中几乎不存在。内聚力 值从干砂土的0到很粘稠的粘土每平方英尺2000磅之间 变化。
Compressibility is an important soil characteristic because of the possibility of compacting the soil by rolling, tamping, vibration, or other means, thus increasing its density and load-bearing strength. 因为可以通过碾压,夯实,振捣或其他方法压实 土以增大其密度和提高其承载强度,所以可压缩 性是土的一个重要特性。
An elasticsoil tends to resume its original condition after compaction . 弹性土在受压后趋向于恢复到初始条件。 Elastic(expansible ) soil are unsuitable as subgrades for flexible pavements since they compact and expand as a vehicle passes over them , causing failure of the pavement . 弹性(延性)土不适合作为柔性人行道的地基因为他 们会在上面交通的作用下压缩延展导致地基沉陷。
Permeability is the property of a soil that permits the flow of water through it . 可渗透性是土体允许水流通过其中的性质。 Freezing-thawing cycles in winter and wetting- drying cycles in summer alter the packing density of soil grains . 冬季的冻融循环和夏季的干湿循环改变了土颗粒的填实 密度。 permeability can be reduced by compaction . 压缩可以减小渗透性。
Capillarity causes water to rise through the soil above the normal horizontal plane of free water . 毛细性导致自由水延土中孔隙上升到正常水平面以上。 in most soils numerous channels for capillary action exist ; in clays , moisture may be raised as much as 30 feet by capillarity . 在多数土中都存在毛细性所需要的许多管道;在粘土 中,水汽可在毛细作用下上升达30英尺。
Density can be determined by weight and volume measurements or by special measuring devices . 土壤密度可以通过测量土的重量和体积来计算出或 是通过特殊仪器测得。 Stability of soils is measured by an instrument called a stabilometer , which : specifically measures the horizontal pressure transmitted by a vertical load . 土的稳定性可以通过一种叫做稳定性测定仪来测量, 它可以测量由交通荷载产生的水平压力。 Consolidation is the compaction or pressing together of soil that occurs under a specific load condition ; this property is also tested . 固结是由特殊荷载条件下产生的压缩或是土粒挤压在 一起而发生的;这一性质也可以测量出。
site Investigation .场地勘查 soil surveys are conducted to gather data on the nature and extent of the soil expected to be encountered on a project . 场地勘查是对将要承受工程荷载的天然土及其扩展部分 的土层数据的收集。 The amount of effort spent on site i
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