voa 慢速英语:保护儿童免受肺炎危害
This is the VOA Special English Development Report. Millions of babies and children could soon be protected against the deadly disease pneumonia. Two leading drug companies have agreed to supply vaccines against pneumococcal disease to the world's poorest countries at a reduced price. Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline signed the historic Advance Market Commitment agreement last week. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations, or GAVI, helped negotiate the deal. The group says the low cost vaccines could save as many as seven million lives by the year twenty thirty. The World Health Organization says pneumonia kills almost two million children each year. This is more than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. It is the leading cause of death among young children. And, more than ninety percent of those deaths happen in the developing world. These are all reasons why GAVI chose the pneumococcal vaccine for its first Advance Market Commitment project. The private-public partnerships are designed to increase the availability of low cost vaccines in poor areas. Last year, the governments of Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia and Norway joined with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. They provided one and a half billion dollars to launch the pneumococcal vaccine project. Jeffrey Rowland is with the GAVI alliance. He says the money helps to persuade drug makers to take part in the project. JEFFREY ROWLAND: "The biggest challenge of getting life saving vaccines to poor countries is that there's no market. People can't afford them. That's why we don't really have a malaria vaccine yet, because no one in rich countries really suffers from malaria. What we did for the pneumococcal vaccine was we said we will pay one point five billion dollars if you develop the right vaccines, and the right volumes that we need and at the right price. And it was a gamble." That gamble paid off. GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer have agreed to provide thirty million doses of the vaccine each year for ten years. The first twenty percent of the vaccines will sell for seven dollars a dose. The remaining eighty percent will cost three dollars and fifty cents per dose. That is ninety per cent less than current prices in the United States.
Mister Rowland says the agreement is a huge achievement for the developing world. JEFFREY ROWLAND: "Vaccination, which we tend to take for granted in countries like the United States or in Western Europe, in fact a lot of us don't even know which diseases we've been vaccinated against. That's not the case in poor countries. Vaccination is a life or death question for poor people and if you can vaccinate a child to prevent a disease from happening it is a lot more cost effective than it is to treat that disease afterwards." And that's the VOA Special English Development Report, written by June Simms. I'm Steve Ember.
这里是 VOA 特别英语发展报道。 数百万婴儿和儿童很快将得以免受致命疾病肺炎的危害。 两家主要的制药公司同 意以低价向世界上最贫困的国家提供抗肺炎疫苗。 辉瑞制药和葛兰素史克于上周 签署了具有历史意义的先进市场推动疫苗协议(Advance Market Commitment)。 全球疫苗和免疫全球联盟(the global alliance for vaccines immunization, GAVI)帮助了这份协议的协商工作。该组织表示,截至 2030 年,低价疫苗将救助 700 万人的生命。 世界卫生组织表示,肺炎每年导致接近 200 万名儿童死亡,超过艾滋病,疟疾和 麻疹造成的死亡人数的总数。肺炎是导致幼儿死亡的主要原因。而其中 90%以上 的死亡病例发生在发展中国家。 这就是 GAVI 选择肺炎疫苗来进行首次先进市场推动疫苗活动的原因。私立和公 立相合作的方式可以增加这种低成本疫苗在贫困地区的可获得性。 去年,意大利,英国,加拿大,俄罗斯和挪威政府与比尔与梅琳达盖茨基金会联 合提供了 15 亿美元发动了肺炎球菌疫苗项目。Jeffrey Rowland 是 GAVI 的工作 人员。他表示,这笔资金帮助说服制药商参与该项目。 JEFFREY ROWLAND:“向贫困国家运送挽救生命的疫苗的最大挑战是没有市场。 人们承担不起。这就是我们目前还没有疟疾疫苗的原因,因为发达国家没有人会 感染疟疾。我们为肺炎球菌疫苗所做的是,如果你能研制出我们所需的合适的疫 苗, 合适的剂量, 并以适当的价格出售, 我们将支付 15 亿美元。 这是一场赌博。 ”
我们最终赢得了这场赌博。辉瑞制药和葛兰素史克制药公司同意 10 年之内每年 提供 3000 万剂疫苗。首批 20%的疫苗将以每剂 7 美元的价格出售。剩余的 80% 的疫苗将以每剂
  3.5 美元的价格出售,比目前美国市场上的价格低 90%。 Rowland 表示,该协议对于发展中国家来说是一个巨大的收获。 JEFFREY ROWLAND: “在美国和西欧国家, 我们认为疫苗是理所当然的。 实际上, 我们中的很多人甚至不知道我们接种的疫苗预防哪种疾病。 而在贫困国家却是另 外一种情况。对于贫困人口来说,疫苗意味着生与死的差别。如果一个儿童能够 接种疫苗预防某种疾病,比疾病发生之后再进行治疗更加成本高效。”
 

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