外研版
Module 4 grammar:
第一册
present perfect tense
Study the following sentences:
  1. Who has opened the door?
  2. My watch has stopped
  3. They haven't completed that experiment yet.
  4. He has already returned that book. (An action completed in the past but connected with the present situation. )

  5. I have studied English for three years/since19
  99.
  6. He has worked in the company since he came to the city.
  7.So far he has written five books.
  8. It has been years since I came here. (An action beginning in the past and still continuing)
Form: have/has done
Usage:
  1. An action completed in
the past but connected with the present situation.
  2. An action beginning in the past and still continuing

  1. How long ago did you part from each other? It five years since we said goodbye to each other. A.was C.had been B. would be D.has been

  2. Who broke the glass? Sorry .I. A. have done B. did C. broke D.am

  3. How long has he been away ,do you know? Sorry ,I can't tell exactly when he , though I know he has already been away. A.was leaving C. would leave B. has left D.left

  4. How long at this job? Since 19
  90. A. were you employed B. have you been employed C. had you been employed D.will you be employed

  5. How are you feeling today? Oh, I as ill as I do now for a week. A. didn't feel C. don't feel B. wasn't feeling D. haven't felt
Find the mistakes in the following sentences and correct them:
  1.He has come back for three weeks. (He came back three weeks ago. He has been back for three weeks.)
  2.I have joined the army for ten years. (I have been in the army for ten years. I joined the army ten years ago.

  3. We achieved great success in the past few years.
We have achieved great success in the past few years.

  4.Perhaps she made several friends by now.
Perhaps she has made several friends by now.

  5. When have you bought this computer?
When did you buy this computer?
Sum up: The following words and phrases often appear in the present perfect tense. already, just, yet, lately, recently, ever, rarely, since, so far, up to now, by now, in the past ten years, during the past ten years, in the last few months, during the last few months

  1.现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生或完 成的动作或状态,但其结果却和现在有联系, 也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影 响现在还存在. I have lost my wallet. (含义是:现在我没有钱花了.) Jane has laid the table. (含义是:已可以吃饭了.) Michael has been ill. (含义是:现在仍然很虚弱)

  2.现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一 时刻的,持续到现在的情况,常与for,since连 用. Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 19
  98.
  3. 现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时 间状语连用,如already, yet, just, before, recently, lately等:
He has already obtained a scholarship. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ?

  4. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语 连用,如often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several occasion等: Have you ever been to Beijing? I have never heard Bunny say anything against her. I have used this pen only three times. It is still good.

  6. 现在完成时表示现在之前业已完成的动 作,虽然其效果或影响仍然存在但已不再继 续,但是有一些现在完成时的句子,在后面 加上for+一段时间,则现在完成时的动作就 表示延续性. Thomas has studied Russian. (现在不再学俄语) Thomas has studied Russian for three years. (=Thomas began to study Russian three ago, and is still studying it now).
George has met that gentleman on several occasions.
  5. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间 在内的时间状语连用,如now, up to these few days/weeks/months/years, this morning/ week/month/year, now, just, today, up to present, so far等: Peter has written six papers so far.

  7. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一 个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作. We have had four texts this semester. 现在完成时的"完成用法"和"未完成用法 现在完成时的"完成用法"
  1.现在完成时的"完成用法" 现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生 在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对现 在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系.
Pay attention to the following words:

  1.fascinating:extremely interesting and charming
  2. Rewarding: worth doing or having, giving satisfaction but perhaps not money
  3.starving: very hungry
He has turned off the light 他已把灯关了. (动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况 --灯现在不亮了.) 现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延 续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去 时间状语(如:already,yet,before, recently等),频度时间状语(如:never, ever,once等),包括现在时刻在内的时间 状语(如:this morning / month /year..., today等)连用.
Have you found your pen yet? 你已找到你的钢笔了吗?
  2.现在完成时的"未完成用法" 现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作 开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在, 或可能还要继续下去. He has lived here since 19
  78. 从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿.
Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom. There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year. The friendly relations and cooperation between our two countries have been enhanced in the past few years. Up to the present everything has been successful.
Cf: Tense: the past indefinite tense Usage: a definite action completed in the past
(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在, 可能还要继续住下去.) I have been in the army for more than 5 years. 我在部队已经呆了五年多了. ( (动作开始于5年前,一直延续至今,有可 5 能还要继续下去.) 此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间 的状语(由since或for引导),或表示与现在 时刻相连的时间状语(如:up to now,so far) 等.
I have heard nothing from him up to now. 到目前为止我没有他的任何消息. 注意:(
  1)现在完成时的未完成用法只适 用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词, 即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词. 如:come,go,arrive,leave,join, become,die等. (
  2)现在完成时常见两种句型: ①主语+have / has been+for短语
②It is+一段时间+ since从句 He has been in the League for three years. 或It is three years since he joined the League. 练习题 c
  1. Jack over five lessons by seven o'clock. Then he a rest. A.went ; took B. went; had taken C. had gone; took D. had gone ; had taken
A .
  2. We out by that time that he spy for a long time. A.had found; had been B. had found; was C. found; had been D. found ;was B
  3. Before the news him, he to know about it. A.reaches; has got B. reached; had got C. reached ;got D. had reached; got C
  4. I him a second letter before I from him. A.wrote; heard B. wrote; had heard C. had written ; heard D. have written; hear

  5. People that the soldiers fighting D A. say ; had stopped B. said ;has stopped C. say; stopped D. said ;had stopped D 6 They for five hours when they in New York. A. flew ; arrived B. had flown ; had arrived C. flew ; had arrived D. had flown; arrived
  7. She that it for two days by C that day. A. says; has rained B. says; had rained C. said ; had rained D. said; rained
A there since the year before,
  8. John so he them. A. had worked ; knew B. had worked; had known C. worked; knew D. worked ;had known
  9. He angry because he for a D long time. A. had got; had waited B. got ; waited C. had got; waited D. got ; had waited

  1. Verbs to describe events that can continue over a period of time: Know, live, stay, remain
  2. Verbs to describe events that happen at a particular point of time: borrow, buy, give, leave ,open
Important phrases:
  1. put up
  3. up to now
  5. get away from
  6. a great many
  7. a number of
  8. go up
  2. so far
  4. till now
Everyday English:

  1. Am I right in thinking … …
  2. A great many things
  3. To do well
  4. Congratulations
  5. It's fascinating!
  6. To make it (1,4
  00)
Homework:

  1. Look up the following words in your dictionary and pay attention to their use afford, dress, contact
  2. Write a passage to describe your village town or city
Important sentence patterns:

  1. It's been six years since we last saw each other.
  2. This is the first time I've visited your hometown.
  3. I feel very fortunate living here.
  4. What's the climate like?
  5. The rent for an apartment is very high.
Similar words: (Look them up in your dictionary)

  1.promising
  2.inviting
  3.providing
  4.demanding
  5.engaging
Words that easily get confused:
Employ Employment unemployed
employee employer
一座五层高的办公楼

  1. a five-story office building
  2. a five-storey office building
  3. a five-storied office building
  4. a five-storeyed office building
  5. The office building is five storeys /stories high.
Important words:

  1.sound: 听起来
This piece of music sounds beautiful.

  2. Look:看上去 :
She looks younger than she actually is.

  3.
smell:闻起来 taste:尝起来
Feel:摸起来
The mixture smells terrible.
  4.
The food tastes delicious.
  5.
Silk feels smooth.
Sum up: The above words have
something in common
  1.They can't be used in the passive
voice.

  2.They can't be used in the continuous tense.
  3. They are usually followed by adj.
 

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