Unit One
Peking University Speech
? Culture is activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling; scraps of information have nothing to do with it. A merely well-informed man is the most useless bore on God’s earth. What we should aim at producing is men who possess both culture and expert knowledge in some special direction. Their expert knowledge will give them the ground to start from, and their culture will lead them as deep as philosophy and as high as art. ????Alfred North Whitehead
Contents
Lead-in Section:
  1) About the Author
  2) Background Information
  3) Harvard vs. Peking University Text A:
  1) Language Points
  2) Key to Exercises
  3) Reference Translation
End
? Neil L. Rudenstine(陆登庭), Doctor of Laws. ? After becoming Harvard's twenty-sixth president in 1991, he challenged and coax the University coaxed to think of itself as one university, not just a collection of schools that share a common name. ? Principled and humane, sagacious (a.精明的) and 精明的) 优雅的) urbane (a.优雅的), a Renaissance man who has lifted the sights and upheld the ideals of a grateful University, pointing Harvard’s starry 星座) array toward newfound constellation (n.星座). ? He is the author of Sidney’s Poetic Development (19
  67), English Poetic Satire (with G. Rousseau, 19
  72), and In Pursuit of the Ph.D. (with W. Bowen, 19
  91).
The Centennial address
? On March 23, 1998, at Peking University, Rudenstine spoke to an overflow audience of nearly 1,000 students and faculty at the first in a series of events commemorating Peking University's centennial year. His speech was the first ever delivered in mainland China by a sitting Harvard president. ? In his speech Rudenstine discusses the roles college education is supposed to play: it offers professional training, helps students to pursue successful career, aims at providing students with a wider academic background, equipping them with knowledge in both liberal arts and sciences. students are expected to develop an intellectual ability that helps them to observe things in a “more reflective, more inquiring and insightful” way. students should be encouraged to improve their social and interpersonal skills.
The full text of Rudenstine's Peking University speech can be found at www.news.harvard.edu/extra/speech.html .
? Founded in1898, first ? named “京师大学堂”, ever since 1912, it has been called Peking University. ? ? At present, Peking university has 216 research institutes and research centers, and there are 2 national engineering research centers, 81 key national disciplines, 12 national ? key laboratories.
Harvard was founded in 16
  36, and named for its first donor, the Reverend John Harvard, who left his personal library and half his estate to the new institution. Harvard comprises a Faculty of Arts and Sciences and eight other faculties: Business Administration, Design, Divinity, Education, Government, Law, Medicine (including Dental Medicine), and Public Health; and the Radcliff Institute for Advanced Study. The University has a regular enrollment of 17,000 plus some 30,000 other students.
Language Points
Para. 1 Para. 2 Para. 3 Para. 5
Para. 1
“Our universities, as well as our societies, have different cultures and traditions, and much still to learn about one another.” The phrase “as well as” means “in addition to.” e.g. a) Chinese students study English as well as Chinese. 中国学生既学习汉语,也学习英语。 (with emphasis on English) b) They drank three bottles of wine as well as eating a seven-course meal. 他们吃了七道菜的大 餐,还喝了两瓶啤酒。(with emphasis on drank three bottles of wine)
Para. 2
“...a belief that all of us, through a devotion to learning, can lead lives of value to the societies in which we live.” The phrase “of value” is equivalent to “valuable.” e.g. a) This book will be of great value to him in his studies. b) Jewels are articles of value.
Para. 3
“There has been growing pressure, in the US and elsewhere, to demonstrate the value of university education and research in terms of its direct, tangible economic benefits.” The phrase “in terms of” indicates “in the matter of, with regard to”. e.g. a) The book is a great success in terms of the interest it aroused. b) In terms of money, we are very rich, but not in terms of happiness.
Para. 5
“…during their four years in residence.” The phrase “in residence” indicates “(of students) living in the university.” e.g. a) The students are not in residence during the holidays. b) There are about three hundred students in residence. “Indeed, relatively few of our students embark on their actual professional training until they have completed four years of undergraduate education in the liberal arts and sciences.” The phrase “embark on” indicates “begin.” e.g. a) Tom has already embarked on his new book. b) After leaving college, the young man embarked on a business career.
Key to Ex.
Ex. 1? A B Ex. 2 Ex. 3 Ex. 4 Ex. 5 Ex. 6
Ex.
  1. (A)
-ship:
  1) state of being; status; office (状态;地位,身 份;职位)
  2)proficiency as; skill (技能,技巧)
  1) 友情,友爱
  2) 公民身份
  3) 教授职位
  4) 作家职业(生涯)
  5)独裁(国家);专政
  6) 船舶驾驶术
  7) 奖学金,学术成就
  8) 会员身份(资格)
  9) 困苦,艰难情况
  10)读者身份,读者人数
  11)友谊;朋友或伴侣关系
  12)马术,骑术
  13)国王身份,王位,王权
  14)领导人员,领导层
  15)总督(或州长等地方行政长官)的职位(或职责/任期)
  16)合伙人身份
  17)学徒身份(的期限)
  18)交情,研究员的身份,研究生的奖学金
Ex.
  1. (B)

  1) (指人)思考的,沉思的;(指物)反射的,反映的
  2) 有生产能力的,富有成效的,有益的
  3) 积极的,活跃的,有效的
  4) 消极的;冷淡的; 被动的
  5) 疑问的
  6) 否定的,无助益的,负的,阴极
  7) 前进的,进步的
  8) 确定的,乐观的,有建设性的
  9) 富有表情的,表现感情或思想的
  10)描述的,描写的
  11)提供丰富知识的,有益的
  12)凭本能的,天生的,直觉
  13)比较的,相比的; 相对的
  14)保守的,守旧的
  15)给人以深刻印象的
  16)选择性的
  17)敏感的,易受伤害的,易损坏的
  18)迷人的,诱人的,使人愉快的,引人兴趣的
Ex. 2

  1) aspire
  2) challenges
  3) in residence
  4) sustainable
  5) tangible
  6) well-being
  7) looked forward to
  8) held…in common
  9) compared to
  10) humane
  11) voyage
  12) inquiring
  13) community
  14)intensive
  15) pursuit
Ex. 3

  1) assumptions
  2) embarked on
  3) fulfilled; aspired to; challenges
  4) relatively…compared to
  5) complicated
  6) demonstrated
  7) reflective
  8) in terms of
  9) stimulates
  10) represents
Ex. 4

  1) moral (mortal)
  2) Humane (Human)
  3) ethics (ethnics)
  4) stimulating (simulating)
  5) residence (residance)
  6) inspiration (aspiration)
  7) fulfill (fullfil)
  8) voyage (voiage)
  9) appreciate (appretiate)
  10) mathematics (mathmatics); discipline (disipline)
Ex. 5
A.
I did give her a cup of tea and some biscuits. A garbage man did collect the garbage just now. My brother and I do know what we are doing. Everybody does think you are the most suitable person for the job. ⑤ I did go back to China to stay with my parents for the holidays. ① ② ③ ④
B.
① ② ③ ④ ⑤ She is not only pretty but also intelligent. We should not only be bold, but also be cautious. I have read not only some of his plays, but also one of his novels. She is fond of not only sports but also music. There is not only concision but also elegance in these lines.
Ex. 6

  1.
  2. The speaker referred to the old man as a politician. In terms of art treasures Italy is one of the richest countries in the world.
  3. What they have done greatly contributes to a better understanding between the two countries.
  4. You are expected to be here at eight.
  5. We have a moral obligation to provide aid to them.
  6. Xiao Wang has embarked on an adventure no one else has dared.
  7. The sufferings you underwent are nothing compared to those of your mother.
  8. How much money have you spent on these books?
  9. The clue may help us to the solution.
  10. They hold one thing in common: they all know where their interests lie.
参考译文
2-1
? 本着互相学习、增进友谊的愿望,我首次来中国,这既是我多年 的宿愿,也是我进一步了解中国的开始。我们的大学和社会由于 文化传统的不同,存在很多差异,于是就有许多需要彼此互相学 习的地方。 同时,我们也有许多共同之处。 ? 其中有一点,或许是最重要的一点,就是我们对教育力量的信仰 --那就是投入学习,才能使生命价值在我们所生活的社会中体现 出来。 ? 首先,让我来谈一下我们所指的“人文”(humane)学习的重要 性。不论在美国还是其他国家的大学,都面临不断增加的压力, 希望以直接可见的经济效益证明其教育和研究的价值。 ? 大学开展研究以推动经济的发展是无可厚非的,同样,大学教育 帮助学生寻求实用和令人满意的职业也是必要的。然而,更重要 的是,大学教育的杰出性是无法用美元和人民币来衡量的。最好 的教育不仅使我们在自己的专业中提高生产力,而是使我们善于 观察、勤于思考、勇于探索,塑造健全完善的人。它帮助我们的 科学家欣赏艺术,艺术家欣赏科学,它帮助我们看到用其它方法 无法掌握的不同学科之间的联系,它使我们作为个人和我们社区 的成员的生活更加丰富多彩。
参考译文
2-2
? 正是这样,尽管在复杂的条件下,无论是哈佛还是美国其他大学 都在竭尽全力为更好地传承文理融合的“自由教育”(liberal education)而努力。在本科生4年的学习中,除主修象化学、经济 学、政治学或是文学等一个专业外,学生们还要跨越不同学科, 从道德哲学、伦理到数学逻辑,从自然科学到人文,从历史到其 他文化研究,都广泛涉猎。此外,学生们在课外活动上花费了大 量的时间,如向周围社区公民提供咨询服务,为报刊杂志撰稿, 参加各种文艺演出等。事实上,相对来说,我们的学生直至完成 4年的人文和自然科学的自由教育后,才真正进入他们的专业训 练。 ? 这种教育与世界其他国家的大学有所不同。但这并不意味着这种 方法对其它高等教育体系也适用,其实在美国也不是对每所学院 和大学都适用。然而,在这一模式的背后潜在的意义是深刻的哲 学思想和信念。大学教育应该唤起我们对新思想新事物的好奇心, 开阔我们的视野,激发我们对那些没有检验设想的思考,审视我 们的价值、信仰。检验我们的设想,这就是我们为什么要学习其 它国家和文化的哲学和生活方式的原因。只有这样,我们才能不 断地了解他人,同时更深刻地了解自己。这虽然是对教育的挑战, 但却应该是大学追求的理想。
陈兵译、马万华校) (陈兵译、马万华校)
The End
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