The whole year’s work depends on a good start in spring
Are you ready for the new semester?
2009年十大网络流行语

  10.这事儿不能说太细。 这事儿不能说太细。 这事儿不能说太细
  9. 雷锋做好事不留名,但把每一件事情都 雷锋做好事不留名, 记到日记里。 记到日记里。
  8. 你out了! 了
  7. 你有什么不开心的 说出来让大家开心一 你有什么不开心的?说出来让大家开心一 下。
  6. 人情债,我肉偿了! 人情债,我肉偿了
  5. 不要迷恋哥,哥只是个传说。 不要迷恋哥,哥只是个传说。
  4. 人生就像茶几,上面摆满了杯具。 人生就像茶几,上面摆满了杯具。
  3. 贾君鹏你妈妈喊你回家吃饭 贾君鹏你妈妈喊你回家吃饭!
  2. 哥抽的不是烟,是寂寞 哥抽的不是烟,是寂寞!
  1. 不差钱
Money is not a problem. What brother is smoking is not a cigarette, but loneliness! Jia Junpeng, your mother wants you to go home to have some food. Life is like a tea table, with bitter cups placed all over it. Don't be obsessed with brother. He is only a legend. My debts of gratitude have been repaid with my body! What makes you unhappy? Tell us to make us happy. You are left behind the times. Lei Feng does good without seeking recognition, but he records everything in his diary. It cannot be explained in detail.
How to Get the Poor off Our Conscience
John Kenneth Galbraith
Pre-class discussion:
Are you poor? Are you rich?
The meaning of poverty
Would you say that someone in Britain was in poverty if they had enough to buy the things they really needed, but not enough to buy the things most people take for granted? Would you say that someone in Britain was in poverty if they had enough to eat and live, but not enough to buy other things they needed? Would you say that someone in China was in poverty if they had not got enough to eat and live without getting into debt?
The prevalence of poverty
Some people say there is very little real poverty in China today. Others say there is quite a lot. Which comes closest to your view that there is very little real poverty in China, or that there is quite a lot? Over the last ten years do you think that poverty in China has been increasing, decreasing or staying at about the same level? And over the next ten years, do you think that poverty in China will increase, decrease or stay at about the same level?
The causes of poverty
Why do you think there are people who live in need? Of the four views on this card, which one comes closest to your own? Because they have been unlucky. Because of laziness or lack of will power. Because of injustice in our society. It’s an inevitable part of modern life.
Inequality
Government should redistribute income from the better off to those who are less well off (agree/neither/disagree). Ordinary working people do not get their fair share of the nation’s wealth (agree/neither/disagree). Benefits for unemployed people are too low and cause hardship Benefits for unemployed people are too high and discourage them from finding jobs?
Structure and organization

  1. (P1-
  2) the theme: I would like to reflect on one of the oldest of human exercises we have undertaken to get the poor off our conscience.
  2. (P3-
  9) 5 historical solutions (chronological)
  1) in the Bible: the poor suffer in this world but are wonderfully rewarded in the next.
  2) in the twenty or thirty years following the publication in 1776 of “the Wealth of Nations” ? Jeremy Bentham ? utilitarianism
  3) in the 1830s ? David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus ? the poverty of the poor was the fault of the poor
  4) by the middle of the 19th century ? Herbert Spencer ? Social Darwinism ? survival of the fittest
  5) in the course of the present century ? Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover ? assistance to the poor interfered with the effective operation of the economist system



  3. (P10-
  11) transition a truly great change ? however ? again, again
  4. (P12-
  20) 5 current designs
  1) argument: most of the things that must be done on behalf of the poor must be done in one way or another by the government ? the government is inherently incompetent and ineffective ? it must not be asked to succor the poor refutation: discrimination against people working in the federal government
  2) argument: any form of public help to the poor only hurts the poor refutation: there is no proof of this
  3) argument: public-assistance measures have an adverse effect on incentive refutation: ( two rhetorical questions) Can we really believe that any considerable number of the poor prefer welfare to a good job? Or that business people ? corporate executives, the key figures in our time ? are idling away their hours because of the insufficiency of their pay?
  4) argument: adverse effect on freedom of taking responsibility for them refutation: a. no money, no freedom b. the gain is far greater than the loss
  5) simple psychological denial
  5. (P
  21) conclusion: public assistance to the poor is in the interest of the conservatives.
Detailed analysis
Keynesian: 凯恩斯主义
In 1930s, he advocated interventionist government policy, by which governments would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of business cycles, economic recessions, and depressions. Following the outbreak of World War II, Keynes's ideas concerning economic policy were adopted by leading Western economies. During the 1950s and 1960s, the success of Keynesian economics was so resounding that almost all capitalist governments adopted its policy recommendations. Keynes's influence waned in the 1970s, partly as a result of problems that began to afflict the Anglo-American economies from the start of the decade, and partly due to critiques from Milton Friedman and other economists who were pessimistic about the ability of governments to regulate the business cycle with fiscal policy. However, the advent of the global financial crisis in 2007 has caused a resurgence in Keynesian thought. Keynesian economics has provided the theoretical underpinning for the plans of President Barack Obama of the United States, Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, and other global leaders to ease the economic recession.

Rich and poor have lived together, always uncomfortably and sometimes perilously... (p
  2)
What does the author mean when he uses “perilously”? The slave uprisings, such as the slave revolt led by Spartacus in ancient Rome, peasant uprisings and workers’ strikes. If the disparity becomes too great, the poor will rise up against the rich and cause much damage.
故孔子说:“不患寡而患不均,不患贫而 患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。” The head of a state or a noble family worries not about poverty but about uneven distribution, not about underpopulation but about disharmony, not about overturning but about 意思是说社会的和谐稳定与否不在财富的 多寡,而在于是否“各得其分”,“均” 并非绝对平均之谓,而是“各得其分”之 意.均则人心能安,安则无倾覆之患。
perilous
Peril, noun [C or U] FORMAL 1 great danger, or something that is very dangerous: I never felt that my life was in peril. The journey through the mountains was fraught with peril (= full of dangers). Teenagers must be warned about the perils of unsafe sex. 2 do sth at your peril to do something that might be very dangerous for you: We underestimate the destructiveness of war at our peril. Perilous, adjective FORMAL extremely dangerous: The country roads are quite perilous. Perilously, adv.
ailment
Ail, verb [T] FORMAL to cause difficulty and problems for: The government seems to have no understanding of what ails the country. the country's ailing economy Ted asked me if I could help him fix his ailing car. verb [I or T] OLD USE to be ill, or to cause to be ill: She had been ailing for years before she died. What's ailing you? Is it your leg again? Ailment, n, (c): an illness
Adam Smith
First to explain how capitalism worked, admired by Marx “Wealth of Nations”: fundation work of classical economics, the division of labor, in a laissez-faire economy the impulse of self-interest would bring about the public welfare
By the principle of utility, is meant the principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question. (p
  4)
The principle of utility means that an action is judged by whether it will increase or decrease the benefits of those who are affected by the action. utilitarianism: based on fairness and effectiveness 增进公共利益的学说,人类避苦求乐,道 德和立法的原则,人类利益的最大化,最 大多数人的最大幸福
augment
verb [T] FORMAL to increase the size or value of something by adding something to it: He would have to find work to augment his income. Diminish: to reduce or be reduced in size or importance: I don't want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help. These memories will not be diminished by time.
virtue
noun [C or U] (an) advantage or benefit: It always looks odd to see an actress on TV extolling (= praising) the virtues of washing-up liquid. Would there be any virtue in taking an earlier train?
David Ricardo: “the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” “iron law of wages”: wages tend to stabilize around the subsistence level the theory of comparative advantage in international trade
Malthusianism: Malthus: Essay on Population
  1. population is necessarily limited by means of subsistence
  2. population invariably increases where means of subsistence increases unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks
  3. these checks are resolvable into moral restraint, vice and misery.
A stockbroker…a divine
Stockbroker: make a lot of money Divine: member of the Christian clergy A formula proposed by two with such different backgrounds yet with such similarity of thinking is by itself an irony.
amelioration
verb [T] FORMAL to make a bad or unpleasant situation better: Foreign aid is badly needed to ameliorate the effects of the drought.
succor
noun [U] LITERARY help given to someone, especially someone who is suffering or in need: Her organization gave succour and strength to those who had been emotionally damaged. verb [T] LITERARY to succour the poor, help the helpless, support the weak Students should be encouraged, supported and succoured.
allegation
noun [C] FORMAL a statement which has not been proven to be true which says that someone has done something wrong or illegal: Several of her patients have made allegations of professional misconduct about/against her. [+ that] Allegations that Mr Dwight was receiving money from known criminals have caused a scandal.
Why does the author mention Pentagon or national defense?
The author wants to point out the ironical fact that those people who attack the government or the bureaucracy will not include the military establishment. They want the government to do less or nothing in social welfare but more on national defense. The author is highly critical of such a view. He opposes huge military expenditures.
Replete
adjective [after verb] FORMAL 1 full, especially with food: After two helpings of dessert, Sergio was at last replete. 2 well supplied: This car has an engine replete with the latest technology.
In fact, we have in the ….who are overwhelmingly honest and only rarely given to overpaying for monkey wrenches…when these aberration have occurred, they…in the Pentagon.(p
  13)
On the whole, the author is positive about public service and government employees. His criticism is directed at the military establishment. Given to 惯于 出高价购买活动扳手……以获取回扣的情况极为罕见。 Aberration: noun [C or U] FORMAL a temporary change from the typical or usual way of behaving: In a moment of aberration, she agreed to go with him. I‘m sorry I’m late - I had a mental aberration and forgot we had a meeting today. 偏离正道
morale
noun [U] the amount of confidence felt by a person or group of people, especially when in a dangerous or difficult situation: A couple of victories would improve the team's morale enormously. There have been a lot of recent redundancies so morale is fairly low. n. 士气, 道德
inflict
verb [T] to force someone to experience something very unpleasant: These new bullets are capable of inflicting massive injuries. The suffering inflicted on these children was unimaginable.

  1. Inflict: to force someone to experience something very unpleasant:
  3. Foist: to force someone to have or experience something they do not want
  4. Impose: to officially force a rule, tax, punishment, etc. to be obeyed or received; to force someone to accept something, especially a belief or way of living
  2. Force:
supply-side economics: (通过减税刺激 生产和投资的)供应经济学 the idea that if the government reduces taxes, producers will be able to make more goods and this will improve a country’s economic situation.
Can we believe that any considerable number of the poor prefer welfare to a good job? Or that business people…are idling away
 

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