Lesson 2
Maheegun My Brother
Pre-reading Discussion Pre? What do we Chinese think of “wolf” ? ? What about in other cultures?
I. Wolf and Man and
At the very beginning, the wolf shared a close bond with Man. The forerunner of Man. today’s dogs, the wolf sometimes shared the fire of Man, helping him to hunt, and in return being kept safe and fed a portion of return the kill. kill.
I. Wolf and Man and
Many ancient cultures held the wolf in high regard.
In Egypt, the wolf was worshipped Lycopolis?“the City of the Wolves”. at
In Greece, the god Apollo was a wolf-god. A bronze wolf guarded his altar in the temple of Delphi. Mars/Ares ( 希 腊 战 神 ) had a wolf for his emblem and was sometimes known to change into a wolf by donning a wolf-skin.
I. Wolf and Man and
In Roman mythology, the god Mars considered the wolf a sacred animal, and the founders of Rome were raised by a wolf.
In the traditions of Eastern Europe, St. George was accompanied by wolves wherever he went. And wolves were viewed as protectors of the harvest.
I. Wolf and Man and
Native Americans also held the wolf in high regard and believed that wolves carry some characteristics that humans should also find important, such as strong family structure and teaching the young. Things changed however, and the wolf became a devourer of livestock and supposedly also a devourer of people, especially children.
I. Wolf and Man and
So the wolf was hunted, and in Western Europe, the Emperor Charlemagne established the Louveterie or wolf-hunt. In 1787, Louis XVI abolished the Louveterie due to poor economy, but it was reestablished by Napoleon I. It was not until 1971 that the Louveterie was finally ended.
The wolf is now extinct in Ireland, UK, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Hungary. It is endangered in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. Only in Alaska, Canada and Russia, has the wolf found its last stronghold.
I. Wolf and Man and
How are wolves viewed nowadays nowadays?
a more realistic view of the wolf: wolf: a vital part of a balanced ecosystem
II. Wolf Phrases
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? cry wolf a lone wolf wolf in sheep's clothing have/hold a wolf by the ears have a wolf in the stomach keep the wolf from the door see a wolf ugly enough to tree a wolf wake a sleeping wolf set the wolf to keep the sheep
喊叫“狼来了” 喊叫“狼来了”,发假警报 独居单干的人 披着羊皮的狼 骑虎难下, 骑虎难下,进退两难 饿到极点 免于饥饿, 免于饥饿,勉强度日 说不出话来, 说不出话来,目瞪口呆 丑陋至极, 丑陋至极,不中用到极点 自找麻烦 引狼入室
Working on the text… text…
? Spear
e.g. spear and shield
The huntsmen were ~ing fish from the river.
? Shiver
To shake esp. from cold or fear
? e.g. The children stood outside ~ing. [外因] 外因] ? n. [send shivers (up and) down your spine] to make you feel very frightened or excited ? e.g. A sudden scream from outside sent shivers down his spine.
? Cf. quiver: quiver:
to tremble slightly, esp. because you feel angry, excited, or upset [内因] 内因]
? pick…up pick… ? gain
experience/support/a reputation weight/speed/height
? wiggle
To move in small movements from side to side, or up and down
e.g. Henry wiggled his toes.
n. a wiggle of the hips
Get a ~ on! (Hurry up!)
Wiggle racer
Sentence Paraphrase 1
Not that we didn’t have our troubles. (Para.
  5)
although it is not true that… e.g. She loved music but seldom went to concerts?not that she couldn’t afford to.
When I say the year I got Maheegun was the happiest year of my life, I don’t mean that Maheegun never caused troubles.
?
Upset e.g. He upset a bottle of ink over the map.
To push sth. over without intending to
?
Poke
Poke the fire

  1) to quickly push into sth. or someone with your finger, a stick, or sth. pointed
e.g. Andy poked the fish to see if it was still alive.

  2) to move or push sth. through a space or opening
e.g. He poked his hands deep into his pockets. One of the nurses poked her head around the door / through the window.

  3) [poke your nose into]
e.g. I don’t want him poking his nose into our marriage.

  4) [poke fun at] 一些孩子正在取笑朱迪的穿着。 一些孩子正在取笑朱迪的穿着。
e.g. Some of the kids were poking fun at Judy because of the way she dressed.
? Take… to… Take… to… ? And in the fall, after the first snow our games took us to the nearest meadows in search of field mice.
When it was getting cold, and there were no more grasshoppers (also because Maheegun needed something bigger to hunt as he grew), we had to go to the nearest meadow to hunt field mice.
? Puppy
? Mantle
? Paraphrase: Gone was the puppy-wool coat. In its place was a puppyhandsome black mantle.
His fur had changed. It used to be soft thick hair, and now it had turned into a beautiful black and was no longer woolly.
? Serve
To have a particular effect or result
e.g. His appearance on the scene served only to worsen the
situation
? Fog
(figurative) to confuse or hide
e.g. I think we’re just fogging the issue by looking at all these details.
I was so happy with Maheegun that my alertness slackened although my Grandpa had told me to chain him up at night, I forgot to do so one night.
? Sail ? Wild with showing strong uncontrolled feelings because of ? shack
On top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still, ears pointed, alert, listening. (Para.
  11)
Absolute construction that describes the state the wolf was in sitting on the rock.
The clear figure of a big wolf was sitting without moving on the top of the rock. His ears were raised and he seemed watchful and was listening to something.
The whole white world thrilled to that wild cry. (Para.
  14)
to feel excited at sth.
Everything in the snow-covered wildness seemed to be aroused/stirred by the passionate cry of Maheegun.
? Rumble 我们听得见远处的雷声轰鸣。 我们听得见远处的雷声轰鸣。
We could hear thunder rumbling in the distance.
一辆坦克隆隆驶过。 一辆坦克隆隆驶过。
A tank rumbled past. My stomach rumbles.
“He will take her for life, hunt for her, protect her. This is the way the Creator planned life. No man can change it.” (Para.
  16)
all ones’ life God
Cultural Note: According to the first part of the Bible, God created the world and everything in it in six days, and on the seventh day God rested. When God made human beings, he made a man called Adam out of the earth, and then made a woman called Eve out of Adam’s ribs. God assigned different roles to Adam and Eve, Adam’s role being to take care of Eve, provide for her and protect her, and also to guide her. God created living creatures in the same way.
? Be (all) for the best
spoken used to say that a particular event may not be as bad as it seems e.g. I still don’t want him to go, but maybe it’s for the
best. They had to sell their car, but since they are both without a job, it’s probably for the best.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
as red as a as brown as a as bright as a as poor as a as right as a as drunk as a as white as a as nimble as a as mild as a as warm as a as sound as a as true as a as merry as a as cool as a
turkey-cock berry button church mouse trivet / rain piper / fiddler ghost / sheet squirrel dove toast bell die cricket / lark cucumber
Easter
? ?
Easter Bunny
eggs rolling in WH
Easter egg hunt
?

  1)
Detain
To keep sb in an official place, such as a police station, a prison or a hospital, and prevent them from leaving e.g. The police detained the terrorists. To delay sb or prevent them from going somewhere 他要晚点到,他因会议耽搁了。 对不起 他要晚点到,他因会议耽搁了。 I’m sorry he’ll be late; he’s been detained at a meeting.

  2)
?
Snowshoes
? Stumble

  1) To walk in a very unsteady way so that you nearly fall over e.g. I finished the whisky and then stumbled upstairs and into bed.
  2) to hit your foot against sth. so that you almost fall
e.g. In her hurry she ~d and spilled the milk all over the floor.

  3) to stop or make a mistake when you are reading to people or speaking [+over/at/through] 她因为紧张说话结结巴巴的。 她因为紧张说话结结巴巴的。
In her nervousness she stumbled over her words.
? Only too
cf.
Only to
Very e.g. Turn to him whenever you need help. He would be only too pleased to help. used to mention sth. that happens immediately afterwards, esp. sth. that causes surprise, disappointment, etc e.g. Ausable returned home only to find Max, his enemy, standing halfway across his room.
? Blow itself out
(of a storm) to lose force or cease entirely
After I was lost… (Paragraph25-
  27) lost… (Paragraph25Day
1 2
My condition
Comfortable enough In deep trouble
Weather condition
A blanket of white darkness Storm even worse, everything in fierce whiteness
3 4
Confused Supply almost gone
See no end to the storm Clear dawn, white stillness take over
? Smother
To cover thickly e.g. a delicious sponge cake ~ed in chocolate
We tried to ~ our laughter. One night she took a pillow and ~ed him.
? Slash
To make a long cut with a sharp object, esp. in a violent way
e.g. Someone had slashed the tyres on my car.
她试图割腕自杀。 她试图割腕自杀。 She tried to kill herself by slashing her wrists.
The workforce has been slashed by half.
? Spurt
To come out quickly and suddenly in a thin, powerful stream e.g. Water began ~ing from a hole in the pipe. He ~ed towards the finishing line.
? Squat
? Howl n. v.
e.g. The wolves ~ed in the forest. The comedian had the audience ~ing with laughter. The wind ~ed through the trees.
? 蜜蜂嗡嗡叫 ? 牛哞哞叫 ? 猪发出咕噜咕噜声 ? 蛇发出嘶斯声 ? 马蹄得得响 ? 老鼠吱吱叫
hum moo grunt hiss clatter squeak Onomatopoeia n. v.
?

  1)
Snarl
(of dogs, etc.) to show the teeth and make a deep angry noise in the throat
e.g. The dog snarled at strangers.

  2) To speak in an angry or bad tempered way
e.g. She snarled abuse at anyone who happened to walk past.
谁碰巧走过,她就冲谁叫骂。 谁碰巧走过,她就冲谁叫骂。
?
Crouch
?
Whimper
Cf. cry, weep, sob
To make low, weak crying noises; to speak in this way noises;
?
[Take its toll on]
to have very bad effect on sth. or someone over a long period of time
e.g. Years of smoking have taken their toll on his health.
?
  1)
  2)
Toll n. the money you have to pay to use a particular road, bridge, etc the number of people killed or injured in a particular accident, by a particular illness etc
死亡人数已上升到83人 死亡人数已上升到83人。

  3)
e.g. The death toll has risen to
  83. bell n. v. For Whom the Bell Tolls??丧钟为谁而鸣(海明威) 丧钟为谁而鸣(海明威)
? Fan it into life ? [come into focus] if your eyes, a camera, a telescope, a microscope comes into focus, the edges of what you see are clear and sharp
AfterAfter-reading work
? Structure ? Language Style
Structure of the Text
Part 1 (Paras. 1?3 ) : The introduction. Part 2 (Paras.4?17 ) : The happy days the boy and Maheegun had together in the short period of less than a year, and how Maheegun returned to the wild where he belonged.
Structure of the Text
Part 3 (Paras.18?40 ) : The reunion of the two when the boy’s life was endangered by two hungry wolves. Part 4 (Paras. 41?
  44) : The brothers returned to the place where they each belonged to ? the boy to his warm home, the wolf to his kind in the wild.
Language Features
Compound adjectives Inversion Metaphor and simile * Personification Language to describe snow, a wolf (appearance, action, feeling) *
Oral Work 1
? Discussion: How do you perceive the ideal relationship between human being and wild animals? animals?
? Non-domesticated, untouched Non? The four most general reasons that lead to destruction of wildlife include:
  1) overkill,
  2) habitat destruction and fragmentation,
  3) impact of introduced species and
  4) chains of extinction (secondary effects / Domino effect ).
Oral Work 2
? Group Work (5 people / group) Retell the story. P40
  4.
  6. (snowball rolling)
Homework
? Please establish 2 databases for
  1) describing a wolf,
  2) describing the snow.
Please pick up as many words and phrases from the text as possible! possible!
 

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