Unit One
Personality
?
In-Class Reading
The Misery of Shyness
Language Points
? Shy people are anxious and self-conscious(不自在, 不自在, 不自在 不自然); that is, they are excessively concerned with their own appearance and actions. ? 羞怯的人会焦虑不安,感到不自然;也就是说,他们 羞怯的人会焦虑不安,感到不自然;也就是说, 过分关注自己的外表和举止。 过分关注自己的外表和举止。 Other words with “self-”:
Self-esteem:自尊,自负 自尊, Self-assurance:自信心 自尊 自信心 Self-worth:自我价值 Self-awareness:自我意识,自我了解 自我意识, 自我价值 自我意识 self-concept:自我概念 Self-discipline:自律 自我概念 : Self-acceptance:自我认同 Self-rejection:自暴自弃 自我认同 自暴自弃 Self-interest:私利 Self-destructive:自毁的 : 自毁的 Self-evident:不言而喻的 self-centered:自我为中心的 不言而喻的 自我为中心的
excessively (adv.) (Line 3, Para.
  1) in an excessive amount, to an excessive degree 过分地,过度地,非常地 过分地,过度地,
Translation
我不多喝酒。 我不多喝酒。
I don’t drink excessively.
晚会的噪音非常地 晚会的噪音非常地大。 非常地大
The noise from the party is excessively loud.
词汇扩充
excessive (adj.) 过多的,过分的,额外的 过多的,过分的, excess [ik‘ses] (c.n.) 过度,超过,过剩,放肆 过度,超过,过剩, exceed (vt.) 超过,胜过 超过,
Demand began to exceed supply. Exercise
请选择适当的词填空。 请选择适当的词填空。
守门员因持球时间过长而受罚。 持球时间过长而受罚 守门员因持球时间过长而受罚。 excessive possession The goal-keeper was punished for . of ball 他吃得很好,但不过多 过多。 他吃得很好,但不过多。 to excess He ate well, but not . 你拆阅那些信件是越权行为。 越权行为 你拆阅那些信件是越权行为。 exceeding your duty You are in opening those letters.
? Worrisome(troublesome) thoughts are constantly swirling in their minds. ? 脑海中不断盘旋着一些使自己不安的想法。 脑海中不断盘旋着一些使自己不安的想法。 ? Swirl:盘旋,打转 盘旋, 盘旋
Eg.The hurricane begins to swirl in a clockwise motion. 飓风开始顺时针打旋。 飓风开始顺时针打旋。
Introduction (Para.
  1)
Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people.
It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must affect people adversely. (Line
  7) adversely.
译 文
很显然这种不安的感觉会对人们产生不利的影响。 很显然这种不安的感觉会对人们产生不利的影响。 会对人们产生不利的影响
语 法 训 练
must + 动词原型: to be likely or certain to 对现在的推测、推论。 对现在的推测、推论。
表示根据情况推断,认为某事是必然的 表示根据情况推断,
Example
You must feel tired after walking such a long distance. distance.
走了这么长的路, 必定是累了。 走了这么长的路,你必定是累了。
The light went out. The electricity must be off.
灯熄了,一定是停电了。 灯熄了,一定是停电了。
adversely: adv. in a harmful way 不利地,有害地 不利地, adverse: adj. 不利的,有害的 be adverse to: 不利于 adj. 不利的,
adverse impact/ factor /conditions 不利影响/因素/条件 不利影响/因素/
Eg:
  1. Her health was adversely affected by the climate. 那种气候损害了她的健康。 那种气候损害了她的健康。
  2. The development was adverse to our interests.
? 这种发展与我们的利益背道而驰。 这种发展与我们的利益背道而驰。
profound (adj.) (Line 10, Para.
  2)
  1) deep; complete 深切的,极度的,极 深切的,极度的,
深的( 正式) 深的(比deep正式)
have a profound effect on : 对…产生深刻的影响 产生深刻的影响

  2) having, showing, or using thorough knowledge and deep understanding 知识渊博的;深奥的 知识渊博的; 他知识渊博,深受人们喜爱。 知识渊博,深受人们喜爱。
profound knowledge He is a man of , deeply beloved by people.
? People who have a positive sense of selfworth or high self-esteem usually act with confidence. ? 具有积极的价值观或很强自尊心的人往往表现 出自信。 出自信。
Self-confident people participate in life enthusiastically and spontaneously. 自信者热情自发地投入生活。 自信者热情自发地投入生活。 Spontaneously:adv. 自发地 :
? A group of people got together spontaneously at the scene of the accident. 一群人自发地聚集在事故现场 现场。 一群人自发地聚集在事故现场。
In contrast, shy people, having low self-esteem, contrast, selfare likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. others. (Line
  17)
译 文
相比之下,羞怯的人自尊心较弱, 相比之下 , 羞怯的人自尊心较弱 , 往往 消极被动并且容易受他人影响。 消极被动并且容易受他人影响。
句 型 应 用
in/by contrast
固定短语,意思是“ 相反; 固定短语,意思是“与……相反;形成对比; 相反 形成对比; 相比之下” 用来表示对比。 相比之下”。用来表示对比。 如果后面接宾语, 如果后面接宾语,要用 in contrast with/to 或
by contrast with。 with。
Example
Coal, gas, oil, nuclear power, or water power can all generate electricity for an electric train. In/by contrast, diesel trains run only on diesel oil. In contrast to/with your belief that we will fail, I am confident that we will succeed.
Translation
与从前不同,这个地区今天已成为一个繁华的、 与从前不同,这个地区今天已成为一个繁华的、丰 富多彩的水果和鲜花市场。 富多彩的水果和鲜花市场。
Today, in/by contrast, the area is a lively and colorful fruit, and flower market.
与你的悲观看法相反,我宁愿采取积极的态度。 相反, 你的悲观看法相反 我宁愿采取积极的态度。
In contrast with/to your pessimistic point of view, I would rather take a positive attitude.
? Shy people are very sensitive to criticism; they feel it confirms their inferiority. ? 害羞的人对批评非常敏感;他们绝大批评正好 害羞的人对批评非常敏感; 证实了他们比别人差。 证实了他们比别人差。 ? Be sensitive to:对…敏感 对 敏感
He is sensitive to strong smells. 他对强烈的气味很敏感。 他对强烈的气味很敏感。
confirm (vt.) (Line 19, Para.
  3) [+ that] to support; make certain; give proof (of) 支持;确 支持;
实;证实
Translation
请给我来封信以便证实 请给我来封信以便证实你在电话 证实你在电话 中传达的消息。 中传达的消息。
Please confirm your telephone message by letter.
确认我们的房间已订妥 我们打电话给那家旅馆以确认我们的房间已订妥。 我们打电话给那家旅馆以确认我们的房间已订妥。
We confirmed the reservation by calling the hotel.
请熟悉下面的表达或搭配。 请熟悉下面的表达或搭配。
confirm a rumor confirm one’s belief confirm a contract confirm a theory
证实谣言 坚定信念 批准合同 证实一个理论
词义辨析
conform: 遵照,符合,一致,后面常跟to或with 遵照,符合,一致,
inferiority (n.) (Line 19, Para.
  3) the quality of condition of being inferior; lower rank or state 低劣 inferior (adj.) (常与 to 连用,无比较级、最高 连用,无比较级、
级形式)次的, 劣等的, 级形式)次的, 劣等的, 差的
Exercise
请用适当的词填空。 请用适当的词填空。
自卑感。 我发现难以摆脱一种社会自卑感 我发现难以摆脱一种社会自卑感。
I found it difficult to shake off (摆脱) . 摆脱) a sense of social inferiority
巴特曾非常自卑,以至于觉得自己不如见过的任何 巴特曾非常自卑,以至于觉得自己不如见过的任何 不如 一个受过教育的人。 一个受过教育的人。
Barter had been so humiliated that he felt himself to be inferior to every educated man he met.
compliment (Line 21, Para.
  3) n.
  1) expression of admiration, approval, ect,. 恭维之表示;敬意;赞扬 恭维之表示;敬意;
  2) (pl.) (formal) greetings 问候;致 问候;
意;道贺
v. express admiration, approval
恭维; 恭维;赞扬
Exercise
请用下面的提示词造句。 请用下面的提示词造句。
她非常赞赏我的画 (pay sb. a compliment/compliment
sb. on sth.) She paid me a very charming compliment on my paintings. She complimented me on my paintings.
她微笑地接受了他对裙子的称赞
She accepted his compliments about her dress with a smile.
? Be unworthy of (L.
  21) : 不值得
? He is unworthy of such an honor. 我不配获得这样的荣誉。 我不配获得这样的荣誉。 It is unworthy of being discussed. 这不值得讨论 。
Be unworthy to…
He is unworthy to receive such honor. 他不配得到这种荣誉。 他不配得到这种荣誉。 This is unworthy to be discussed. 这不值得讨论 。
It is clear that, while self-awareness is a that, selfhealthy quality, overdoing it is detrimental, or harmful. harmful. (Line
  22)
译 文
显然,尽管自我意识是一种健康的品质 自我意识是一种健康的品质, 显然,尽管自我意识是一种健康的品质, 过分的自我意识却是不利、有害的。 过分的自我意识却是不利、有害的。
是形式主语。 此句it是形式主语。
难 句 分 析
overdoing it is detrimental or harmful是真正
的主语,是主语从句。 的主语,是主语从句。 While引导的句子作后一句子的让步状语从句。 引导的句子作后一句子的让步状语从句。
Example
It is clear that while he understands what you say, he can’t agree with you.
显然,尽管他理解你说的话 但是他并不赞同。 显然,尽管他理解你说的话,但是他并不赞同。 他理解你说的话,
Reasons why shyness can have a negative effect. (Para. 2-
  3)
People’s self-concept has a profound effect on all areas of their lives. People with high self-esteem usually act with confidence. People with low self-esteem are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others.
eliminate (v.) (Line 25, Para.
  4) eliminate from: remove
除去;删除; 除去;删除;淘汰
Exercise
请完成下面的句子。 请完成下面的句子。
他已被取消了游泳比赛资格 他已被取消了游泳比赛资格, 被取消了游泳比赛资格, 因为他在训练中没有得到名次。 因为他在训练中没有得到名次。
He has been eliminated from the swimming race because he did not win any of the practice races.
那位建筑师在估算房子的价格时未曾把家具考虑 那位建筑师在估算房子的价格时未曾把家具考虑 在内。 在内。
eliminated the cost of furniture The architect in figuring the cost of the house.
词义辨析
eliminate: (vt.) to remove or get rid of completely 消除 reduce: (vt.) to make less in size, amount, price, degree
减少,降低 减少,
diminish: (vt. vi.) (cause to ) become less in size or importance
减少,降低……重要性 减少,降低……重要性 ……
Exercise
请选择 eliminate, reduce 或 diminish 的适当 形式填空。 形式填空。
We can’t the use of paper but we can eliminate reduce certainly the amount of paper we waste. I my weight by going on a diet. reduced diminish I don’t want to her achievements, but she did have a lot of help. The threat of nuclear war has . diminished
? Fortunately, people can overcome shyness with determined and patient effort in building self-confidence (建立自信). ? 幸运的是,人们能够通过坚持不懈的努力建立自信, 幸运的是,人们能够通过坚持不懈的努力建立自信, 从而克服害羞。 从而克服害羞。 ? Go hand in hand with(p.
  13)携手前进,紧密联 携手前进, 携手前进 系
? China is willing to join hands with the community to advance common development. 中国愿与各界同仁携手前进,共同发展。 中国愿与各界同仁携手前进,共同发展。
? Weaknesses and strengths:缺点和优点 缺点和优点
dwell (vi.) (dwelt or dwelled) (Line 31, Para.
  4) 居住、
  1) dwell in /at: reside 居住、存在
  2) dwell on / upon: think, speak or write at length about 凝思;详细;论述;仔细研究 凝思;详细;论述;
He dwell upon that point for several minute.
Exercise
请适当的词填空。 请适当的词填空。
不要过分沉溺在痛苦的回忆之中。 不要过分沉溺在痛苦的回忆之中。 过分沉溺在痛苦的回忆之中
dwell too much on Don't painful memories
我们的眼睛凝视着美丽的夕阳。 我们的眼睛凝视着美丽的夕阳。 凝视着美丽的夕阳
Our eyes the beautiful sunset. dwelled on
 

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