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Page 49 Unit 3 program storage document internal interface classify efficiently security system unauthorized function password user control detect input
Operating system for micro, mini, and mainframe computers perform many services. These services can be classified either as“external”or“internal”. The operating system provides external services that help users start programs, manage stored data, and maintain security. You, as the computer user, control these external functions. Using a command-line, menu-driven, or GUI user interface , an operating system provides you with a way to select the programs you would like to use. The operating system also helps you find, rename, and delete documents and other data stored on disks or tapes. On many, but not all computer systems , the operating system helps you maintain security by checking your user ID(用 户标识) and password , as well as protecting your data from unauthorized access and revisions(修改). The operating system provides internal services“behind the scenes”to ensure that the computer system functions efficiently . These internal services are not generally under your control , but instead are controlled by the operating system itself. The operating system controls input and output, allocates(分配) system resources, manages the storage space for programs and data, and detects equipment failure without any direction from you. Page 70 Unit 4 convert interpreter accomplish compile high-level send code create execute understand resulting process processor command run file
A programming language provides the tools a programmer uses to create software and produce a lengthy list of instructions, called source code ,which defines the software environment in every detail-what it looks like ,how the user enters commands ,and how it manipulates data. A computer’s microprocessor understands only machine language. Therefore, instructions written in a(n) high-level language must be translated into machine language before a computer can use them. The process of translating instructions from a high-level language into machine language can be accomplished by two special types of programs: compilers and interpreters . A compiler translates all the instructions in a program as a single batch(一批) ,and the resulting machine language instructions, called object code(目标代码),are placed in a new file . Most of the program files on a distribution CD for commercial software are compiled so that they contain machine language instructions that are ready for the processor to execute. As an alternative to a compiler, an interpreter converts one instruction at a time while the program is running . An interpreter reads the first instruction, converts it into machine language, and then sends it to the microprocessor. After the instruction is executed , the interpreter converts the next instruction, and so on.
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Page 89 Unit 5 manage memory development engineer limit develop programming area performance technique store factor efficient system program environment
Software development is concerned with creating computer programs that perform efficiently. In developing computer software, computer scientists and engineers study various areas and techniques of software design, such as the best types of programming languages and algorithms to use in specific programs, how to efficiently store and retrieve information, and the computational limits of certain software-computer combinations. Software designers must consider many factors when developing a program. Often, program performance in one area must be sacrificed for the sake of the general performance of the software. For instance, since computers have only a limited amount of memory, software designers must limit the number of features they include in a program so that it will not require more memory than the system it is designed for can supply. Software engineering is an area of software development in which computer scientists and engineers study methods and tools that facilitate the efficient development of correct, reliable, and robust computer programs. Software engineers develop software tools and collections of tools called programming environments to improve the development process. For example, tools can help to manage the many components of a large program that is being written by a team of programmers. Page 116 Unit 6 computer proper communicate disk resource transmit enable network node limited bus convert dissimilar protocol connect bridge
A local area network(LAN) is a group of computers and other devices spread over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other on the network LANs commonly include microcomputers and shared (often expensive ) resources such as laser printers and large hard disks . Most (modern) LANs can support a wide variety of computers and other devices. Each device must use the proper physical and data-link protocols for the particular LAN, and all devices that want to communicate with each other on the LAN must use the same upper-level communications protocol .Although single LANs are geographically limited , separate LANs can be connected to form larger networks. Similar LANs are linked by bridges , which act as transfer points between networks;dissimilar LANs are linked by gateways(网关), which both transfer data and convert it according to the protocols used by the receiving network. The devices on a LAN are known as nodes(节点), the nodes are connected by cabling(电缆) and through which messages are transmitted . Nodes on a LAN can be wired together in any of basic layouts, known as bus , ring, and star.
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