Unit Three Active Reading
Lesson 7 What Is Active Reading
This unit introduces some techniques that can make an appreciable difference in how well you read and how much you remember. In fact, these techniques? prereading, making connections and predictions, and monitoring your comprehension?can make an immediate, significant improvement in your reading efficiency.
Research reveals that effective reading is not a singlestep process, but a complex set of skills involving activities before, during, and after reading. Here is a partial list of some of those skills.
Before Reading:

  1. determine the subject of the material
  2. determine how the material is organized
  3. define your purpose of reading
  4. decide what you need to remember from the material
During Reading:
  1. identify what is important
  2. determine how key ideas are supported
  3. identify patterns of thought
  4. draw connections among ideas
  5. anticipate what is to come next
  6. relate ideas to what you already know
During and After Reading:
  1. identify the author’s purpose of writing
  2. analyze the writer’s technique and language
  3. evaluate the writer’s competence or authority
  4. ask critical questions
  5. evaluate the nature and type of supporting evidence
Practice of Reading Techniques Activities before,during and after reading.
  1. Determine what is meant by the title of the reading selection “A Whole Nation and a People.”
  2. Determine what sort of literature it is: essay, drama, fiction story, or fragments of autobiography.
  3. Anticipate what is to come next after reading the first five paragraphs.
  4. Identify the author’s purpose of writing this passage.
Lesson 7
Reading Selection A
A Whole Nation and a People
CATALOGUE Warm-up Activities About the Author Language Points Keys
Warm-up Activities

  1. The western countries have influence us greatly in all aspects. What are the advantages and the disadvantage of such influence?

  2. Do you think all of us should try our best to preserve our nation’s traditional customs?
About the Author
Harry Mark Petrakis
born June 5, 1923, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.
American novelist and short-story writer whose exuberant and sensitive works deal with the lives of Greek immigrants in urban America.
About the Author
Petrakis, the son of an Eastern Orthodox priest, attended the University of Illinois (1940?
  41) and held a variety of jobs to support himself while writing. His novels and stories, usually set in Chicago, include Lion at My Heart (19
  59), The Odyssey of Kostas Volakis (19
  63), A Dream of Kings (19
  66), The Hour of the Bell (19
  76), Nick the Greek (19
  79), Days of Vengeance (19
  83), and Ghost of the Sun (19
  90), a sequel to A Dream of Harry Mark Kings. Petrakis at age 12
About the Author
He also published collections of short stories, a biography, and an autobiography, Stelmark: A Family Recollection (19
  70). In 1998 he cowrote a biography of the industrialist Henry Crown, and the following year he released another autobiographical work, Tales of the Heart: Dreams and Memories of a Lifetime. Family of Harry Mark Petrakis (L to R) Tasula, Fr. Mark Petrakis, Dan, Irene, Mike, Harry, Barbara, Presbytera Stella.
Language Points

  1. contend with someone for something compete against someone in order to win or achieve it 竞争, 竞争,争夺 (line 3, para.
  1) ) 三个党正在争夺权利。 ① 三个党正在争夺权利。 Three parties are contending for power.
争夺冠军的这两支球队势均力敌。 ② 争夺冠军的这两支球队势均力敌。 The two teams contending for the championship are very evenly matched.
Language Points
*contend with have to deal with problems or difficulties, especially in order to achieve something(尤指为达成目标而) (尤指为达成目标而) 搏斗, 与…搏斗,与…作争斗 搏斗 作争斗 他们必须和风速达每小时40多英里的强风较量 多英里的强风较量。 ① 他们必须和风速达每小时 多英里的强风较量。 They had to contend with winds of over 40 miles an hour. 我得拼命养活这一大家子,已经够受了。 ② 我得拼命养活这一大家子,已经够受了。 I’ve got quite enough to contend with bringing up such a big family.
Language Points

  2. seek out hunt down 追寻到;特意要找出 (line 1, para.
  2) 追寻到; ) 任何人都不会无缘无故地特意寻找不愉快。 ① 任何人都不会无缘无故地特意寻找不愉快。 It was unusual for anyone to seek out unpleasantness. 科比特决心找出真相。 ② 科比特决心找出真相。 Corbett resolved to seek out the truth. 他又来找她,问她究竟是什么意思。 ③ 他又来找她,问她究竟是什么意思。 缺少英文例句
Language Points

  3. bedevil If something bedevils someone or something, it constantly causes problems and difficulties for them 纠缠; 纠缠;困扰 (line 2, para.
  2) ) 他们为种种抱怨所烦恼,为诸多问题所困扰。 ① 他们为种种抱怨所烦恼,为诸多问题所困扰。 They are besieged by complaints and bedeviled with problems. 伤病满营使球队陷入了困境。 ② 伤病满营使球队陷入了困境。 The team has been bedeviled by injury. 会计钻在一大堆数字里面给搅昏了头。 ③ 会计钻在一大堆数字里面给搅昏了头。 The accountant was bedeviled in a mass of figures.
Language Points

  4. do battle ( mainly journalism) argue with or fight against a difficult opponent, official system etc.(与…)争论, ( )争论, 进行斗争 (line 1, para.
  4) ) 对某人作政治上的斗争 do political battle with 就削减预算问题进行斗争 do battle over the budget cuts 他继续与市议会进行斗争。 ① 他继续与市议会进行斗争。 He continues to do battle with the city council. 他的支持者正准备就总统选举团的组成问题进行斗争。 ② 他的支持者正准备就总统选举团的组成问题进行斗争。 His supporters are preparing to do battle over the composition of the electoral college.
Language Points

  5. *hurl abuse /insults/accusations at sb shout insults at them in a violent or aggressive way 口气激烈地表达(或叫嚷);气势汹汹地口吐(恶言) );气势汹汹地口吐 口气激烈地表达(或叫嚷);气势汹汹地口吐(恶言) (line 3, para.
  4) ) 警察遭到恶狠狠的辱骂。 ① 警察遭到恶狠狠的辱骂。 Abuse was hurled at the police. 狂热的支持者们开始相互谩骂。 ② 狂热的支持者们开始相互谩骂。 The fans began hurling abuse at each other. 恶狠狠地辱骂 强烈指责某人 hurl insults hurl accusations at sb
Language Points
*hurl throw something violently and with a lot of force; fling 孩子们正在相互掷雪球。 孩子们正在相互掷雪球。 Children were hurling snowballs at one another.
Language Points

  6. * be on (upon) your mettle be ready to do something as well as you can, because you know that you are being tested or challenged 鼓起勇气;振作精神(去做某事) 鼓起勇气;振作精神(去做某事)(line 1, para.
  5) ) 要在这场比赛中获胜,我们得准备尽最大的努力。 ① 要在这场比赛中获胜,我们得准备尽最大的努力。 We’ll have to be our mettle to win the game. 这个新的车素限制将使那些渴望开快车的人大为振奋。 ② 这个新的车素限制将使那些渴望开快车的人大为振奋。 This new speed restriction will put a keen driver on his mettle. *show/prove your mettle show that you are capable of doing something well; prove yourself 表现出(或证明)自己能胜任谋事 表现出(或证明) 他没有机会表现自己的能耐。 他没有机会表现自己的能耐。 He had no chance to show his mettle.
Language Points

  7. brace oneself prepare oneself for something unpleasant 作好准备面对 不愉快的事);使防备; );使防备 (不愉快的事);使防备;使经受锻炼 (line 3, para.
  7) 你得作好准备,有坏消息相告。 ① 你得作好准备,有坏消息相告。 Brace yourself for bad news. ② 她为即将到来的磨难作好了准备。 她为即将到来的磨难作好了准备。 She braced herself for her forthcoming ordeal. 全城作了可能再发生一场地震的防备。 ③ 全城作了可能再发生一场地震的防备。 The city braced itself for a possible new quake.
Language Points

  8. make amends try to make a situation better after you have done something wrong; apologize for a mistake or something harmful that you have done 赔罪;赔偿;补偿;补救 赔罪;赔偿;补偿; (line 3, para.
  14) ) 因无礼行为向某人赔礼道歉 make amends to sb for rudeness 这使他希望对小男孩作些补偿, ① 这使他希望对小男孩作些补偿,他以前对于男孩过于 苛刻。 苛刻。 It made him wish to make amends for his former unkindness to the boy. 我希望能以某种方式作出补救。 ② 我希望能以某种方式作出补救。 I wish I could make amends somehow.
Language Points

  9. work off pay someone what you owe them by doing a job for them instead of giving them money 以工作抵偿(债务) 以工作抵偿(债务) (line 1, para.
  16) ) 他们被迫做工以抵偿债务。 他们被迫做工以抵偿债务。 They were forced to work off their debts. *work off something such as some of your weight you get rid of it by doing something that involves a lot of physical activity(通过体力活动)减轻(体重) (通过体力活动)减轻(体重) 她常常靠跑步来减轻过量的体重。 她常常靠跑步来减轻过量的体重。 She generally works off excess weight by going for a run.
Language Points
*work off a feeling such as an anger or embarrassment you gradually overcome it, especiallyby being unpleasant or violent towards other people 发泄掉(怒气);消除(困窘) 发泄掉(怒气);消除(困窘) );消除 他用问题烦扰我们来摆脱自己的困窘。 他用问题烦扰我们来摆脱自己的困窘。 He worked off his embarrassment by harassing us with questions.
Language Points

  10. square (informal) If two people are square, they are even, level, or equal with each other, for example they no longer owe each other any money; neither person owes the other anything(非正式)已结清的;互不欠帐的;两讫 (非正式)已结清的;互不欠帐的; 的;扯平的 (line 3, para.
  35) 你还给我6英镑 那么我们就两讫了。 英镑, ① 你还给我 英镑,那么我们就两讫了。 You give me back six pounds then we’ll be square. 再付5元钱帐就清了 元钱帐就清了。 ② 再付 元钱帐就清了。 Five dollars more and our accounts will be square.
  1. D
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
  5. C
  6. A
  7. D
  8. B
  9. B
  10.B B.
  1.contend with
  2.seek out
  3.work off
  9.make amends
  10.derided Ⅲ. CLOZE
  2.look down on
  5.in search of
  8.in favor of
Ⅳ.TRANSLATION 1我常和一帮来自各国的移民子弟一起玩。这一时期给 我常和一帮来自各国的移民子弟一起玩。 我记忆最深的就是一位杂货店的老板。 我记忆最深的就是一位杂货店的老板。当时我们争相嘲笑 原来国家的风俗习惯。星期六到别的居民区进行冒险时,为 原来国家的风俗习惯。星期六到别的居民区进行冒险时 为 了证明自己是真正的美国人,我们吃热狗,喝可口可乐。 了证明自己是真正的美国人,我们吃热狗,喝可口可乐。 如果谁没带10美分 他这顿饭就得饿着, 美分, 如果谁没带 美分,他这顿饭就得饿着,因为他不敢带自 己家里吃的那种加了香料的夹肉三明治。 己家里吃的那种加了香料的夹肉三明治。 2我们的野蛮游戏之一就是找一个推车的小贩或是一个 店主,毫无疑问都是移民,然后齐声骂他或嘲笑戏弄他。 店主,毫无疑问都是移民,然后齐声骂他或嘲笑戏弄他。 为了证明对团伙的忠诚, 为了证明对团伙的忠诚,我们必须找一个自己民族的移民 小店主或是小贩,以最恶毒的方式捉弄他。 小店主或是小贩,以最恶毒的方式捉弄他。
3“你真愚蠢。你不知道我这个小店里装着我们整个的国 你真愚蠢 你真愚蠢。 家和民族(包含整个希腊国家与民族的历史与文化)。” 家和民族(包含整个希腊国家与民族的历史与文化)。” )。
4阿喀琉斯就是带着黑橄榄前往特洛伊城的,而且在带 阿喀琉斯就是带着黑橄榄前往特洛伊城的, 领他的密耳弥多涅勇士们激战一天后,他会休息, 领他的密耳弥多涅勇士们激战一天后,他会休息,吃些奶 酪和熟透的黑橄榄,就是店里的这种黑橄榄。 酪和熟透的黑橄榄,就是店里的这种黑橄榄。
5马拉松城的人们带着这些香料去参战,香味能使他们 马拉松城的人们带着这些香料去参战, 想起自己的家乡、家人和孩子。 想起自己的家乡、家人和孩子。


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