Unit Three Active Reading
Lesson 9 Connections
Prereading is similar to watching a film preview. After prereading you should be able to make predictions about the content and organization of the material and make connections with what you already know about the topic.
Making Predictions Predictions are educated guesses about the material to be read. Predictions are made based on your experience with written language, as well as your background knowledge and familiarity with the subject. To get started making predictions, keep the following questions in mind: mind: What clues does the author give? What will this material be about? What logically would follow? How could this be organized?
Making Connections Once you have preread an assignment, an important next step is to call to mind what you already know about the subject. Do this by making connections between the material to be read and your background knowledge and experience. There are several reasons for making such connections. Learning occurs more easily if you can relate new information to information already stored. Tasks become more interesting and meaningful if you can connect them to your own experience or to subject you have already learned. Finally, material that is familiar and meaningful is easier to learn than that which is not.
Search your previous knowledge and experience for ideas or information to which you can connect the new material in an assignment. You might think of this process as tying a mental string between already stored information and new information. Then as you pull out, or recall, old information, you will find new information is also recalled.
To draw on or activate your prior knowledge and experience for less familiar subjects, think about the subject using one of the following techniques:
  1. Ask as many questions as you can about the topic and attempt to answer them.
  2. Divide the subject into as many features or subtopics as possible.
  3. Free associate, write down anything that comes to mind related to the topic.
Practice of Reading Techniques Activities for making predictions and connections in reading selection A.
  1. Think about what you know about tobacco. (It can be anything ranging from brand cigarettes, nicotine’s health hazards, to people’s attitudes toward smoking.)
  2. Describe the impression you get from the title, and make a guess about the text’s focus.
  3. Read the first paragraph, and predict what you may anticipate to read in the text.
Lesson 9
Reading Selection A
The Weird World of Tobacco
CATALOGUE
Warm-up Activities About the Author Background Information Language Points Keys
text
Warm-up Activities

  1. Do you think smoking can really be banned? Why or why not?
About the Author
Anna Quindlen (1953- ) Journalist and Author Barnard College 1974 BC Trustee 1989-2000, 2001(Chair 2003- )
About the Author
Every other week, millions of readers turn to the back page of Newsweek for Anna Quindlen’s perspectives on events of the day and issues of family, work, education and social justice.
A Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and bestselling author, Quindlen writes Newsweek’s popular column “The Last Word.” During the past 30 years, her work has appeared in America’s most influential newspapers and magazines and on fiction and nonfiction bestseller lists.
About the Author
Her national bestseller, A Short Guide to a Happy Life, has sold over one million copies. Her first novel, the critically-acclaimed Object Lessons, was followed by the bestselling One True Thing (which was made into a major motion picture starring Meryl Streep and Rene Zellweger). Black and Blue, her third novel, was also a bestseller and a selection of the Oprah Winfrey Book Club. Black and Blue and her latest New York Times bestseller, Blessings, were made into television movies starring Mary Stuart Masterson and Mary Tyler Moore.
About the Author
While a columnist for The New York Times (1981-19
  94), Quindlen became only the third woman in the paper’s history to write a regular column for its influential OpEd page( Opposite Editorial page专栏版,特写稿版 由 专栏版, 专栏版 特写稿版?由 专栏作者等署名撰文,与社论版相对) 专栏作者等署名撰文,与社论版相对 when she began the nationally-syndicated “Public and Private.” A collection of those columns, Thinking Out Loud, was a national bestseller. In Loud & Clear, a collection of her Newsweek and New York Times columns, she combines commentary on American society and the world at large with reflections on being a woman, a writer and a mother.
About the Author
In 1992 Quindlen was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for commentary. In 1995 she left The Times and journalism to pursue a career as a full-time novelist. She is the author of: the children’s books, The Tree That Came to Stay and Happily Ever After; the coffee table pictorials, Naked Babies and Siblings; How Reading Changed My Life; and Imagined London, in which she takes readers on a tour of her favorite English literary places and characters.
About the Author
“If your success is not on your own terms, if it looks good to the world but does not feel good in your heart, it is not success at all.”
Background Information

  1. How Smoking Harms People of All Ages There are approximately 4000 chemicals in cigarette smoke, many of them toxic. The ingredients in cigarettes affect everything from the internal functioning of organs to the efficiency of the body's immune system. The effects of cigarette smoking are destructive and widespread.
Background Information
Toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke travel throughout the body, causing damage in several different ways. reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk. monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen. agents (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them to grow abnormally or to reproduce too rapidly.
Cancer-causing Carbon Nicotine
Background Information
The carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene binds to cells in the airways and major organs of smokers.
Smoking
affects the function of the immune system and may increase the risk for respiratory and other infections. are several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage. One is oxidative stress that mutates DNA, promotes atherosclerosis, and leads to chronic lung injury. Oxidative stress is thought to be the general mechanism behind the aging process, contributing to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.
There
Background Information
The body produces antioxidants to help repair damaged cells. Smokers have lower levels of antioxidants in their blood than do nonsmokers.
is associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation, another damaging process that may result in oxidative stress.
Smoking
Background Information

  2. Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality Cigarette smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Each year, more than 400,000 Americans die from cigarette smoking. In fact, one in every five deaths in the United States is smoking related. Every year, smoking kills more than 276,000 men and 142,000 women.
Background Information
Between 1960 and 1990, deaths from lung cancer among women have increased by more than 400% exceeding breast cancer deaths in the mid-1980s. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 1994, 64,300 women died from lung cancer and 44,300 died from breast cancer. who smoke increase their risk of death from lung cancer by more than 22 times and from bronchitis and emphysema by nearly 10 times. Women who smoke increase their risk of dying from lung cancer by nearly 12 times and the risk of dying from bronchitis and emphysema by more than 10 times. Smoking triples the risk of dying from heart disease among middle-aged men and women.
Men
Background Information
Every year in the United States, premature deaths from smoking rob more than five million years from the potential lifespan of those who have died.
exposure to secondhand smoke (or environmental tobacco smoke) causes an estimated 3,000 deaths from lung cancer among American adults. Scientific studies also link secondhand smoke with heart disease.
Annually,
Language Points

  1. *addicted to unable to stop taking an illegal or harmful drug(吸毒) (吸毒) 成瘾的; 成瘾的;上瘾的 (line 1, para.
  1) 他承认他吸食可卡因上瘾了。 他承认他吸食可卡因上瘾了。 He admitted he was addicted to cocaine. *addicted to hooked on; enjoying something very much and spending as much time as you can doing it 入迷的 我不想让孩子们沉迷于无聊的电视节目中。 ① 我不想让孩子们沉迷于无聊的电视节目中。 I don’t want the kids getting addicted to stupid TV programme. 他嗜巧克力如命。 ② 他嗜巧克力如命。 He was addicted to chocolate.
Language Points

  2. *make sense be practical and sensible 是合理的;是可行的; 是合理的;是可行的; 是实际的 (line 1, para.
  2) ) 继续改革是明智的。 ① 继续改革是明智的。 It makes good sense to continue with the reforms. 在这种情况下,采取节省劳力的方法是切实可行的。 ② 在这种情况下,采取节省劳力的方法是切实可行的。 Under these conditions it makes sense to adopt labor ? saving methods. 多借点钱常常是非常经济合算的。 ③ 多借点钱常常是非常经济合算的。 It makes hard economic sense to borrow extra money.
Language Points
*make sense be easy to understand 讲得通;易理解 讲得通; 句子必须有意义。 ① 句子必须有意义。 A sentence must make sense. 对我来说她的论点很容易理解。 ② 对我来说她的论点很容易理解。 Her argument makes good sense to me. *make sense of understand something that is complicated or unusual 理解(复杂或不寻常的) 理解(复杂或不寻常的)某物 你得看上六遍才能琢磨出其中的含义。 你得看上六遍才能琢磨出其中的含义。 You had to read it six times to make any sense of it.
Language Points

  3. break sweat (informal) use a lot of energy or effort(非正式)耗费 (非正式) 大量的精力(或力气) 大量的精力(或力气)(line 3, para.
  2) 阿加西几乎没费太大的力气就赢得了这场比赛。 阿加西几乎没费太大的力气就赢得了这场比赛。 Agassi hardly had to break sweat to win the game. *no sweat (spoken) used for saying that you easily do or deal with something 很轻松,没问题(用于表明自己能轻松做或处 很轻松,没问题( 理某事) 理某事) 对懂得诀窍的人来说,这一点也不难。 ① 对懂得诀窍的人来说,这一点也不难。 For those who know the trick it’s no sweat. 你车上有我坐的位置吗? 没问题。 ② “你车上有我坐的位置吗?” “有,没问题。” 你车上有我坐的位置吗 “Have you got space for me in your car?” “Yeah, no sweat.”
Language Points

  4. *shoot straight/square hit the target 打得准 (line 4, para.
  2) 你认为他打得准吗? 你认为他打得准吗? Do you think he can shoot straight? *shoot straight/square act fairly; speak honestly 言行正直 他们俩相处很好,因为他们一向彼此以诚想见。 他们俩相处很好,因为他们一向彼此以诚想见。 The two of them get along well because they always shoot square with each other.
Language Points

  5. *hand down a judgment/sentence/punishment say officially that someone should receive a particular punishment 宣布裁决/判决/处罚 (line 1, para.
  3) 宣布裁决/判决/ ) ① 几天前会议公布了决议。 几天前会议公布了决议。 The conference handed down its decision a few days ago. ② 陪审团宣判被告有罪。 陪审团宣判被告有罪。 The jury handed down a verdict of guilty. *hand down pass on把…传下去 把 传下去 这些技术被一代一代地传下来。 这些技术被一代一代地传下来。 These skills have been handed down from generation to generation.
Language Points

  6. Alice in Wonderland used for talking about a strange situation, in which everything seems to be the opposite of what normally happens 荒诞不经的 (line 3, para.
  4) ) 公司董事会会议室的荒诞现象, 公司董事会会议室的荒诞现象,那里不称职的经理人员拿 着高额奖金 the Alice in Wonderland world of the corporate boardroom, where failed executives get paid huge bonuses *From Alice in Wonderland, a famous children’s story by Lewis Carroll in which a girl called Alice visits a strange dream ? like world 源自路易丝卡罗尔的著名童 话故事《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》 话故事《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》,书中记叙了一位名叫爱丽 丝的女孩漫游梦境般奇特世界的故事。 丝的女孩漫游梦境般奇特世界的故事。
Language Points

  7. *off with (used in an imperative sentence) take off; away from 用于祈使句)脱掉,去掉; (用于祈使句)脱掉,去掉;除去 (line 3, para.
  4) ) 亲爱的,将这些湿衣服脱掉吧。 ① 亲爱的,将这些湿衣服脱掉吧。 Off with these wet clothes, m
 

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