Unit Three Active Reading
Lesson 9 Connections
Prereading is similar to watching a film preview. After prereading you should be able to make predictions about the content and organization of the material and make connections with what you already know about the topic.
Making Predictions Predictions are educated guesses about the material to be read. Predictions are made based on your experience with written language, as well as your background knowledge and familiarity with the subject. To get started making predictions, keep the following questions in mind: mind: What clues does the author give? What will this material be about? What logically would follow? How could this be organized?
Making Connections Once you have preread an assignment, an important next step is to call to mind what you already know about the subject. Do this by making connections between the material to be read and your background knowledge and experience. There are several reasons for making such connections. Learning occurs more easily if you can relate new information to information already stored. Tasks become more interesting and meaningful if you can connect them to your own experience or to subject you have already learned. Finally, material that is familiar and meaningful is easier to learn than that which is not.
Search your previous knowledge and experience for ideas or information to which you can connect the new material in an assignment. You might think of this process as tying a mental string between already stored information and new information. Then as you pull out, or recall, old information, you will find new information is also recalled.
To draw on or activate your prior knowledge and experience for less familiar subjects, think about the subject using one of the following techniques:
  1. Ask as many questions as you can about the topic and attempt to answer them.
  2. Divide the subject into as many features or subtopics as possible.
  3. Free associate, write down anything that comes to mind related to the topic.
Practice of Reading Techniques Activities for making predictions and connections in reading selection A.
  1. Think about what you know about tobacco. (It can be anything ranging from brand cigarettes, nicotine’s health hazards, to people’s attitudes toward smoking.)
  2. Describe the impression you get from the title, and make a guess about the text’s focus.
  3. Read the first paragraph, and predict what you may anticipate to read in the text.
Lesson 9
Reading Selection A
The Weird World of Tobacco
Warm-up Activities About the Author Background Information Language Points Keys
Warm-up Activities

  1. Do you think smoking can really be banned? Why or why not?
About the Author
Anna Quindlen (1953- ) Journalist and Author Barnard College 1974 BC Trustee 1989-2000, 2001(Chair 2003- )
About the Author
Every other week, millions of readers turn to the back page of Newsweek for Anna Quindlen’s perspectives on events of the day and issues of family, work, education and social justice.
A Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and bestselling author, Quindlen writes Newsweek’s popular column “The Last Word.” During the past 30 years, her work has appeared in America’s most influential newspapers and magazines and on fiction and nonfiction bestseller lists.
About the Author
Her national bestseller, A Short Guide to a Happy Life, has sold over one million copies. Her first novel, the critically-acclaimed Object Lessons, was followed by the bestselling One True Thing (which was made into a major motion picture starring Meryl Streep and Rene Zellweger). Black and Blue, her third novel, was also a bestseller and a selection of the Oprah Winfrey Book Club. Black and Blue and her latest New York Times bestseller, Blessings, were made into television movies starring Mary Stuart Masterson and Mary Tyler Moore.
About the Author
While a columnist for The New York Times (1981-19
  94), Quindlen became only the third woman in the paper’s history to write a regular column for its influential OpEd page( Opposite Editorial page专栏版,特写稿版 由 专栏版, 专栏版 特写稿版?由 专栏作者等署名撰文,与社论版相对) 专栏作者等署名撰文,与社论版相对 when she began the nationally-syndicated “Public and Private.” A collection of those columns, Thinking Out Loud, was a national bestseller. In Loud & Clear, a collection of her Newsweek and New York Times columns, she combines commentary on American society and the world at large with reflections on being a woman, a writer and a mother.
About the Author
In 1992 Quindlen was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for commentary. In 1995 she left The Times and journalism to pursue a career as a full-time novelist. She is the author of: the children’s books, The Tree That Came to Stay and Happily Ever After; the coffee table pictorials, Naked Babies and Siblings; How Reading Changed My Life; and Imagined London, in which she takes readers on a tour of her favorite English literary places and characters.
About the Author
“If your success is not on your own terms, if it looks good to the world but does not feel good in your heart, it is not success at all.”
Background Information

  1. How Smoking Harms People of All Ages There are approximately 4000 chemicals in cigarette smoke, many of them toxic. The ingredients in cigarettes affect everything from the internal functioning of organs to the efficiency of the body's immune system. The effects of cigarette smoking are destructive and widespread.
Background Information
Toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke travel throughout the body, causing damage in several different ways. reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk. monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen. agents (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them to grow abnormally or to reproduce too rapidly.
Cancer-causing Carbon Nicotine
Background Information
The carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene binds to cells in the airways and major organs of smokers.
affects the function of the immune system and may increase the risk for respiratory and other infections. are several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage. One is oxidative stress that mutates DNA, promotes atherosclerosis, and leads to chronic lung injury. Oxidative stress is thought to be the general mechanism behind the aging process, contributing to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.
Background Information
The body produces antioxidants to help repair damaged cells. Smokers have lower levels of antioxidants in their blood than do nonsmokers.
is associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation, another damaging process that may result in oxidative stress.
Background Information

  2. Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality Cigarette smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Each year, more than 400,000 Americans die from cigarette smoking. In fact, one in every five deaths in the United States is smoking related. Every year, smoking kills more than 276,000 men and 142,000 women.
Background Information
Between 1960 and 1990, deaths from lung cancer among women have increased by more than 400% exceeding breast cancer deaths in the mid-1980s. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 1994, 64,300 women died from lung cancer and 44,300 died from breast cancer. who smoke increase their risk of death from lung cancer by more than 22 times and from bronchitis and emphysema by nearly 10 times. Women who smoke increase their risk of dying from lung cancer by nearly 12 times and the risk of dying from bronchitis and emphysema by more than 10 times. Smoking triples the risk of dying from heart disease among middle-aged men and women.
Background Information
Every year in the United States, premature deaths from smoking rob more than five million years from the potential lifespan of those who have died.
exposure to secondhand smoke (or environmental tobacco smoke) causes an estimated 3,000 deaths from lung cancer among American adults. Scientific studies also link secondhand smoke with heart disease.
Language Points

  1. *addicted to unable to stop taking an illegal or harmful drug(吸毒) (吸毒) 成瘾的; 成瘾的;上瘾的 (line 1, para.
  1) 他承认他吸食可卡因上瘾了。 他承认他吸食可卡因上瘾了。 He admitted he was addicted to cocaine. *addicted to hooked on; enjoying something very much and spending as much time as you can doing it 入迷的 我不想让孩子们沉迷于无聊的电视节目中。 ① 我不想让孩子们沉迷于无聊的电视节目中。 I don’t want the kids getting addicted to stupid TV programme. 他嗜巧克力如命。 ② 他嗜巧克力如命。 He was addicted to chocolate.
Language Points

  2. *make sense be practical and sensible 是合理的;是可行的; 是合理的;是可行的; 是实际的 (line 1, para.
  2) ) 继续改革是明智的。 ① 继续改革是明智的。 It makes good sense to continue with the reforms. 在这种情况下,采取节省劳力的方法是切实可行的。 ② 在这种情况下,采取节省劳力的方法是切实可行的。 Under these conditions it makes sense to adopt labor ? saving methods. 多借点钱常常是非常经济合算的。 ③ 多借点钱常常是非常经济合算的。 It makes hard economic sense to borrow extra money.
Language Points
*make sense be easy to understand 讲得通;易理解 讲得通; 句子必须有意义。 ① 句子必须有意义。 A sentence must make sense. 对我来说她的论点很容易理解。 ② 对我来说她的论点很容易理解。 Her argument makes good sense to me. *make sense of understand something that is complicated or unusual 理解(复杂或不寻常的) 理解(复杂或不寻常的)某物 你得看上六遍才能琢磨出其中的含义。 你得看上六遍才能琢磨出其中的含义。 You had to read it six times to make any sense of it.
Language Points

  3. break sweat (informal) use a lot of energy or effort(非正式)耗费 (非正式) 大量的精力(或力气) 大量的精力(或力气)(line 3, para.
  2) 阿加西几乎没费太大的力气就赢得了这场比赛。 阿加西几乎没费太大的力气就赢得了这场比赛。 Agassi hardly had to break sweat to win the game. *no sweat (spoken) used for saying that you easily do or deal with something 很轻松,没问题(用于表明自己能轻松做或处 很轻松,没问题( 理某事) 理某事) 对懂得诀窍的人来说,这一点也不难。 ① 对懂得诀窍的人来说,这一点也不难。 For those who know the trick it’s no sweat. 你车上有我坐的位置吗? 没问题。 ② “你车上有我坐的位置吗?” “有,没问题。” 你车上有我坐的位置吗 “Have you got space for me in your car?” “Yeah, no sweat.”
Language Points

  4. *shoot straight/square hit the target 打得准 (line 4, para.
  2) 你认为他打得准吗? 你认为他打得准吗? Do you think he can shoot straight? *shoot straight/square act fairly; speak honestly 言行正直 他们俩相处很好,因为他们一向彼此以诚想见。 他们俩相处很好,因为他们一向彼此以诚想见。 The two of them get along well because they always shoot square with each other.
Language Points

  5. *hand down a judgment/sentence/punishment say officially that someone should receive a particular punishment 宣布裁决/判决/处罚 (line 1, para.
  3) 宣布裁决/判决/ ) ① 几天前会议公布了决议。 几天前会议公布了决议。 The conference handed down its decision a few days ago. ② 陪审团宣判被告有罪。 陪审团宣判被告有罪。 The jury handed down a verdict of guilty. *hand down pass on把…传下去 把 传下去 这些技术被一代一代地传下来。 这些技术被一代一代地传下来。 These skills have been handed down from generation to generation.
Language Points

  6. Alice in Wonderland used for talking about a strange situation, in which everything seems to be the opposite of what normally happens 荒诞不经的 (line 3, para.
  4) ) 公司董事会会议室的荒诞现象, 公司董事会会议室的荒诞现象,那里不称职的经理人员拿 着高额奖金 the Alice in Wonderland world of the corporate boardroom, where failed executives get paid huge bonuses *From Alice in Wonderland, a famous children’s story by Lewis Carroll in which a girl called Alice visits a strange dream ? like world 源自路易丝卡罗尔的著名童 话故事《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》 话故事《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》,书中记叙了一位名叫爱丽 丝的女孩漫游梦境般奇特世界的故事。 丝的女孩漫游梦境般奇特世界的故事。
Language Points

  7. *off with (used in an imperative sentence) take off; away from 用于祈使句)脱掉,去掉; (用于祈使句)脱掉,去掉;除去 (line 3, para.
  4) ) 亲爱的,将这些湿衣服脱掉吧。 ① 亲爱的,将这些湿衣服脱掉吧。 Off with these wet clothes, m


新编研究生英语系列教程 07

   Unit Three Active Reading Lesson 7 What Is Active Reading This unit introduces some techniques that can make an appreciable difference in how well you read and how much you remember. In fact, these techniques? prereading, making connections and pre ...

新编研究生英语系列教程 09

   Unit Three Active Reading Lesson 9 Connections Prereading is similar to watching a film preview. After prereading you should be able to make predictions about the content and organization of the material and make connections with what you already k ...


   Unit Two 谎言与真理 1 什么是真理?或反之,什么又是谎言?对这两个问题,古往今来各国众多的哲学家、教育家及宗教领袖的答案各不相同,而在北美及欧洲的作家圈中却存在着两点共识:第一,撒谎应当是一种故意行为。换言之,如果你的话与事实相背,而你自己却没意识到,那就不算撒谎。第二,其实每个人都在撒谎,而且是频繁地撒谎。但这种共识到此为止。 2 有些人比较极端,他们认为撒谎总是有害的,因此人们应尽量设法避免撒谎。其理由是撒谎既伤害了别人,也伤害了撒谎者自己。如果撒过一次慌,第二次就变得容易 ...


   多维教程-英语翻译( 多维教程-英语翻译(第一册) 一:旅行通用语 1 数十年来,法兰西语言研究院一直捍卫着法语的尊严.几年前,由于法国人对英语词汇的入侵 非常敏感,该机构颁布了净化法语的法律,其内容甚至涉及专业术语.就拿波音 747(Boeing747) 来说吧,现在法国人必须用法语词 gros-porteur;表示出租的 leasing 也变成了 credit-bail.此类例 子不胜枚举, 触及生活的方方面面. 法国总统希拉克很可能会继续加大力度, 直至连英特网 internet 和字 ...

高等院校研究生综合英语系列教材 综合教程(上)课文翻译

   Unit One 核心员工的特征 大卫?G.詹森 1 核心员工究竟是什么样子的?几乎每次进行调查时,我都会从雇主们那里听到“核心员工” 这个名词。我请一位客户??一位正参与研究的人事部经理,给我解释一下。 “每家公司都 有少数几个这样的员工,在某个专业领域,你可以指望他们把活儿干好。 在我的小组中, 有七名化工流程工程师和生物学家, 其中有那么两三个人是我赖以生存的, ” 他说, “他们对我的公司而言不可或缺。当请你们公司替我们招募新人的时候,我们期待你 们会去其他公司找这样的人:其他公司经 ...


   新世纪大学英语系列教材综合教程 3 答案 Unit One Friendship Enhance Your Language Awareness Words in action Working with Words and Expressions (1) 1. bound 2. appropriate 3. possessing 4. permanent 5. appointed 6. parted 7. had 13. figured corresponded 8. gazed 9. no ...

新世纪大学英语系列教材 综合教程3 课文翻译

   Unit2 textA 你的爱有多深| 你的爱有多深| 有人认为爱如浮云, 有人认为爱坚强如铁, 有人认为爱是一种生活方式, 1, 有人认为爱如浮云, 有人认为爱坚强如铁, 有人认为爱是一种生活方式, 有人认为爱是一种感觉,有人说爱要执着,有人说爱不要约束, 有人认为爱是一种感觉,有人说爱要执着,有人说爱不要约束,有人说爱是生 命的全部,有人说不知道爱为何物。 命的全部,有人说不知道爱为何物。 2 在我们生命中的某个阶段,我们会经历难以名状的情 感。这种情感只能 在我们生命中的某个阶段, 体 ...


   Welcome back to College English! Happy New Year!!! 淘花/百度专用 1 Outline Greetings Homework Course description Course assessment Group discussion Course requirements 淘花/百度专用 2 Course Description 大学英语》系列教材中的《综合教程》 以《大学英语》系列教材中的《综合教程》 第三册为主, 听说教程》 第三册为主, ...


   《新模式英语》系列教材 新模式英语》 北京工商大学外语学院 唐义均 第一部分《新模式英语》 第一部分《新模式英语》系列教材 个单元, 《新模式英语》:7-8个单元,每单元 新模式英语》 个单元 5篇课文、一次复习课和一次小组活动。 篇课文、 篇课文 一次复习课和一次小组活动。 特点一、《新模式》英语系列教材语言 特点一、 新模式》 正宗、思维正宗、情景正宗。 正宗、思维正宗、情景正宗。 英语国家的教师以英语的语言思维方式 用正宗英语编著而成的。 用正宗英语编著而成的。美国教师根据 美国情景、 ...

研究生英语口语 复习资料

   Unit 5 Education Part A Happy Days? Part B Brain power Arrangement: Part A: different school systems, past experience Part B: strategies for effective learning Activities: Listening Speaking: Pair work, group work, Whole class activity: interview O ...



   三年级英语竞赛练习题 一.字母。 1. 五个元音字母的大小写: 2. 请写出书写时都是一笔完成的大写字母。 3.6 个三笔完成的大写字母是:. 4..26 个字母中,和即是字母又是单词。 5.找出与 Aa 含有相同元音音素的字母:. 6.正确书写下列句子并注意使用正确的标点符号。 IS SHE FROM CHINA YES SHE IS 二.名词。 1. 把下面单词区分可数名词和不可数名词。 Coffee juice fruit bread woman egg chocolate teach ...


   Lesson Ten Key point: useful terms and definitions of e-commerce eDifficult points: writing skills of headline of ads Lesson Ten Requirement By the end of this lesson, you should be able to have a good command of □e-commerce terms given in the less ...


   大学英语四六级写作模板??辩论式议论文 辩论式议论文 大学英语四六级写作模板 模版 1 Some people believe (argue, recognize, think) that 观点 1. But other people tak e an opposite side. They firmly believe that 观点 2. As for me, I agree to the form er/latter idea. There are a dozen of reasons ...


   英语中对女性性别歧视语言的词汇特征 减小字体 增大字体 作者: 张 娜 来源: 考试周刊 发布 时间:2007-11-03 关键字:英语 女性 性别歧视 语言 词汇 摘要:本文从熟语和人名两个方面,运用举例、对比等 方法,探讨了英语中对女性性别歧视语言的词汇特征。 关键词:性别歧视 熟语 人名 词汇特征 1 引言 性别歧视是以性别为基础而产生的一种歧视现象,是一 个性别成员对另一个性别成员的歧视,既包括对女性的歧 视,也包括对男性的歧视,实际上常指对女性的歧视。性别 歧视反映在语言中就形成了 ...


   Unit 6 Period 1 How long have you been collecting shells ? Deng Yaping Be born 1973 Started to play Finished playing 1978 1997 How long did she play ping-pong ? She played ping-pong for 19 years. Zhang Yining Be born 1982 1987 Started to play How l ...