Unit Five Developing Your Word Power
Lesson 13 Expanding Your Vocabulary (
  1)
A strong vocabulary provides both immediate academic benefits as well as long term effects. This portion of the unit offers numerous suggestions on how to direct and develop your vocabulary into one of your most valuable assets.
Read Widely and Diversely One of the best ways to improve your vocabulary is to read widely and diversely, sampling many different subjects and styles of writing. Through reading you encounter new words as well as new usage for already familiar words. You may also notice words used in contexts in which you had never thought of them being used. In addition to reading widely, developing motivation for expanding your vocabulary is critical to making a dramatic improvement in your vocabulary.
Be Selective Your first task is to decide what to learn?to be selective. Some words are more useful to you than others, depending on such factors as your major, your career goals, and your social and recreational preferences.
Use What You Already Know Most people think they have a vocabulary and that is either weak or strong, good or bad. Actually, you have four different vocabulary levels?for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Most likely your listening and reading vocabularies are larger than your speaking and writing vocabularies. In other words, you already know a large number of words that you are not using. A good place to start, then, in strengthening your vocabulary, is to experiment with words you already know but do not use. Make a point of using one of these words each day, in both speaking and writing.
Practice of Reading Techniques There are 10 pairs of sentences. In each pair there is one incomplete sentence, choose one word from the following to complete it so that it is similar in meaning to the other sentence, making changes if necessary. Then compare the two sentences.
grieve anniversary verdict drudgery infantile perspective emanate permanent burly responsive commit petite

  1. She is short and small, but she is a very powerful jiujitsu player. petite Though a(n) figure, she has won many jiujitsu prizes.
  2. To understand the situation today, we’d better look at the past. perspective It is useful to look at the past to gain a(n) on the present.
  3. These are very active kids; they are eager to answer the teacher’s questions. responsive These kids are very in class.

  4. People all over the world felt very sad for those people killed in the terrorist attack. The international community over the victims grieved of the terrorist attack.

  5. All people in the world wish to have something that may last forever, without any change. There is a universal human yearning for something permanent , without shadow of change.

  6. By the end of next week, they will be married for ten years. So they decided to hold a party. They decided to hold a party to celebrate their tenth anniversary wedding next weekend.
  7. The young man thought the job of a postman is very hard and unpleasant. The young man thought the job of a postman is quite drudgery a(n) .
  8. That new cop is big and strong. He arrested two robbers at the bank alone. The new cop arrested two robbers at the bank burly alone.

  9. Before there was enough evidence, Chairman would not speak out his opinion on this problem. commit Chairman refused to himself on the controversial subject before making due investigations.
  10.People may regard what the kids said too childish, but I think there is something to it. I think there is something reasonable in those kids’ infantile remarks.
Lesson 13
Reading Selection A
Laws of Lasting Love
CATALOGUE About the Author Warm-up Activities More Information about the Text Language Points Keys
text
About the Author
Dr. Paul Pearsall is a licensed clinical and educational psychologist. His teachings challenge the usual "inspirational self-help" approaches which have become popular. Dr. Pearsall recently received the prestigious Scripps Medical Center Trail Blazer in Medicine Award for his clinical and research work in health and wellness. He has studied and done clinical work on the relationship between humor and health.
About the Author
Dr. Pearsall lives and works in Hawaii. He is familiar with the Hawaiian language, cultural concepts, and hula. Often with a dancer or several dancers and with live or recorded music, he combines the latest findings from psychology and medicine with ancient Hawaiian principles of loving, working and living.
About the Author
His former positions include Founder and Chief of the Problems of Daily Living Clinic at Sinai Hospital of Detroit, Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry and Neurosciences at the Wayne State University School of Medicine, Director of Behavioral Medicine at Beaumont Hospital, and Director of Professional Education at the Kinsey Institute for Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. He is one of the most requested speakers in the world and the author of 15 international bestselling books, including most recently Toxic Success and The Beethoven Factor. His is also the author of the best-selling Nightingale-Conant audio program The Pleasure Principle.
About the Author
This picture was taken after a lecture concert with one of the most revered hula halau in Hawaii, Kuhai Halau O Kawaikapuokalani Pa `Olapa Kahiko. Pictured above is Dr. Paul Ka'ikena Pearsall and Kuhai Halau O Kawaikapuokalani Pa `Olapa Kahiko.
Warm-up Activities
Everyone hopes for lifetime love. In your opinion, how can we achieve this goal?
More Information about the Text

  1. Robert Redford: engaging, blond American leading actor and director who, although working within the studio system, has encouraged independent filmmakers. His best roles so far have been as Johnny Hooker in The Sting and Bob Woodward in All the President’s Men, as a director, he scored with Ordinary People Quiz Show. He set up the Sundance Film Institute in Utah for independent film-makers and in 1997 announced the creation of Sundance cinema, a venture with a major distributor to set up a chain of cinemas for the screening of independent.
More Information about the Text

  2. Solzhenistsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich: author of Russia, was imprisoned under Joseph Stalin for critical comments and later exiled to Soviet Cen. Asia(苏联的亚 苏联的亚 洲中部地区), 洲中部地区 in 19
  53. In 1994, he arrived back in USSR. He received Lenin prize nomination in 1964, Nobel Prize for literature in 1970 and etc.
More Information about the Text

  3. Jimmy Connors: born on September 2, 1952 in Belleville, Illinois. One of the most enduring personalities in tennis, Connors, a left-hander, played with reckless abandon and gave everything on every point. Early in Connors’s career he was a controversial figure?boorish, ill-tempered and antiestablishment. But as he got older, he mellowed and became one of the most popular players in tennis history. Connors always put on a good show. After his retirement in 1993, he became the prime mover behind the senor tour for players 35 and over. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 19
  98.
More Information about the Text

  4. Woody Allen: (1935?) respected American actor, director and screenwriter, a former night-club comedian and appeared in numerous night clubs, TV shows and motion picture such as What’s new Pussycat (19
  65) , Take the Money and Run(19
  69)and Everyone Says I Love You and etc. He created the most individual body of work in American cinema and capturing the stressful pleasures of modern urban living, receiving Sylvania Award, award Berlin Film Festival for his screenplay in 1953, and nominated for Emmy Award as TV writer in 1957 as well.
Language Points

  1. grieve: (line 2, para.
  1) a) [intransitive and transitive] to feel extremely sad, especially because someone you love has died grieve over/for/at/about (尤指因别人亡故而)感到悲痛,伤心 尤指因别人亡故而)感到悲痛, 我们为这样一位伟人的逝世而哀伤。 ① 我们为这样一位伟人的逝世而哀伤。 We all grieve for/over the death of such a great man. 他为女儿之死而极感悲痛。 ② 他为女儿之死而极感悲痛。 He is grieving greatly about the death of her daughter. ③ 那小女孩为她小猫的死而伤心。 那小女孩为她小猫的死而伤心。 The little girl grieved over her kitten’s death.
Language Points
你千万不要为这种小事而难过。 ④ 你千万不要为这种小事而难过。 You must not grieve at such trifles. 他们因一位亲戚亡故而回来奔丧。 ⑤ 他们因一位亲戚亡故而回来奔丧。 They returned to grieve a relative. b) [transitive] if something grieves you, it makes you feel very unhappy 使伤心,为…而伤心 使伤心, 而伤心 synonym upset 她的行为使她父母伤心。 ① 她的行为使她父母伤心。 Her behavior grieved her parents. 知道)她受了重伤,我很伤心。 ②(知道)她受了重伤,我很伤心。 It grieved me (to learn) that she had been severely injured.
Language Points

  2. lament: (line 1, para.
  2) a) [intransitive and transitive] to express feelings of great sadness about something (为…)悲痛;哀悼;痛惜 )悲痛;哀悼; 全国人民为伟大的战争领袖的逝世而悲痛。 ① 全国人民为伟大的战争领袖的逝世而悲痛。 The nation lamented the death of its great war leader. 他向我哀叹解雇会引起的长远危险。 ② 他向我哀叹解雇会引起的长远危险。 He lamented to me abut long-range dangers of the layoffs. ③ 夜莺不停地悲啼。 夜莺不停地悲啼。 Nightingales lament without ceasing.
Language Points
b) [transitive] to express annoyance or disappointment about something you think is unsatisfactory or unfair 悲叹;悔恨,为…感到遗憾 悲叹;悔恨, 感到遗憾 他们坐在那儿为囊中羞涩而不停地抱怨。 ① 他们坐在那儿为囊中羞涩而不停地抱怨。 They sat lamenting their lack of money. ② 他哀叹很少有人弹奏这架钢琴。 他哀叹很少有人弹奏这架钢琴。 He lamented that this particular piano should be so seldom played on. 斯坦纳为公众对这个问题不感兴趣而遗憾。 ③ 斯坦纳为公众对这个问题不感兴趣而遗憾。 Steiner lamented the lack of public interest in the issue.
Language Points
* lament & grieve Lament 通常指强烈地表现悲哀。现代用法中,很少伴以 通常指强烈地表现悲哀。现代用法中, 流泪或叫喊,但通常却是充满感情的。Grieve常指因遇到 流泪或叫喊,但通常却是充满感情的。Grieve常指因遇到 麻烦、失去亲友或爱物等不测而导致的伤心痛苦, 麻烦、失去亲友或爱物等不测而导致的伤心痛苦,不一定 非在言行上表现出来。 非在言行上表现出来。
Language Points

  3. priority: (line 2, para.
  5) a) [uncountable and countable] the thing that you think is most important and that needs attention before anything else 优先考虑的事 成年人优先考虑事情的次序不同。 ① 成年人优先考虑事情的次序不同。 Grown-ups have a different order of priorities. 我们必须搞清楚公众的当务之急。 ② 我们必须搞清楚公众的当务之急。 We must find out the priorities of the public. 经济改革似乎是中国最重要的事。 ③ 经济改革似乎是中国最重要的事。 Economic restructuring seemed to be China’s highest priority. 当务之急是弄到食物。 ④ 当务之急是弄到食物。 Getting food was the main priority.
Language Points
b) [uncountable] the right to be given attention first and before other people or things 优先;优先权 优先; 这项计划在所有计划中居优先地位。 ① 这项计划在所有计划中居优先地位。 This project has priority over all others. 应优先考虑残疾人。 ② 应优先考虑残疾人。 Special priority should be given to the disabled. ③ 他们坚持认为, 生存权利应放在其他一切考虑因素 他们坚持认为, 之上。 之上。 They insist that the right to live should take priority over all other considerations. 消防车及救护车比其他车辆有优先通行权。 ④ 消防车及救护车比其他车辆有优先通行权。 Fire engines and ambulances have priority over other traffic.
Language Points
* get your priorities right/straight American English to know what is most important and needs attention first
Language Points

  4. rest on/upon: 9line 2, para.
  6) a) formal to depend on something;to be based on a ; particular idea or set of facts 依靠,仰赖;以…为基础 依靠,仰赖; 为基础 科学要靠观察。 ① 科学要靠观察。 Science rests on observation. 现代文明是以科学和教育为基础的。 ② 现代文明是以科学和教育为基础的。 Modern civilization rests on a foundation of science and education. 我相信你的承诺。 ③ 我相信你的承诺。 I rest upon your promise. 我们把希望寄托在你们身上。 ④ 我们把希望寄托在你们身上。Our hopes rest on you. 他的论点是有广泛的事实根据的。 ⑤ 他的论点是有广泛的事实根据的。 His argument rests on a broad basis of facts.
Language Points
b) if your eyes rest on something,
 

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