Unit 1
Hit the Nail on the Head
Dictionary Work
  1. force (the nail) into the right place, make something unmistakably clear
  2. painstaking, meticulous
  3. very far away
  4. widespread, common
  5. British English for newspaper editorial
  6. pressure, compulsion
  7. be typical of; serve as the typical example of
  8. prove to be contrary; refute
  9. die, pass away; come to an end
  10. poverty-stricken, penniless
  1. After citing many facts and giving a number of statistical figures, he finally drove home his point.
  2. It took us half a year more or less to carry through the research project.
  3. What he said was so subtle that we could hardly make out his true intention.
  4. His new book looks squarely at the contemporary social problems.
  5. The younger generation today are very much alive to the latest information found on the Internet.
  6. It is a matter of opinion whether a foreign language is more easily learned in one’s childhood or otherwise.
  7. Never lose heart in the face of a setback; take courage and deal with it squarely.
  8. Rice, meat, vegetables, and fruit constitute a balanced diet. Unit 2 Beware the Dirty Seas Dictionary Work
  1. (v.) to pour as if from a sluice(水闸), i.e., a man-made passage for water fitted with a gate for stopping and regulating the flow;(n.) a channel controlling water flow
  2. further the development of; care for
  3. develop gradually (by a long continuous process)
  4. (of a disease) found regularly in a particular place
  5. repetition. The literal meaning of “litany” is “ a prayer consisting of a series of invocations and supplications by the leader with responses by the congregation”.
  6. pour; flood with water to clean out
  7. exist unseen
  8. liquid wastes, such as chemicals or sewage that flows out from a factory or some other places into a river or the sea
  9. very small forms of plant and animal life that live in a body of water 浮游生物
  10. unpleasant sticky substance, such as the thick sticky liquid on the skin of various fish
  1. One man’s effort is not enough to cope with such a complicated situation.
  2. When do you think the new IT (information technology) regulations will take effect?
  3. The chances of winning a prize in a lottery are slim; perhaps only a one-in-a-hundred chance.
  4. It is deplorable that many a youngster has fallen victim to the use of drugs.
  5. There is virtually no one who is in favor of his proposal.
  6. Beware of the swindler with a slick tongue and a smiling face.
  7. Don’t touch the bag! The explosive in it may blow up at any minute. Your life will be at risk.
  8. He looked quite confident about the job, though some doubts lurked in the depth of his mind. Unit 3 My Friend,Albert Einstein Dictionary Work
  1. a clever way of doing sth.
  2. have respect as well as fear and reverence for
  3. unexpectedly surprising; astounding
  4. traces
  5. finally; after a long series of events
  6. hard to deal with; unmanageable
  7. assail a problem again and again until it is solved, just like a dog bitting some small animals repeatedly, shaking it or pulling at it with the teeth
  8. ((archaic) cessation, pause
  9. Seeming to be reasonable
  10. An insecure scheme
  11. Unutterable; incapable of being expressed in words
  12. Indescribably quaint or strange
  1. He honked his car horn to alert the pedestrians.
  2. The fast development of Information technology is an outstanding example of human endeavor.
  3. Mary groped for the appropriate words to express her indebtedness to her teacher.
  4. The school principal’s plain words conveyed a message of challenge to the young people.
  5. Don’t tamper with the wires, or you may cause a short circuit.
  6. He thought he could beat everyone at the competition, but his excessive confidence failed him.
  7. What he said seemed simple and clear, but there was an implied meaning that we couldn’t quite fathom.
  8. He tried to steer the group’s random talk towards some constructive subjects. Unit 4 The Invisible Poor Dictionary Work
  1. lasting for ever or for a long time
  2. roads with deep, narrow marks made by the wheels of vehicles

  3. be freed from a duty, service, payment, etc.
  4. a large building, especially one in the poor part of a city, which is divided into small flats which ware rented cheaply
  5. wealthy, prosperous
  6. / / make worse by adding (sth.) to ... ( often used in the passive)
  7. relating to human experience ( a formal word)
  8. sensational, shocking
  9. people who have lost all their possessions
  10. doubtful as to whether sth. will happen or whether it is worthwhile
  11. connection
  12. writing about reform in the past that sounded fine and important, but were really insincere and meaningless
  1. Can I be exempt from the regular physical examination this year? I just had one three months ago before I went to the summer camp.
  2. Could you tell me again what I should do next? What you said yesterday has slipped out of my mind.
  3. We all assumed that Dave was a trustworthy person, but it turned out that we were wrong.
  4. His misfortune was compounded by his wife’s illness and his loss of job.
  5. Whether or not there are living beings in outer space is of perennial interest to man.
  6. When you are under great strain, you will not be able to think clearly.
  7. Jim tends to lose his temper when his advice is not heeded.
  8. In spite of his great learning, the teacher finds it difficult to articulate his students’ needs. Unit 7 Grouping the Gifted: Pro Dictionary Work
  1. belonging to an individual from birth
  2. an activity that one engages in as a profession, vocation, or avocation
  3. person who practices athletics; competitor or skilled performer in physical exercises
  4. in such a way that members are very different from one another
  5. standard on which a decision may be based
  6. one who has an offensive air of superiority (here, in matter of knowledge)
  7. a socially superior group
  8. put (ideas, etc.) gradually but firmly into someone’s mind by continuous effort
  9. encourage; stimulate into greater activity
  10. present and capable of becoming though not now visible or active
  11. rise or increase rapidly
  12. produce an advantage, especially as a result of an earlier action (dividend; that part of the money made by a business which is divided among those who own shares in the business 红利)

  1. Her questions about the functioning of the software manifests a great interest in Information Technology on her part.
  2. We have no grounds to prove the validity of the theory of the “missing link.”
  3. To a certain extent, his reasoning is valid, but not as a general rule.
  4. His tireless efforts yielded great fruits?a new theory in genetics.
  5. Don’t think that all great scientists are endowed with special talents?it’s 99% of perspiration and only 1% of inspiration that make them great.
  6. What criteria did you use when you elected the chairperson of the Students’ Union?
  7. Can you identify the handwriting of all your students?
  8. Whether or not the outcome is successful lies with the efforts made by the candidates. Unit 8 Why Nothing Works Dictionary Work
  1. a man of learning, especially a person with detailed knowledge in some specialized field
  2. an immediate inference from a proved proposition
  3. defeat, prevent by prior measures
  4. a pledge to follow certain beliefs or a certain course of action, devotion (to duty etc.)
  5. a usually small object (as a tool or an ornament) showing human workmanship that has special historical interest
  6. bring to mind
  7. the tip of a weapon that is thrust forward; spear or arrowhead
  8. a group of people formed for some common purpose and often with a leader
  9. trade by exchanging one commodity for another
  10. a withdrawing or separation of a person from an object or position of former attachment; a feeling of not belonging to or being part of one’s surroundings
  1. The harsh reality of daily life dispelled all his hopes for a bright future.
  2. Our sports meet will be postponed to next week because of the unpredictable weather.
  3. Every visitor to this exhibition must show his/her identity card no matter who he/she is.
  4. The renovation plan for the old city centre is subject to the approval of the municipal government.
  5. His hopes withered away after he had experienced one failure after another.
  6. E-mail is so quick and convenient in sending message that it may soon replace ordinary mail service.
  7. The sight of the Great Wall evoked a sense of wonder in him.
  8. The maintenance of quality-control instruments can be very costly Unit 9 Where is the News leading us?
Dictionary Work
  1. a conference in which experts or scholars discuss a certain subject

  2. examine very closely and carefully
  3. misrepresentation; a false or dishonest account
  4. (in this context) sensational, shocking, disturbing
  5. crash violently into; run into ( one another)
  6. a component part of sth.
  7. one who holds back/prevents
  8. exhaust, use up, reduce
  9. disbelief in the sincerity of human motives
  10. remedy, corrective; sth. That prevent or counteracts
  11. picture mentally, imagine, visualize
  12. a picture ludicrously exaggerating the peculiarities or defects of persons or things
  1. If there is anything you are not clear about the device, address our inquiry to our head office.
  2. Before we put the new plan into practice, we had better scrutinize every aspect of it to make sure that it is practicable.
  3. We expect that there will be a change for the better in this area after the new regulations are implemented.
  4. Don’t take his words literally. He’s just cracking a joke.
  5. The prospect of employing nitrogen fixation in agriculture is promising.
  6. His attempt at contriving a correcting fluid which leaves no marks on paper ended in failure.
  7. The non-Chinese-speaking foreigner gestured to make a request, but he just couldn’t get his idea across.
  8. Without considering the urgency of the matter, he gave us a flat refusal, once and for all.



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