新编英语教程4 新编英语教程4
For your promising future
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增减或改编了部分教材,讲练结合,当堂 巩固,达到知识到能力的正向迁移。
设计合作学习和小组讨论的方式来提高学 生合作学习意识和能力。
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Unit Three
I. Pre-reading questions Pre-
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Religion has been playing an important role in western cultures. Do you have any idea about religious beliefs? How do you think of the religious cultures?
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II. Language points
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  1. words peculiar to religious field salvation? salvation?the state of having one’s soul saved from sin and its consequences 灵魂的拯救 save? save?set free from the power of or from the eternal punishment for sin sin?breaking of God’s laws, disobedience to God’s sin? commandments revival? revival?series of meetings intended to produce an increase in interest in religion, or to stir up the religious faith among those who have been indifferent, usually by preaching and confession of sins (鼓动性的)福音布道会 lamb? lamb?young members of church flock or Christian congregation fold? fold?body of believers in the Christian religion
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  2. … all moans and shouts and lonely cries and dire pictures of hell,… Lonely means “having no companionship” and indicates the “state of mind of one being or feeling alone.” Lonely may also be applied to places which are unfrequented or remote from human habitation. More examples: With the development of the travel business, swarms of tourists now visit the newly discovered cave in the once lonely mountainous area. The retired worker is not living a lonely life since she has so much work to do in the neighborhood and since there is so much warmth and care at home.
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  3. “Langston,” my aunt sobbed. sobbed. sob? sob?draw in the breath sharply and irregularly from sorrow or pain while crying 啜泣,呜咽 More examples: “Oh, don’t leave me, don’t leave me!” She began to sob passionately. A feeling of infinite regret came over him, as he saw her lying in bed sobbing like a child. She wouldn’t have failed in the experiment if he had given her timely support.
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Cf.: And the little girls cried. To cry is to express grief or pain or sorrow by making mournful sounds and shedding tears.哭 tears.哭 泣 More examples: So he cried quite alone for a long time till he at last cried himself to sleep. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
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Cf.: Tom allowed himself to weep tears, they were tears of anger. Weep stresses the shedding of tears. 哭,流泪 The difference between weep and cry is that crying is audible and accompanied with tears, but to weep usually refers to the silent shedding of tears. More examples: She didn’t weep over the death of her son who died a heroic death but devoted herself to the noble work that her son had been doing. Taking the boy to her breast, she rocked him in her arms, and wept silently over him.
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III. Free debate
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Are you for or against the opinion that repeated rumor will make a piece of truth?
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IV Sentence appreciation Love Your Life However mean your life is,meet it and live it ;do not shun it and call it hard names.It is not so bad as you are.It looks poorest when you are richest.The fault-finder will faultfind faults in paradise.Love your life,poor as it is.You may perhaps have some pleasant,thrilling,glorious hourss,even in a poor-house.The setting sun is reflected poorfrom the windows of the alms-house as brightly as from the rich man's abode;the almssnow melts before its door as early in the spring.I do not see but a quiet mind may live as contentedly there,and have as cheering thoughts,as in a palace.The town's poor seem to me often to live the most independent lives of any.May be they are simply great enough to receive without misgiving.Most think that they are above being supported by the town;but it often happens that they are not above supporting themselves by dishonest means.which should be more disreputable.Cultivate poverty like a garden herb,like sage.Do not trouble yourself much to get new things,whether clothes or friends,Turn the old,return to them.Things do not change;we change.Sell your clothes and keep your thoughts.
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不论你的生活如何卑贱,你要面对它生活,不要躲避它,更别用恶 言咒骂它。它不像你那样坏。你最富有的时候,倒是看似最穷。爱 找缺点的人就是到天堂里也能找到缺点。你要爱你的生活,尽管它 贫穷。甚至在一个济贫院里,你也还有愉快、高兴、光荣的时候。 夕阳反射在济贫院的窗上,像身在富户人家窗上一样光亮;在那门 前,积雪同在早春融化。我只看到,一个从容的人,在哪里也像在 皇宫中一样,生活得心满意足而富有愉快的思想。城镇中的穷人, 我看,倒往往是过着最独立不羁的生活。也许因为他们很伟大,所 以受之无愧。大多数人以为他们是超然的,不靠城镇来支援他们; 可是事实上他们是往往利用了不正当的手段来对付生活,他们是毫 不超脱的,毋宁是不体面的。视贫穷如园中之花而像圣人一样耕植 它吧!不要找新的花样,无论是新的朋友或新的衣服,来麻烦你自 己。找旧的,回到那里去。万物不变,是我们在变。你的衣服可以 卖掉,但要保留你的思想。
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V. For you to understand better 在开放的现代社会,跨文化的言语交际显得愈发重要,已经成为现代交际中引人注目的一个特点。交际中的文化 差异随处可见,言语环境中的文化因素受到普遍重视。下面是英汉文化中十大常见差异。
  1.回答提问 中国人对别人的问话,总是以肯定或否定对方的话来确定用“对”或者“不对”。如: 中国人对别人的问话,总是以肯定或否定对方的话来确定用“对”或者“不对”。如: “我想你不到20岁,对吗?” “我想你不到20岁,对吗?” “是的,我不到20岁。” “是的,我不到20岁。” (“不,我已经30岁了。”) (“不,我已经30岁了。”) 英语中,对别人的问话,总是依据事实结果的肯定或否定用“Yes”或者“No”。如: 英语中,对别人的问话,总是依据事实结果的肯定或否定用“Yes”或者“No”。如: “You're not a student,are you?” student, you?” “Yes,I am.” Yes, am.” (“No (“No,I am not.”) No, not.”)
  2.亲属称谓 英语的亲属以家庭为中心,一代人为一个称谓板块,只区别男性、女性,却忽视配偶双方因性别不同而出现 的称谓差异。显得男女平等。如: 英文“grandparents,grandfather,grandmother”,而中文“祖辈、爷爷、奶奶、外公、外婆”。 英文“grandparents,grandfather,grandmother”,而中文“祖辈、爷爷、奶奶、外公、外婆”。 再如,父母同辈中的称谓:英文“uncle”和“aunt”,而中文“伯伯、叔叔、舅舅等,姑妈、姨妈等”。 再如,父母同辈中的称谓:英文“uncle”和“aunt”,而中文“伯伯、叔叔、舅舅等,姑妈、姨妈等”。 还有,英文中的表示下辈的“nephew和 niece”是不分侄甥的,表示同辈的“cousin”不分堂表、性别。 还有,英文中的表示下辈的“nephew和 niece”是不分侄甥的,表示同辈的“cousin”不分堂表、性别。
  3.考虑问题的主体 中国人喜欢以对方为中心,考虑对方的情感。比如: 中国人喜欢以对方为中心,考虑对方的情感。比如: 你想买什么? 您想借什么书? 而英语中,往往从自身的角度出发。如: Can I help you? you? What can I do for you? you?
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  4.问候用语 中国人打招呼,一般都以对方处境或动向为思维出发点。如: 您去哪里? 您是上班还是下班? 而西方人往往认为这些纯属个人私事,不能随便问。所以他们见面打招呼总是说: Hi/Hello! Hi/Hello! Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! morning/afternoon/evening/night! How are you? you? It's a lovely day,isn't it? lovely day, it?
  5.面对恭维 中国人的传统美德是谦虚谨慎,对别人的恭维和夸奖应是推辞。如: “您的英语讲得真好。” “哪里,哪里,一点也不行。” “菜做得很好吃。” “过奖,过奖,做得不好,请原谅。” 西方人从来不过分谦虚,对恭维一般表示谢意,表现出一种自强自信的信念。如: “You can speak very good French.” French.” “Thank you.” you.” “It's a wonderful dish!” dish!” “I am glad you like it.” it.” 所以,学生要注意当说英语的人称赞你时,千万不要回答:“No,I don't think so.”这种回答在西方人看来是不礼貌的,甚至是 所以,学生要注意当说英语的人称赞你时,千万不要回答:“No, so.”这种回答在西方人看来是不礼貌的,甚至是 虚伪的。
  6.电话用语 中国人打电话时的用语与平时讲话用语没有多少差异。 “喂,您好。麻烦您叫一声王伟接电话。”“我是张英,请问您是谁?” 英语中打电话与平时用语差别很大。如:“Hello, 英语中打电话与平时用语差别很大。如:“Hello,this is John speaking.” speaking.” “Could I speak to Tom please?” please?” “Is that Mary speaking?” speaking?” 西方人一接到电话一般都先报自己的号码或者工作单位的名称。如: “Hello,521647
  68,this is Jim.” Hello,521647
  68, Jim.” 中国学生刚开始学英语 中国学生刚开始学英语会犯这样的错误: 学英语会犯这样的错误: “Hello,who are you please?” Hello, please?”
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  7.接受礼物 中国人收到礼物时,一般是放在一旁,确信客人走后,才迫不及待地拆开。受 礼时连声说: “哎呀,还送礼物干什么?” “真是不好意思啦。” “下不为例。” “让您破费了。” 西方人收到礼物时,一般当着客人的面马上打开,并连声称好: “Very beautiful!Wow!” beautiful!Wow!” “What a wonderful gift it is!” is!” “Thank you for your present.” present.”
  8.称呼用语 中国人见面时喜欢问对方的年龄、收入、家庭等。而西方人很反感别人问及这 些私事。西方人之间,如没有血缘关系,对男子统称呼“Mr.”,对未婚女士统称 些私事。西方人之间,如没有血缘关系,对男子统称呼“Mr.”,对未婚女士统称 “Miss”,对已婚女士统称“Mrs.”。 Miss”,对已婚女士统称“Mrs.”。 中国人重视家庭、亲情,认为血浓于水。为了表示礼貌,对陌生人也要以亲属 关系称呼。如: “大爷、大娘、大叔、大婶、大哥、大姐等”。
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  9.体贴他人 在西方,向别人提供帮助、关心、同情等的方式和程度是根据接受方愿意接受的程度来定的; 而中国人帮起忙来一般是热情洋溢,无微不至。例如:一位中国留学生在美国看到一位老教授蹒 而中国人帮起忙来一般是热情洋溢,无微不至。例如:一位中国留学生在美国 美国看到一位老教授蹒 跚过车水马龙的马路,出于同情心,他飞步上前挽住老人,要送他过去,但是他得到的却是怒目 而视。请看下面的对话: Chinese student:Mr.White,you are so pale,are you sick? student:Mr.White, pale, sick? English teacher:Well...yes.I have got a bad cold for several days. teacher:Well...yes. days. Chinese student:Well,you should go to a clinic and see the doctor as soon as student:Well, possible. possible. English teacher:Er...what do you mean? teacher: mean? 中国人建议患上感冒的人马上去看医生,表示真诚的关心。而美国人对此不理解,会认为难 道他的病有如此严重吗?因此,只要回答:“I'm 道他的病有如此严重吗?因此,只要回答:“I'm sorry to hear that.”就够了。 that.”就够了。
  10. 中国人招待客人时,一般都准备了满桌美味佳肴,不断地劝客人享用,自己还谦虚:“没什 么菜,吃顿便饭。薄酒一杯,不成敬意。”行动上多以主人为客人夹菜为礼。 西方人会对此大惑不解:明明这么多菜,却说没什么菜,这不是实事求是的行为。而他们请 客吃饭,菜肴特别简单,经常以数量不多的蔬菜为可口的上等菜,席间劝客仅仅说:“Help 客吃饭,菜肴特别简单,



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