Text I A
What does the title mean to you? -The title “Englishes”(in the plural form) refers to the various/a variety of styles of English.

  1.The main idea of the story: As there is a scale of styles in the use of English, it is necessary to know how to tell one style from another and how to use different styles on different occasions appropriately.

  2.The supporting details:
The writer tries to explain to the reader the following:
(
  1) The existence of scale of styles in all our use of English. (
  2)The necessity of having a good knowledge of these styles. (
  3) The importance of using specific styles on specific occasions.
Language points
a scale of?a different range of e.g. a scale of social classes/wages The harder we study, the better result we will get. no more than A与B都不…, B不…A也不 e.g. He is no more a good dancer than I am. I am no more satisfied than she is. Neither he nor I am an engineer → He is no more an engineer than I am. Neither she nor her brother is able to speak Italian. → She is no more able to speak Italian than her brother is.
address sb./ address (n) be labeled/called Disapprove of: have an unfavorable opinion of I still disapprove of young men wearing their hair long because it is a sign of slovenliness, to say the least. It is not strange that Plomer should disapprove of having a telephone at home, as he thinks it is a pest as well as a time-waster.
Whereas: but; on the other hand The Longs lived in a house, whereas Tom’s uncle and aunt lived in a small flat in the city. Titus was modest and humble whereas his brother, who was ten years younger, was ambitious. Strike … as : appear (to sb) to be It strikes me as a good idea. It struck me as odd at the time. Your suggestion to hitch-hike to Croydon strikes me as ridiculous because there is very little to see there.
Euphemism
  1.definition
--the use of a pleasant, less direct name for sth. thought to be unpleasant in order to “soften” the force of an expression

  2. The Purpose of Euphemisms
--all cultures typically use them to talk about things they find terrifying (e.g., war, sickness, death) --we use euphemisms to express taboos, as we feel, on some instinctual level, that the euphemism keeps us at safe distance from the taboo itself. --Another use of euphemisms is to elevate the status of something (e.g., using educator for teacher, attorney for lawyer); but in general, we use euphemisms to express what is socially difficult to express in direct terms.

  1.The main idea of the text: The title clearly expresses the writer’s negative attitude towards euphemism?try to sound pleasant only to end up with unpleasantness.
The passage can be divided into three parts.
  1)Introduction The writer directly tells us what euphemisms are by making a comparison between phrases in ordinary usage and euphemisms. (Paras 1-
  2)

  2)Main Body The writer sets forth his arguments: a.Euphemisms are overly squeamish and affected. This argument is supported by the use of clichés. (Paras 3-
  4) b.Some euphemisms are sufficiently offbeat to be funny. (Para
  5) c.Understatement is another form of euphemism. (Para
  6) d.Euphemisms must be got rid of, except some robust ones. (Para
  7)

  3)Conclusion Euphemisms quickly acquire the “unpleasantness” associated with the words they replace. (Para
  8)
equal: be equal to Suppose x equals y, this equation will have numerous answers. x is equal to y Shaka’s mourning orders more or less equalled a sentence of national starvation.
do away with: get rid of
vast quantities of vegetables: vast quantities of?large/great quantities of or a large/vast/great quantity of To express the idea of many, the following words and phrases can be used: many a, a great many, a good many, countless, numerous, a large number of, large numbers of To express the idea of much, the following phrases can be used: a good deal of, a great deal of The following phrases can be used to modify both the idea of many and much: a lot of, lots of, plenty of
die: to cease to live dead: no longer living; incapable of being moved emotionally; without vitality or spirit deathlike: like death deadly: causing or tending to cause death; fatal deathly: like or characteristic of death
Translation 英语有很多文体,我们必须掌握各种文体,并在不同场合 使用不同的文体。 There is a wide range of English styles over which we must have a good command so that we know how to use each style consistently. 有些人反对委婉语的使用,因为我们使用委婉语之后许多 人不明白,我们不得不马上反应出它们不好听的原意。 Some people oppose to the use of euphemisms because many people simply can’t get it and we’ll have to indicate the stigma of the word it replaces. 他因抢劫银行被判处无期徒刑。 He was condemned to life imprisonment for bank robbery. 他对原判不服而向上级法院上诉。 He appealed to the higher court against the original sentence.
帝国主义注定要失败。 Imperialism is doomed to fail. 当我碰到不懂的词时,我就求助于字典。 When I come across an unfamiliar word, I’ll appeal to my dictionary. 如果你不努力学习,你就注定要补考。 If you don’t work hard enough, you are certain to take a make-up exam. 新书展览吸引了很多年轻人,因为书展上有很多新的科技书籍。 The exhibition of new books appealed very much to the young for there are many new publications on science and technology. 老师要求说,所有的学生都要在星期五前写好文章。 The teacher commands that all students finish their compositions before Friday. 这个报告是根据董事长的命令写的。 The report was written by the command of the Board Director.
 

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