Quick your Mind

  1.Why are girls afraid of the letter C ?
  2.Why is the letter E so important?
  3.How can you make a rope shorter without cutting or winding it?
  4.Why do people wish for something they haven't got?
  5.What does everybody do at the same time?
  6.What resembles half a pie?
Unit 6 Predators, parasites and Other relationships
ecosystem living things,
Pre-reading Activities

  1. brain-storm Name as many animals as you can.
  2. questions for discussion (
  1) Do you love animals? What is your favorite animal? (
  2) What do you think of vegetarianism? Do you think it is wrong to eat animals? (
  3) What is ecological balance? And food chain? Give examples.
The animal kingdom
Birds ( finch雀) Birds of prey (vulture) Poultry and game 家禽和野禽 (chicken) Seabirds (seagull) Primates (灵长类: monkey, chimpanzee) Marsupials (有袋类: koala, kangaroo) Rodents (啮齿类: mice, rabbits, squirrel,) Mammals (哺乳类:cows, whales)
The animal kingdom
Pachyderms (厚皮动物:hippo, elephant) Insects (bees, butterfly, flea, dragonfly( 蜻蜓) Arachnids (蛛形动物:scorpion, mites, ticks) Reptiles (snake, crocodiles, turtle,lizard) Amphibians (两栖类: toads(蟾蜍, newts 蝾螈 Mollusks (软体动物: snail, octopus (章鱼)) Crustaceans:(甲壳类:crab, lobster, shrimps)
Predator: an animal living by killing other animals for food
Lion, Wolf, Robin, 欧洲知更鸟 Frog, Fox, Tiger, Humans
Carnivore: a flesh-eating animal
Lion, Wolf, Fox, Tiger
Mammal: an animal which, when young, feeds on milk from its mother
Mongoose Lion Wolf Tiger Fox rhinoceros
Some sea or fresh-water creatures
Shellfish Shrimp Sponge Algae Remora Shark
Some blood-sucking disease-carrying parasites living on people, animals and birds
Tick, Flea Louse (lice)
Some cold-blooded animals that crawl or creep
Lizard Snake

  3. Common terms in ecology
Ecosystem Living things / creatures Creature
a living thing, real or imaginary, that can move around ,such as an animal 生物,动物
a living thing, esp.one that is extremely small有机体, 生物; (尤指)微生物 :a living~ / marine ~

  1. predators ? prey
  2. parasites ? hosts
  3. biological control
  4. symbiosis
  5. commensalism
  6. Mutualism Definitions? Examples Characteristics
  1. Predators Definition Examples Characteristics Consumers that kill the other animals for food Humans, tigers. wolves Not necessarily ‘bad’; do not have an easy time of it
Terms Definition Examples

  2. Parasites Organisms that live on or in other living things Fleas, ticks, etc.
Very numerous
Terms Definition Examples Characteristics

  3. Biological Control Limiting pests by using living organisms Mongooses to Jamica; sparrows to U.S.A. Sometimes works, sometimes doesn’t
Terms Definition Examples Characteristics

  4. Symbiosis Living organisms ‘living together’
Terms Definition Examples Characteristics

  5. Commensalism One organism benefits; other not affected Remoras and sharks
Terms Definition Examples Characteristics

  6. Mutualism Both organism benefits Algae and fungus; egrets and rhinoceroses
Words and phrases in L1-25:
(formal) to remember sb.sth/ remind sb of sth:
bring/call sb/sth to mind: She couldn’t call to mind where she had seen him before. The painting brings to mind some of Picasso’s early works.
have an easy time (of it) (BrE) have no difficulties or problems
as easy as anything/as pie/ as ABC /as falling off a log (informal) very easy easy money: 来得容易的钱 I am easy (BrE, informal) A: Do you want to watch this or the news? B: Oh, I am easy. It’s up to you.
array: a group of or collection of things or people, often one that is large or impressive 大堆,大量 at will: whenever or wherever you like They were able to come and go ~. species:种,物种 endangered ~
Some sentences from L1-25
L7: Sometimes individual predators do prey upon farm animals, and these 强调 individuals have to be controlled.
Mother: Have you finished your homework? Son: Yes, Mum, I do have finished. See, this is it!
Sentences from L28-40
L28: Predators are usually bigger and fewer in number than the animals they prey upon. The reverse is true of parasites.
The parasites have the opposite characteristics. People live in big houses in the country, but the condition in the town is just the opposite.
Parasite: a creature depending on another for the necessities of life
Flea, 蚤 Louse(lice) 虱子 Fungus(fungi) 真菌(如蘑菇) Bacterium(bacteria) Flatworm, 扁形虫 insect, Tick 扁虱(吸血寄生虫) Mite 螨 状似蜘蛛的微小生物,在动植物,地毯等上生活 Elm spanworm 尺蠖,北方称步曲,南方称造桥虫
L42-60 take to sth: to begin to do sth as a habit 开始沉溺于。。 I’ve taken to waking up very early. 我已形成习惯,醒得很早。 take to sb./sth: to start liking sb/sth. I took to my new boss immediately.
attach v.
~ sth (to sth) 把。。。。固定 ~ importance, significance, value, weight, ect. (to sth ) 认 为。。。。有重要性(或意义,价值,分量等),重视 ~ to sb/sth (formal)(使)与。。。有联系 ( No blame attaches to you . 你一点责任也没有。 This does not attach any blame to you. attached 依恋; 附属于; 所附的 依恋; 附属于; I’ve never seen two people so ~to each other. The middle school is ~to the university Please complete the ~ application form.
Symbiosis 共生
Two different living organisms, parasite and host, living together
Commensalism 共栖
One organism benefits and the other is not affected
Mutualism 互利共生
Both organisms benefit from living together
Symbiosis 共生
Egret 白鹭
Rhinoceros 犀牛
Symbiosis 共生
There are three main types of symbiosis, based upon the specific relationship between the species involved: mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism.
Commensalism 共栖
remoras ?
Commensalism 共栖
sponge 海绵
sea anemone 海葵:任一种大量的珊瑚虫 纲花状海生腔肠动物,具有 能够伸缩的圆筒形身体和围 绕着中间的嘴的触须
Mutualism 互利共生
lichen 地衣/ 苔藓 algae 地衣就是真菌和苔藓植物的共 生体,地衣靠真菌的菌丝吸收养 料,靠苔藓植物的光合作用制造 有机物。如果把地衣中的真菌 和苔藓植物分开,两者都不能独 立生活。
lichen on a tree
lichens growing on a rock
The style of expository writing
Longer paragraphs in which there are longer and more complex sentences. Thirdnarration? Third-person narration?for the purpose of objectivity Sentences in the passive voice
Expository Writing Techniques
The consumers that kill other animals for food are called predators In some relationships, one organism benefits and the other is not affected at all. This is called commensalism.
Supplying definitions for the technical terms
Quoting directly from famous (biologists to win authority)
Dr. George Schaller worte: ‘The tiger’s seemingly unbeatable array of weapons-its acute senses, great speed, strength and size and formidable claws and teeth-have….’ Dr.Mech wrote: ‘As is true with most predators, the wolf is an opportunist…’
Citing an example of poetic exaggeration
Jonathan Swift exaggerated only a little when he wrote :
So, naturalists observe, a flea Hath smaller fleas than on him prey; And these have smaller still to bite ’em, And so proceed ad infinitum.

  1. 李先生是一位很负责任的经理,王先生刚好相反。 …the reverse is true of
  2. 他要领导具有3000多人的大公司,他的日子不好过。 have an easy time
  3. 请把这个便条附在文件上。 attach …to
  4. 去年5月他加入了登山队,现在他已爬了五座 山。attach …to
  5. 据我们估计,这座桥梁可以一年后交付使用。estimate
  6. 所有的肉食动物都想捕食健康的猎物, 但事实上他们 所捕食的动物都是老、弱、伤病动物。 old, weak, injured or diseased

  7. 他从监狱逃了出来,现在整天害怕再被抓住。 prey
  8. 我估计这幅油画的价值是1000美元。estimate...at
  9. 他全心全意地做生意,因为他知道他可以从他的生 意里得到很大的利益。 benefit from...
  10. 他对我们图书馆的藏书的估计是错误的。estimate
  11. 把这发动机装在火车上花了工程师五小时。 attach to

  1. Mr. Li is a responsible manager, and the reverse is true of /with Mr. Wang.
  2. He is running a big company of more than 3000 people. He doesn’t have an easy time of it.
  3. Please attach the scratch pad to the file.
  4. Having attached himself to a mountain climbing team last May, he has climbed 5 mountains up till now.
  5. In our estimates, this bridge will come into use in a year.
  6. All carnivores want to prey on healthy prey, but what they actually capture are those old, weak, injured or diseased.

  7. Fears of being caught again always prey on him since his escape from the prison.
  8. I estimate this painting at $10
  9. He did his business whole-heartedly, for he knew that he could benefit a lot from it.
  10. His estimate/estimation of the collection of the books in our library is wrong.
  11. It took the engineer 5 hours to attach the engine to the train.
Animal Protection



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