A New English Course (Level
  7) Unit One Text I English and American Concepts of Space I. About the Author Edward Twitchell Hall (1914 ), U.S. anthropologist, author, and teacher, received his Ph.D. degree in anthropology from Columbia University. He has taught at various institutions, such as Harvard Business School, the Illinois Institute of Technology, and Northwestern University. His works include: The Silent Language (19
  59), a study of nonverbal communication, and The Hidden Dimension (19
  66), a study of “social and personal space and man’s perception of it.” The present text, a selection from The Hidden Dimension, gives a contrast between English and American concepts of personal space. About the author: Down the drain Edward T.Hall’s The Hidden Dimension, perhaps the scariest book (even scarier than 19
  84) I ever read. Scary, because it isn’t fiction, but a rather elaborate essay on anthropology and proxemic behavior. If Hall’s right, things as disregard for other cultures, mindless urban development and demographic growth have generated a behavioral sink in which stress, crime, intolerance and physical and psychic disease grow everyday, and to make things worse, our governments take measures that only accelerate the process. We are all going down the drain. Put Ed Hall’s Insights to Work in Your World Ed Hall is one of the preeminent cultural anthropologists of all times. His works, studies, and insights into the rich modern anthropology reflect a life long passion he developed as a teenager in the 1930’s Southwest U.S. assigned to work on white-managed WPA crews alongside Navajo workers whose cultural bearings and world views were vastly different than his own people’s views. Hidden Dimensions examines the cultural contexts of space, how people define their personal and community spaces as part of their cultural norms. How far apart or close do people of a similar culture feel comfortable standing or sitting next to one another and in what circumstances? When do you feel someone is “in your space”? This personal comfort zone differs culture to culture. Yours may be different than mine. Hall develops these “proxemics” (proximity) in this book by observing and visiting with peoples from around the globe, and shares the wisdom gained with you so that you might expand your own world views and spatial orientations when mixing with foreign cultures to your own. Well worth the sheckles to add this great work to your life’s library. Collect all of Hall’s works.
Best of the Best A fabulous writing on how human beings react to and make use of special distance from a physical and psychological viewpoint, i.e. the study of proxemics. The type of book that should be reissued without fail by the publisher, though it is old, since it is a classic in its field. Actual numerical distances and their effect / use / experience by humans are explained as well as much about eyesight and its abilities. Hall also explains how different Euro cultures (German, French, and others) plus how Americans use space differently. I’m seldom this positive about any book but must give this one a highest rating. II. Organization and Development Like most writings of an academic nature, this article is neatly-structured. Its thesis is clearly stated in the first paragraph and is developed in the rest of the article by contrast. Can you identify the sentence in the first paragraph that states the thesis? The sentence in the 1st paragraph that states the thesis: If there ever were two cultures in which differences of the proxemic details are marked it is in the educated English and the middle-class Americans. The contrasts Hall has made are frequently marked by words or phrases generally known as sentence adverbials or connectives. Locate such items throughout the writing and try to tell what contrast they introduce. Words or phrases used to indicate contrasts: Paragraph 1 “whereas” contrasting space for Americans with the social system for the English as a factor determining a person’s social status “however” contrasting the importance of one’s address in the United States with that of the position in the social system into which a person is born in Britain Paragraph 3 “on the other hand” contrasting what is said in the 2nd paragraph with what is said in the 3rd, i.e. the American’s sense of space that can be called his own with the Englishman’s sense of shared space Paragraph 5 “on the other hand” contrasting the different ways in which Americans and the English behave when seeking seclusion The contrast Hall has made serves to explain the apparent clash between the English and Americans, i.e. why they behave differently when they have the same need to satisfy.
III. Notes
  1. In what sense does Hall use the word “separated” in the first sentence? Made culturally different.

  2. What, according to the author, has really separated the English and the Americans? Not the different ways in which the English language is used as assumed by most people, but the different ways of handling time, space and materials.
  3. communications on other levels Broadly speaking, communication is of two kinds: verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication consists of word language and the variations in meaning which a person puts into words through the way they are said. Thus different intonation may impart different meanings. Nonverbal communication consists of non-word language such as gestures and bodily action, visual aids like graphs and photos, certain activities, and time, space, and materials as mentioned by the author. What the author means here is that words do not account as much for the differences of the two peoples as the other levels of communication.
  4. ego
  1) self, especially as contrasted with another self or the world;
  2) one’s opinion of oneself; self-esteem, e.g.: He has an enormous ego. (= thinks he is a very fine person).
  3) tech. (in Freudian psychology) the one of the three parts of the mind that connects a person to the outside world, because it can think and act; conscious self
  5. rephrase the sentence: The differences for which language gets blamed may not be due so much to words as to communications on other levels beginning with English intonation (which sounds affected to many Americans) and continuing to ego-linked ways of handling time, space, and materials. Some people complain about the English language for its being so different in the two countries. These differences, however, may have resulted not from the words people use, but rather from individual linguistic habits, which are displayed in the adoption of a particular intonation (English intonation sounds unnatural to Americans), and extend down to the way people look at the world.
  6. Proxemics is the study of the communicative value of space and distance in various cultures. It includes the study of the physical distance between people when they are talking to each other, as well as their postures and whether or not there is physical contact during their conversation. These factors can be looked at in relation to the sex, age, and social and cultural background of the people involved, and also their attitudes to each other and their state of mind. Of interest are such features as the physical distance considered proper or comfortable between two people engaged in conversation or standing near each other in public places. These and other nonverbal behavioral features, which vary from culture to culture, have been called “silent language” by Edward T. Hall. “The proxemic details” (
  1.
  6) refers to facts or pieces of information related to proxemics, e.g., how closely two people should stand or sit apart when talking to
each other, whether one should have his office door open or closed, etc.
  7. A public school in Britain is a private secondary boarding school with a pre-university curriculum. Admission is by entrance examination. The term “public school” emerged in the eighteenth century when the reputation of certain grammar schools spread beyond their immediate environs. They began taking pupils whose parents could afford residential fees and thus became known as “public schools”, in contrast to “local schools”. A public school is different from a comprehensive school, where children of all abilities and social backgrounds are taught together. A public school generally prepares students academically for higher education. Therefore, students who go to public schools are supposed to be better educated than those who go to comprehensive schools.
  8. Middle-class Americans are a heterogeneous socioeconomic grouping composed principally of business and professional people such as managers, doctors, lawyers, teachers, government officials, some farmers and skilled workers. They are characterized by a comfortable material standard of living, and respect for property. Since World War II, the middle class has been the largest social class in the United States. In the U.S.A., most people identify themselves as “middle-class.”
  9. disparity (C,U) (between, in, of) fml (an example of) being completely different or unequal; a noticeable difference e.g. There is (a) considerable disparity in the rates of pay for men and women.
  10. What does the “social system” in England refer to? The traditional way of stratify societying into classes, which remains important / influential even today.
  11. Rephrase the sentence: One of the basic reasons for this wide disparity is that in the United States we use space as a way of classifying people and activities, whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. One of the important factors that has contributed to such a big difference is that the place where one lives, to Americans, can present a symbol of one’s status or activity, while in England, the class one belongs to identifies one’s position in society.
  12. Why do you think one’s spatial location means almost as much to the Americans as one’s social location does to the English? Think of the different history of the two countries. Britain has a long history of feudal social hierarchy, which had been firmly rooted and survived the bourgeois revolution in the 17th century. This system has not been completely overcome and the country is still a kingdom today. Aristocratic titles have been hereditary and are still regarded as a mark of a person’s social status. On the other hand, the United
States has a short history of about 200 years, which began with a vast expanse of land that provided abundant space for people to fully exercise their imagination and develop their talent. A person’s background is far less important than what space he can find for himself and what he can achieve in that space.
  13. prestigious having prestige, i.e. general respect or admiration felt for someone or something, because they have high quality, social influence, success, etc.
  14. fishmonger a person who owns or works in a shop (fishmonger’s) which sells fish: I bought a nice piece of cod from the fishmonger / at the fishmonger’s.
  15. stall a table or small open-fronted shop in a public place: a market stall
  16. allot give as a share or set apart for a purpose e.g. Most of the money has already been allotted. They allotted us three weeks to finish the job. We were unable to finish it in the allotted time.
  17. What conclusion has the author reached by the end of the first paragraph? Spatial allocation does not have the same implication for the English and for Americans.
  18. How is the first paragraph related to the second one? The last sentence of the first paragraph introduces the next two paragraphs, which illustrate differences between the English and the Americans in the allotment of space.
  19. den infml. a small quiet comfortable room in a house, where a person, usually a man, can be alone (小书斋; 小巧而舒适的私室) e.g. Father’s in his den. the home of a usu. Large fierce wild animal, such as a lion a center of secret, esp. illegal, activity, e.g. a den of thieves
  20. “the shop” a place where things made or repaired “工场”
  21. What does the author try to contrast in the second and the third paragraph? How differently space is allotted in Britain and the United States, the former having a strong sense of “shared space” and the latter of “one’s own space.”
  22. vacate give up the occupancy of; stop using; leaving (a room or place) so that it is available for someone else to use
  23. inconsequential unimportant; insignificant
  24. be entitled to possess the right to have or to do something

  25. Rephrase the sentence: As a consequence, the English are puzzled by the American need for a secure place in which to work, an office. As a result, it is hard for the English to figure out why Americans invariably feel it is necessary to find themselves a space, such as an office, where they may work without being disturbed.
  26. implication something that is suggested or implied by a particular situation, event, or statement
  27. typify v.
  1) (not in progressive forms) be a typical example of; show all the most usual characteristics of something, e.g. The shoe-shine boy who becomes a millionaire typifies the American Dream.
  2) (not in progressive forms) to be a typical mark or sign of 成为…的标记: the high quality
 

相关内容

新编英语教程7课文讲解(综合英语7)

   A New English Course (Level 7) Unit One Text I English and American Concepts of Space I. About the Author Edward Twitchell Hall (1914 ), U.S. anthropologist, author, and teacher, received his Ph.D. degree in anthropology from Columbia University. H ...

全新版大学英语综合教程第二册课文翻译及习题答案(上海外语教育出版社)

   参考译文 第一单元 学习方式 课文A ????哈佛大学教育学教授霍华德?加德纳回忆其中国之行,阐述他对中西方不同的学习方式的看法。??? 中国式的学习风格 霍华德?加德纳 ????1987年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们18个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况。然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中蓁教育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店的大堂。 ????我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上。酒店鼓励客人外出时留 ...

全新版大学英语综合教程第一册课文翻译及习题答案(上海外语教育出版社)

   Chinese Translations of Texts A (Units 1-8) 参考译文 第一单元 成长 课文A ????我们写作时常常被告诫,脑子里要有读者,笔者所云一定要符合读者的口味和兴趣。但有一位读者特别不该忘记。你能猜出是谁吗?当拉塞尔?贝克找到这个问题的答案时,他自己和别人都感到大为惊讶。 ? 为自己而写 拉塞尔?田克 ????从孩提时代,我还住在贝尔维尔时,我的脑子里就断断续续地转着当作家的念头,但直等到我高中三年级,这?一想法才有了实现的可能。在这之前,我对所有跟英文课 ...

综合英语 第三册 课文翻译

   第三册课文参考译文 Unit 1 Text 1 我的父亲 来自一位著名男演员的女儿的叙述 埃米米特福德 我并不真正了解父亲,他不是个很容易相处的人.我觉得他比较以自我为中心, 还有一点虚荣, 有时候 还会让人觉得有距离感. 公众们肯定都认为他很随和,其实在家的时候他基本上都是独处,不怎么跟我们交 流的. 我小的时候父亲很少在家的,因为那时几乎没有什么关于他的记忆.他对家庭生活一直是有一些生 疏.对他来说,工作总是放在第一位,而且记忆中他总是在外地演戏或是排练.他喜欢别人找他签名,也 喜欢被别 ...

综合英语教程4 课文翻译

   综合英语教程?课文及阅读翻译 Translations of the Texts and Reading Materials of Integrated Skills of English 4 主 编 副主编 编 者 高兰英 夏 云 (按姓氏笔划为序) 宋兆娟 夏 云 陈维娟 高兰英 曲阜师范大学外语学院 曲阜师范大学外语学院 1 目 单元 第一单元 第二单元 第三单元 第四单元 第五单元 第六单元 第七单元 第八单元 第九单元 第十单元 第十一单元 第十二单元 第十三单元 第十四单元 课文 ...

大学英语课文翻译 综合教程4

   大学英语综合教程 4 课文翻译 Appendix Ⅱ Chinese Translations of Texts B (Units 1-8) 参考译文 第一单元 与自然力量抗争 课文 A 人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡, 人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战 无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。 无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。 冰雪卫士 奈拉?B?斯密斯 奈拉 斯密斯 法国皇帝拿破仑?波拿巴率大 ...

大学英语综合教程2课文翻译

   Unit One 中国式的学习风格 霍华德加德纳 1987 年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们 18 个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住 了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况.然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中美教 育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店的大 堂. 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上. 酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙, 可 以交给服务员,也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱.由于口子狭小,你得留神将钥匙放准位置才 塞得进去. 本杰明爱拿着钥 ...

大学英语综合教程3课文翻译

   Unit1 关注地球母亲 ( 《意识》杂志的麦肯立博士就环境问题对几位专家进行采访。 ) 麦肯立博士:您认为目 前环境面临的最大威胁是什么? 阿曼? 莫特万: 现在环境面临的最大威胁来自我们人类 对环境的态度。 我们对环境的看法决定着我们周围世界的环境。 大多数人认为万物是彼此孤 立的。但事实上,每一个个体都是一个息息相关、相互联系的整体的组成部分。比如,一颗 树看上去或许是孤立的,但它却对其周围环境中的一切??日光、雨水、风、鸟、矿物质、 其它植物和树木、你、我等??施加影响,同时又处于环 ...

新潮研究生英语综合教程课文翻译

   UNIT 1 TEXT A 没有舞台的表演: 没有舞台的表演:文学翻译的艺术 Robert Wechsler 胡兴文 巫阿苗译 文学翻译是一门奇特的艺术。当你坐在书桌旁,所译的是已经完成、署着别人大名 的小说或诗歌时,这便是文学翻译。 这种工作性质似乎具有衍生性,不值一提。 谁愿意为坐在 博物馆里描摹别人画作的人著书立说呢?摹仿者不是艺术家,他们是学徒、 造假者、 名人崇拜 者和骗子。 然而,文学翻译却是一门艺术。 它所以奇特,是因为译者实际上和作家做着完全相同的事 情。假如演员也像剧作家、 ...

全新版大学英语综合教程4课文翻译

   全新版大学英语综合教程 Book4 课文翻译 Appendix Ⅱ Chinese Translations of Texts B (Units 1-8) 参考译文 第一单元 与自然力量抗争 课文 A 人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战 无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。 冰雪卫士 奈拉?B?斯密斯 1812 年,法国皇帝拿破仑?波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖 国而奋勇抵抗。 他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋 ...

热门内容

《牛津初中英语听力教学研究》课题研究结题报告

   《牛津初中英语听力教学研究》 牛津初中英语听力教学研究》 课题研究结题报告 溧阳市第六中学 王颖 蒋峰 “牛津 牛津 初中 英语 听力 教学 研究” 研究” 课题 研究 结题 报告 一、课题研究背景: 课题研究背景: 英语学科作为一门基础课程, 英语学科作为一门基础课程,受到历史上前所 未有的高度重视。学语言是为了用语言, 未有的高度重视。学语言是为了用语言,语言技能 是构成语言交际能力的重要组成部分,而其中“ 是构成语言交际能力的重要组成部分,而其中“听” 的技能又放在了四大技能之首。然而 ...

2011新东方考研英语基础班讲义语法

   考研语法 10 天速成电子教材 主讲:印建坤 欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材 定语从句(上) 一、定语从句的概念 什么是定语从句? 例: A rich person is not the one who has the most, but is the one who needs the least. 用来修饰前面的名词或者代词的具有完整的主谓结构的句子就叫着定语从句。 有两个必 备的基本元素。一个是先行词;一个是关系词。 1.名词或代词做先行词。 例:He laughs best who la ...

外研版八年级下册英语课后单词练习

   MODULE 1 v.收集 n.收集 v.收拾;adj.干净的 收拾 娃娃 扇子;狂热爱好者 邮票 adj 不整洁的;凌乱的 adj.最少的;最小的 占用 一直;总是 对……感兴趣 n&v 采访;会面;面试 噢 prep.如同 山地自行车运动 排球 n.驾驶帆船 有创造力的 adj.懒惰的 adj.有用的 v.发展,发达 n.技巧 n.野营,帐篷 v。野营 并且,还 n. 活动 比如 n.讨论会 adj.专业的 v.想象;设想 高中 adj.十几岁 青少年 出版 n. 结果;效果 结 ...

成人英语三级翻译题技巧

   翻译解题技巧 翻译部分是 03 年增加的题型。放在试卷的最后,共有 10 个小题,考试时间 30 分钟。翻译试题由两部 分组成。第一部分为英译汉,要求考生把阅读理解文章中划线的五个句子译成中文。第二部分为汉译英,要求考 生把五个难度适中的中文句子译成英文。英译汉和汉译英的句子难度均低于课文的英语文章。评分标准要求译文 达意,无重大语言错误。翻译部分的目的是测试学生词汇、语法、句型方面综合运用语言的能力。 这一部分谈两个问题:一是应试技巧;二是实例分析。 第一部分为英译汉 一、英译汉应试技巧 ...

英语辅导教师如何对学生进行辅导

   英语辅导教师如何对学生进行辅导 辅导教师的责任不同于在学校里给一个班的学生上课。由于人口基数大的缘故,中国 教育主要是以大班教育为主的, 这种情况下, 到学生的差异大, 但教师是不能够一一顾及的。 家长对辅导教师的要求和对学校教师的要求是不同的。我在今年 11 月的时候找到了一 份私人补习社的英语兼职教师的工作, 一开始那里的老师就告诉我说, 家长是很注重成绩的, 所有的提成都是按照学生的学习成绩而定的,但学校里的教师注重教授给学生知识。 一、学生的种类 让每个学生都对英语感兴趣,让每个来补 ...