Unit 1
  1. But, from the historical perspective, we are now a little more mature/realistic: four hundred years ago, people regarded happiness with wonderment, thinking that it befell someone as a result of an inexplicable arrangement made by the mysterious universe.
  2. Happiness in Shakespeare’s time, and even afterwards, was associated with wealth, success and position, which, in some way, came upon a certain person, who would express such an occasion in the form of great joy or excitement.
  3. Happiness is no longer accidental; instead, it becomes an objective to achieve.
  4. People definitely varied in their opinions as to what has given rise to/brought about happiness and what happiness actually means. Unit 2
  1. They were amazed at my being so stubbornly inquisitive over that issue, unable to figure out how I could be so ignorant of what was going on about so commonplace a practice in the American economic and political life.
  2. When immorality prevails, it is practically no use talking convincingly about conscience.
  3. Many Americans are always preaching/talking about human equality, but will take a firm stand against the issue of equal rights in their communities and schools.
  4. It seems that they are also brave enough to take the risk in reiterating their worry, which, consequently, makes them such unforgivable bores to those successful social climbers.
  5. Ultimately, only these people may hopefully help to create a society that is characterized by its moral strength that leads to its continuous existence instead of its moral degradation that ends in its destruction. Unit 3
  1. We tend to believe that we are a harmonious, impartial and benevolent people, living under approved laws but not by the will of any individual in the government.
  2. If we ignore this other aspect of the fact, we shall fail to look at our nation from an unbiased perspective.
  3. No matter how hard we persuaded ourselves to believe that Indians and Negroes were inferior to us, we, in actual fact, were quite clear that they, just like us, were God’s children.
  4. The evidence regarding such suppression as recorded in American history is amply supplied in American literary works.
  5. What the whites refused to encounter in their description of the past was actually recounted in the dreams and fantasies in artistic forms. Unit 4
  1. From the footsteps of that frightened woman, I for the first time, realized that my being born a black has unfortunately enabled people, at the sight of me, to adjust their distance from me in a most unfriendly manner.
  2. I was also well aware that I looked exactly like a bad boy/ a bastard who would intrude, from time to time, into the neighborhood from a slum nearby.
  3. To be a man, you must acquire the power to scare and subdue people.
  4. When I was a boy, I saw many juvenile delinquents taken away by the cops; I have since
attended several funerals, too.
  5. I was not in a position to prove my identity. What I could think of doing was that I walk quickly to join someone who could verify who I was. Unit 5 1 But such cases were sufficient in number to make it seem as if there were justification for the increasing fear of Communists. 2 Joseph McCarthy thought it was high time that he should come upon the stage, declaring that he held a list of names of active Communists who were striving to ruin the government now. 3 He was kept fully occupied, but he didn’t seem to be successful. 4 Then, in Wheeling that February evening at the beginning of the 50s, Joe, at last, was fortunate enough to have seized a wonderful chance and, like a meteor, started to climb up the political ladder. 5 From that moment/ By then, it seemed that the Senator had placed the entire country under his control. Unit 6
  1. What the book tries to tell is that the Iks have become an unalterably repulsive people, unapproachable / self-centered, irrational, inconsiderate and unfeeling, as a result of the disintegration of their traditional culture.
  2. It should be agreed first of all that human beings are an evil breed, living in this world all for nothing but their own interests, and they may show some love and sympathy, simply because they were taught to develop such as their habits.
  3. They never talk except when they make rude demands and impolite refusals.
  4. They will laugh to see ill luck befall other people.
  5. The lonely Ik, banished in the desolation of a vanished culture, has found another way to protect himself. Unit 8
  1. Peasant wars and monarchical triumphs terminated / concluded the early separate feudal societies, and unified and centralized kingdoms assumed power.
  2. A nationwide fervor of seafaring merchants in England, Spain and Portugal to explore countries overseas consequently brought back a lot of wealth and renewed a noticeable wealth-awareness among the European nations.
  3. The attitude of Christopher Columbus was representative of a time in history, which quickened the formation of a society characterized by an ambition for success and a craving for money.
  4. Along with this social change, there was little wonder that power began to descend upon the merchants, because they were financially knowledged, and depart from the contemptuous noble, because they were financially ignorant.
  5. It was not so easy for bookkeeping to be adopted as a necessary accounting device, and double entry was not universally accepted as an accounting mechanism until the 17th century.



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