第五单元:Network Designer-Tim Berners-Lee 学生人数:34 授课学时:8学时 教学目的与要求:理解 Tim burners-lee 创建 World wide Web 的过程。要求学生熟练讲述课文。熟记 相关词汇。 教学过程: I. II. Oral presentation. Ss introduce what they got about the author and the internet. Ss get the main idea the text. Go over the vocabulary III. IV. V. VI. Discussion?groups first, then the whole class. Text structure. Language points. Text two 授课地点:311 教室
VII. Exercises. VIII. Quiz
Unit 5 (8 hours) TEXT I Network Designer-Tim Berners-Lee
I. Pre-reading Questions The students may be asked a number of questions such as the following before they make their guesses.
  1. What nationality is Tim Berners-Lee?
  2. Is he a university graduate?
  3. When did he begin to take an interest in the computer?
  4. Did he work in a research institute specializing in computer science?
  5. Was he given the assignment of designing the World Wide Web or did he hit upon the idea just by accident?
  6. What was it that made WWW a reality? II. Terms The internet: an international computer system that link both business and private users Hit: an instance of successfully locating an item of data in the memory bank of a computer. Mouse: a computer input device Modem: A device that converts data from one form into another, as from one form usable in data processing to another form usable in telephonic transmission. Also called data set
调制解调器:将信号由一种形式转换成另一种形式的装置,如 在电话传输中由一种可用形式以信号形式转换成另一种可用形 式也作 data set Protocol: A standard procedure for regulating data transmission between computers. 【计算机科学】 规程:为管理调整计算机间数据交流的标 准程序 Packet switching: A method of data transmission in which small blocks of data are transmitted rapidly over a channel dedicated to the connection only for the duration of the packet's transmission. 小包交换:一种资料传送方法,其中小包的资料在一通道内被 迅速传递,小包传递期间有专用的网路连接 Hypertext: A computer-based text retrieval system that enables the user to provide access to or gain information related to a particular text. 超文本:一种计算机的文本查寻系统,此系统能够给使用者提 供与某一特定文本相关的信息 Database: A collection of data arranged for ease and speed of search and retrieval. Also called data bank 数据库:进行快速简便搜查和检索而组织的数据集合也作 data bank HTML: Hypertext Markup Language, 超文本链接标示语言
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol, WWW 服务程序所用的协 议 Browser: The w3 consortium: Some information about the Internet
“英国人改变世界” ??World Wide Web 发明者 Tim John Berners-Lee 早上起床,泡上一杯咖啡,坐到电脑前打开浏览器看新闻??这是很多人每天的例行公 事。当我们陶醉于在链接之间自如跳转,是否也曾经偶尔好奇过:到底是谁想出了这聪 明的信息发布方式?在我们迅速将这个“无聊”的问题抛诸脑后时,那可敬的发明者却 仍然继续为 WWW 的未来努力工作着。不过,他已不是孤身一人,而是领导着整个 W3C。 Image:Bernerslee.jpg 他,就是 Tim John Berners-Lee,World Wide Web 的发明者。 Tim 1955 年 6 月 8 日生于英国伦敦。在牛津大学女王学院读书时,他曾用 M6800 处理器 和旧电视自己攒了一台计算机。1976 年毕业后,他先后受雇于 Plessey Telecommunications Ltd、D.G Nash Ltd 两家公司。在 D.G Nash,Tim 曾写过一个多任 务操作系统,但真正开启未来之门的,却是之后在 CERN 工作的一年半。 CERN(European Particle Physics Laboratory,欧洲量子物理研究所),位于瑞士日 内瓦。在那里,为了工作需要,Tim 写了一个从未发布过的工具 Enquire??这个我们 无缘得见的 Enquire, 正是 World Wide Web 的雏形。 不过在此之后 Tim 就到 John Poole's Image Computer Systems Ltd 进行实时控制固件方面的开发工作去了。1984 年,当 Tim 获得奖学金,重新回到 CERN 之后研究实时系统,他逐渐发现 CERN 内部沟通机制存在信 息漏失的弊端。今天我们可以找到的关于 WWW 概念的第一份公开文件,是 Tim 于 1989 年 3 月写给 CERN 的建议书:Information Management: A Proposal。在这份文件中, Tim 提出利用 Hypertext(超文本)构造链接信息系统的设想 。同样,我们也可以从文 件中看到“Browser(浏览器)”概念的最初提出。 Image:Firstguibrowser.jpg 图二 最早的浏览器 这时 Tim 已经开始在 Enquire 的基础上,基于 NeXTStep 系统开发第一个真正意义上的 Web Server??httpd、第一个客户端浏览器??WorldWideWeb,之后又在 1991 年建立 并开通第一个 WWW 网站 http://info.cern.ch/(该网站至今仍然是 CERN 的官方站点) 。 到 1993 年,Tim 再接再厉,制定了 URI、HTTP、HTML 等的第一个规范。
1994 年,Tim 加入位于麻省理工大学的 LCS(计算机科学实验室)。为了让 World Wide Web 不被少数人所控制,Tim 组织成立了 World Wide Web Consortium,即通常所说的 W3C,致力于“引导 Web 发挥其最大潜力”。我们所熟知的 HTML 协议各个版本,都出自 W3C 会议。可贵的是,W3C 的 HTML 规范是以“建议”的形式发布,并不强迫任何厂商或 个人接受。 至于微软利用 HTML 协议的开放性扩展自有标准, 打败 Netscape, 应该是 Tim 始料未及的了。 《时代》杂志在评价 Tim 的贡献时这样写道??“和其它影响世界的发明不同,这项发 明的确应该归功于一人……Berners-Lee 设计了 World Wide Web,然后就把它开放给世 界。他比其他任何人都更努力地保持 WWW 的开放性、非营利性和自由性……很难对 WWW 做出适当评价,它几乎可以媲美古登堡印刷术。Berners-Lee 一手把只有精英们掌握的 通讯系统变成了大众媒体。” 这段话实实在在并非溢美之词。Eric Schmidt 也曾说过:“如果计算机网络是一门传统 科学,Berners-Lee 早该获诺贝尔奖了。”我想,Tim 本人不会在意这个。当他把上个 世纪最伟大的传媒界发明完全无偿地奉献给全世界, 天堂已准备好一双洁白的翅膀。 Tim Berners-Lee 是一位具有极高创造力的程序员,但更是一位品格高尚的盗火者。 在《织网(Weaving the Web)》一书中,Tim 提出三个观点: ◎ 编辑 Web 与浏览 Web 一样重要,Wiki 是向正确方向踏出的一步。 ◎ Internet 的任何表现形式都应该呈网状,而非树形结构。域名系统例外。 ◎ 计算机科学家在技术层面和道德层面都负有不可推卸的责任。 也许我们可以从这些论断中获益良多,也许只当它是无稽之谈。不管如何,Tim Berners-Lee 发明了 World Wide Web,并继续在为之做出贡献。这,就已足够。
II. The Main Ideas Answers for reference:
  1. Access to the Internet which gives people information of all kinds seems a matter of course.
  2. World Wide Web, which began as a little computer program nearly 20 years ago, was the work of Tim Berners-Lee alone.
  3. Having designed a kind of “hypertext” notebook which linked various kinds of information on his own computer, Berners-Lee
wanted to open it up to everyone who would like to link their stuff to his.
  4. Berners-Lee devised HTML, URL and HTTP, all of which finally brought the World Wide Web to fruition in 19
  5. Brought up as a quintessential child of the computer age, Berners-Lee created a most significant global system.
  6. In spite of his Gutenbergian creation of the WWW, Berners-Lee chose the non-profit road, both for himself and for his creation. II. Teaching Points for Reference
  1. It turns out you can “enquire” about nearly anything…? It happens that you can ask about almost anything… Turn out meaning “happen to be, or be found to be” is usually followed by a noun or an adjective. It may also be followed by a that clause. Examples: Much to his disappointment, his experiment turned out a failure. After a long spell of rain, it turned out to be fine and sunny on the day of our sports meet. It turned out that the unexpected visitor was one of my mother’s former students.
  2. …access to the Internet? the opportunity to use the Internet. Access meaning “the means or opportunity or right to use or see something” is followed by the preposition to.
Examples: In a university library, we have access to large numbers of academic books. In our country every child has access to education.
  3. Thomas Edison got credit for the light bulb?Thomas Edison received recognition for the light bulb. Credit for something is the recognition or respect or praise given to someone because of something they have done or achieved. Examples: We gave Wang credit for his remarkable achievements in biotechnology. Tim Berners-Lee should be given credit for the creation of WWW. Credit should go to Frank for the team’s success.
  4. It started, of all places, in the Swiss Alps. Of all places, of all things, or of all people are used to suggest that a particular place, thing, or person seems surprising or unlikely when there are many other places where something might happen, many other things which might be expected to be done, or many other people who might be present or be doing something. Examples: Of all places, they went vacationing in an unknown village. Of all things, she bought an ordinary bowl as a souvenir. I can’t understand why she, of all people, should speak to us about how to use the computer.

  5. … that dealt with information in a “brain-like” way ?that handled information in the way as the brain does. Deal with is used in different ways with different meanings. Examples: Mark is very smart. He can deal with (handle) all kinds of difficult situations. Recently I read an article which dealt with (concerned / was concerned with) the latest developments in computer science. Be cautious about what kind of business firms you deal with (do business with).
  6. keep track of all the random associations one comes across… Keep track of means “keep oneself informed about something” or “pay attention to something so that one knows what is happening.” Example: We read newspapers every day to keep track of current events. The opposite of keep track of is lose track of. Example: We’ve lost track of him since he left Shanghai for home. Random means “unplanned, unintentional, aimless, purposeless, etc.” Examples: While everyone was discussing the question seriously, John made a few random remarks now and then. He was whiling away his time by putting down some random
thoughts on paper. At random is used adverbially. Examples: He put the books on the bookshelves at random (i.e., without putting them in any order). She chose a number of books at random to lend to her neighbor.
  7. The rest of the world may be trying to cash in on the Web’s phenomenal growth…?Other people may be trying to take advantage of or make a profit from the unusually fast development of the Web… Cash in on means “take advantage of or make a profit from a situation in a way that is unfair.” Example: The only shop in that out-of-the-way village cashed in on the shortage of everyday necessities by putting up prices. TEXT Ⅱ Angels on the Internet .Questions
  1. What was the problem that Deng Yongxin had? What e-mail did he send on the Internet?
  2. Who was the first person that responded to Deng’s e-mail and what e-mail did she send out?
  3. Who was Dr.Juan Alejos? What did he offer to do to help Shao-Shao?
  4. Who was it that made it possible for Yongxin and Han Dan to take Shao-Shao to the United Sates for treatment? What did she do?

  5. Who was Dr. Hillel Laks? What did he do to help Shao-Shao? Was he successful in his attempt?
  6. Who are the angels on the Internet? Why are they called angels?



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