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第一节(综述) 第一节(综述)
原文重现: 原文重现:原文告诉你选什么,你就应该选什么,不能凭感觉和想象。 尽量少读: 尽量少读:六级更多的对点出题,而不是对面出题。 所有句子都认识,但不知道整段的意思。But, Yet, However 转折连词后面是重点,常考点做题是 要划下来。
六级题型: 六级题型:
  1. 主旨题(Sum Up/Title)-主旨题( )--看文章每段第一句(抓大放小,找最重要的,看每段的第一句), 但是当文章的段落特别多时不适应。答案一般在文章开头。 中心思想??main idea 最佳标题best title 写作目的?the author’s purpose 词汇题--找词所在句子关系
  2. 词汇题--找词所在句子关系 -转折关系。例如:六级很难,但是……,找转折连词 But, Yet, However。 并列关系。例如:A and B,问 A 就把 B 内容填进去。六级中 and 前后一定是一致的 前后一定是一致的。 六级中 解释关系。用 because 和从句 in which 等联系。 例如: 注:把握 and 前后是并列关系。(榜样就是别人敬仰的人)记住不要多读!!!多读会选错!

  2. 细节题--(针对原文的一点、一句话、一个词组)直接细节 细节题--(针对原文的一点、一句话、一个词组) -推理题(因果推理找 as/because/since imply) 推理题(因果推理找 as/because/since 和暗示题 imply)
细节题??答案在文章的表层 细节题??答案在文章的表层 ?? 推论题??答案从文中延伸出来。 ??答案从文中延伸出来 推论题??答案从文中延伸出来。 例如: 推理题:
  31. It is implied that fifty years ago . A) eighty percent of American working people were employed in factories B) twenty percent of American intellectuals were employees C) the percentage of intellectuals in the total work force was almost the same as that of industrial workers D) the percentage of intellectuals working as employees was not so large as that of industrial workers(反推) 直接细节题:
  34. According to the writer, professional knowledge or skill is . A) less important than awareness of being a good employee(把句中话反过来说) B) as important as the ability to deal with public relations
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C) more important than employer- employee relations D) as important as the ability to co- operate with others in the organization Ours has become a society of employees. A hundred years or so ago only one out of every five Americans at work was employed, i. e., worked for somebody else. Today only one out of five is not employed but working for himself. And when fifty years ago "being employed" meant working as a factory labourer or as a farmhand, the employee of today is increasingly a middle-class person with a substantial formal education, holding a professional or management job requiring intellectual and technical skills. Indeed, two things have characterized American society during these last fifty years: middle-class and upper - class employees have been the fastest-growing groups in our working population-growing so fast that the industrial worker, that oldest child of the Industrial Revolution, has been losing in numerical importance despite the expansion of industrial production. Yet you will fine little if anything written on what it is to be an employee. You can find a great deal of very dubious advice on how to get a job or how to get a promotion. You can also find a good deal of work in a chosen field, whether it be the mechanist' s trade or bookkeeping (簿记). Every one of these trades requires different skills, sets different standards, and requires a different preparation. Yet they all have employeeship in common. And increasingly, especially in the large business or in government, employeeship is more important to success than the special professional knowledge or skill. Certainly more people fail because they do not know the requirements of being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills of their trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get into administrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to work within the organization rather than on technical abilities or professional knowledge.

  4. 作者态度题(attitude)--正负态度 作者态度题( )--正负态度 凡是文章探讨新事物--正态度(新正:支持) 凡是文章探讨老事物--负态度(老负:抨击、反对) 中立题(不常见) 中立题(不常见)
  25. The writer's attitude towards the use of the telephone is . A) affectionate B) disapproving C) approving D) neutral
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第二节
●例子 例子:例子必出题。文章有论点-论据-论证,例子是论证,用来支持论点,所以简而言之,例子 例子 例子 本身不重要,但前后论点(即前和/或后的两句话 极其重要。不要选例子本身的选项!!! 或后的两句话) 本身不重要,但前后论点(即前和 或后的两句话)极其重要 比如农夫与蛇就不会选不要把蛇揣在怀里 例子开始的标志:for example,后面跟着大写、时间、年代,依然是举例内容,及仍然往下扫描。 (例子的具体内容不用细读) 例子含义的标志(也就是出的题要看的部位):show, tell, prove, demonstrate, find, clearly [Page72] In the United States, the need to protect plant and animal species has become a highly controversial and sharply political issue since the passage of the Endangered Species Act in 19
  73. The act, designed to protect species' living areas, and policies that preserve land and forests compete with economic interests. In the 1990's, for example, the woodcutters in the Western United States were challenged legally in their attempt to cut trees for timber in the Cascade Mountains. The challenge was mounted to protect the endangered spotted owl(猫头鹰), whose remaining population occupies these forests and requires the intact, ancient forest for survival. The problematic situation set the interests of environmentalists against those of corporations and of individuals who stood to lose jobs. After months of debate and legal battles, the fate of the woodcutters-and the owls-was still undecided in mid-19
  92. 注:
  1. controversial 的意思是受争议的,同"sharply political issue",contro-表示"反" contradict 同…矛盾
  2. for example 前句子是重点
  3. problematic 悬而未决的,有问题的(problema 问题么?) Similar tensions exist between the developed and the developing nations. Many people in industrialized nations, for example, believe that developing nations in tropical regions should do more to protect their rain forests and other natural areas. But the developing countries may be 使赤贫), impoverished (使赤贫 with populations growing so rapidly that using the land is a means 使赤贫 to temporarily avoid worsening poverty and starvation. 注:
  1. tension 张力,冲突
  2. 看到 similar 就说明第二段说的和第一段一样。
  3. But 转折是重点 Many of the changes to Earth that concern scientists have the potential to rob the planet of its biological richness. The destruction of Earth's ozone layer (臭氧层), for example, could contribute to the general process of impoverishment by allowing ultra-violet rays to harm plants and animals. And global warming could wipe out species unable to quickly adapt to changing climates. Clearly, protecting will come only through coordinated international efforts to control human population, stabilize the composition of the atmosphere, and preserve intact Earth's complex web life(小并列不重要). (小并列不重要
  36.Why does the author say that the protection of endangered species is a highly controversial issue? A) Because people can't agree as to what species to protect. B) Because it is difficult to find an effective way to protect such species. C) Because it affects the interests of certain groups of people. D) Because it is a major problem involving a series of legal procedures.
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注:细节题。第一段 economic interests ●表示绝对的词(灭绝师太)--出现在文章中,是非常重要的出题点;如果出现在选项中,很可能 表示绝对的词( 灭绝师太) 是不对的。 (灭)全无:none-nothing-never-seldom-hardly-little-few-prevent-exclude-neither…nor (绝)全有:all- absolutely-every-full-either…or… 唯一:only-exactly- best-most
  37.According to the passage, the preservation of rain forests . A) may hamper a developing country in its fight against poverty. B) benefits developed countries rather than developing countries. C) should take priority over the control of human population. D) will help improve the living conditions in developing countries.(反:和谐了) 注:细节题,对应文章第二段。举例前那句话更重要,只要表达出"和经济利益冲突"就对了。多看 到最后的文章,则可能会选 C,所以尽量少看。
  38.According to the passage, cutting tress to grow more food . A) will widen the gap between the developed and the developing countries. B) is but a short-term relief to the food problem. C) can hardly alleviate the shortage of food. D) proves to be an effective way out for impoverished nations. 注:对应文章第二段。Short-term 对应 temporarily,relief 对应 avoid。
  39.Among"humanity's current problems" (Line 6, Para.
  3), the chief concern of the scientists is . A) the impoverishment of developing countries.(跨段信息,错) B) the explosion of the human population. C) the reduction of biological diversity. D) the effect of global warming. 注:第三段。C 选项中 reduction 对应 rob,diversity 对应 richness。
  40.The author's purpose in writing this passage is . A) to describe the difficulties in solving humanity's current problems.(表层) B) to present the different views on humanity's current problems. C) to analyze the contradiction between countries in dealing with humanity's current problems. D) to point out that humanity's current problems can only(原文有) be solved through the cooperation of nations. 注:看最后一句话,cooperation of nations 对应 coordinated international efforts。 1. 例子如何处理:重要的一定看明白,不重要的不看 2. 哪些重要(转折、例子前后的话、灭绝的东西),哪些不重要(例子内容、小的并列<如 水果的例子>) [Page80] We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too. In one experiment, for example, behavioral immunologist (免疫学家)Mark Laudenslager, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric
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shocks to 24 rats. Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could mot. The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock. Laudenslager found that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity. What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system. 注:
  1. vulnerable 易受伤害的
  2. immune defense 免疫系统
  3. found 之后是试验告诉我们的观点
  4. depress 压抑;沮丧的,de 往下 Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don't develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats. But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control. Such findings reinforce psychologists' suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression. 注:
  1. 看第一句三个单词就知道本段内容和上一段相同。
  2. passive 被动的
  21. Laudenslager's experiment showed that the immune system of those rats who could turn off the electricity . A) was strengthened B) was not affected C) was altered D) was weakened 注:定位文章第一段 found 之后
  22. According to the passage, the experience of helplessness causes rats to . A) try to control unpleasant stimuli B) turn off the electricity C) become abnormally suspicious D) behave passively in controllable situations 注:定位第二段 But 之后那句话
  23. The reason why the mice in Ader's experiment avoided saccharin was that . A) they disliked its taste B) it affected their immune systems C) it led to stomach pains D) they associated it with stomachaches
第三节
文章主旨题:做题时要把每段第一句话都有的单词划出来,然后在选项中一定要有这些单词或同 文章主旨题:做题
 

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